Unit 1 lecture notes intro to a & p


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Unit 1 lecture notes intro to a & p

  1. 1. Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1
  2. 2. 2 Introduction Human Anatomy and Physiology: study of the structure and function of thestudy of the structure and function of the human bodyhuman body
  3. 3. 3 Importance of A & P • Understand how body responds to aUnderstand how body responds to a stimulusstimulus • Understand basis of diseaseUnderstand basis of disease • Essential knowledge for health care workersEssential knowledge for health care workers • Improve your understanding of treatments,Improve your understanding of treatments, advertisements, and reports as aadvertisements, and reports as a patient/client/consumerpatient/client/consumer
  4. 4. 4 I. Anatomy • Scientific discipline that investigatesScientific discipline that investigates the structure of the bodythe structure of the body – Anatomy = to dissect parts of the body forAnatomy = to dissect parts of the body for studystudy
  5. 5. 5 A. Structure & Function • The structure of a body part is closelyThe structure of a body part is closely related to its functionrelated to its function • Understanding this relationship makesUnderstanding this relationship makes learning anatomy easierlearning anatomy easier
  6. 6. 6 Types of Anatomical Study B.B. SystemicSystemic – by systems (– by systems (e.g.e.g. nervous)nervous) C.C. RegionalRegional – body areas (– body areas (e.g.e.g. head)head) D.D. SurfaceSurface – external features (– external features (e.g.e.g. bonybony projections)projections) E.E. Anatomical ImagingAnatomical Imaging – pictures of internal– pictures of internal structures (x-rays, ultrasound, magneticstructures (x-rays, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging)resonance imaging)
  7. 7. 7 II. Physiology • The study of natureThe study of nature • The scientific discipline that deals withThe scientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of livingthe processes or functions of living thingsthings
  8. 8. 8 A. Major goals of physiology 1.1. To understand and predict the body’sTo understand and predict the body’s responses to stimuli.responses to stimuli. 2.2. To understand how the bodyTo understand how the body maintains conditions within a narrowmaintains conditions within a narrow range of values in the presence of arange of values in the presence of a continually changing environment.continually changing environment.
  9. 9. 9 B. Human Physiology • The study of the processes andThe study of the processes and functions of humansfunctions of humans
  10. 10. 10 C. Cellular and Systemic Physiology • The studies of physiology thatThe studies of physiology that emphasize specific organizationalemphasize specific organizational levelslevels
  11. 11. 11 III. Structural and Functional Organization
  12. 12. 12 A. Six Structural Levels 1.1. ChemicalChemical – interactions among atoms– interactions among atoms and their combinations into moleculesand their combinations into molecules a.a. H, O, N, C = 96% of human bodyH, O, N, C = 96% of human body 2.2. CellCell – basic living units of organisms– basic living units of organisms a.a. Contain organelles which each haveContain organelles which each have specific functionsspecific functions
  13. 13. 13 Structural Levels, continued… 3.3. TissueTissue – a group of similar cells and– a group of similar cells and materials surrounding them that actmaterials surrounding them that act together to perform a common functiontogether to perform a common function a.a. Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervousEpithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
  14. 14. 14 Structural Levels, continued… 4.4. OrganOrgan – group of two or– group of two or more tissue types workingmore tissue types working together to perform a specialtogether to perform a special functionfunction a.a. Heart, lung, kidney, spleenHeart, lung, kidney, spleen
  15. 15. 15 Organs
  16. 16. 16 Structural Levels, continued… 5.5. Organ SystemOrgan System – group of organs– group of organs classified as a unit because ofclassified as a unit because of common function or set of functionscommon function or set of functions
  17. 17. 17 Organ Systems, continued… a.a. Integumentary SystemIntegumentary System • Provides protectionProvides protection • Regulates temperatureRegulates temperature • Prevents water lossPrevents water loss • Produces vitamin D precursorsProduces vitamin D precursors • Skin, hair, nails, sweat glandsSkin, hair, nails, sweat glands
  18. 18. 18 Organ Systems, continued… b.b. Skeletal SystemSkeletal System • Provides protection & supportProvides protection & support • Allows body movementsAllows body movements • Produces blood cellsProduces blood cells • Stores minerals and fatStores minerals and fat • Bones, cartilages, ligaments, jointsBones, cartilages, ligaments, joints
  19. 19. 19 Organ Systems, continued… c.c. Muscular systemMuscular system • Produces body movementsProduces body movements • Maintains postureMaintains posture • Produces body heatProduces body heat • Muscles (attached to skeleton byMuscles (attached to skeleton by tendons)tendons)
  20. 20. 20 Organ Systems, continued… d.d. Lymphatic systemLymphatic system • Removes foreign substances fromRemoves foreign substances from blood and lymphblood and lymph • Combats diseaseCombats disease • Maintains tissue fluid balanceMaintains tissue fluid balance • Absorbs fats from digestive tractAbsorbs fats from digestive tract • Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes,Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organsand other lymphatic organs
  21. 21. 21 Organ Systems, continued… e.e. Respiratory systemRespiratory system • Exchanges oxygen and carbonExchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and airdioxide between blood and air • Regulates blood pHRegulates blood pH • Lungs and respiratory passagesLungs and respiratory passages
  22. 22. 22 Organ Systems, continued… f.f. Digestive systemDigestive system • Performs the mechanical andPerforms the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion,chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, andabsorption of nutrients, and elimination of wasteselimination of wastes • Mouth, esophagus, stomach,Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organsintestines, and accessory organs
  23. 23. 23 Organ Systems, continued… g.g. Nervous systemNervous system • Major regulatory system that detectsMajor regulatory system that detects sensationssensations • Controls movements, physiologicControls movements, physiologic processes, and intellectual functionsprocesses, and intellectual functions • Brain, spinal cord, nerves, andBrain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptorssensory receptors
  24. 24. 24 Organ Systems, continued… h.h. Endocrine systemEndocrine system • Major regulatory system thatMajor regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth,influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many otherreproduction, and many other functionsfunctions • Glands (Glands (e.g.e.g. pituitary) that secretepituitary) that secrete hormoneshormones
  25. 25. 25 Organ Systems, continued… i.i. Cardiovascular systemCardiovascular system • Transports nutrients, wasteTransports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormonesproducts, gases, and hormones throughout bodythroughout body • Plays role in immune responsePlays role in immune response and body temperature regulationand body temperature regulation • Heart, blood vessels, and bloodHeart, blood vessels, and blood
  26. 26. 26 Organ Systems, continued… j.j. Urinary systemUrinary system • Removes waste products fromRemoves waste products from bloodblood • Regulates blood pH, ion balance,Regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balanceand water balance • Kidneys, urinary bladder, and ductsKidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urinethat carry urine
  27. 27. 27 Organ Systems, continued… h.h. Reproductive System (Female)Reproductive System (Female) • Produces oocytesProduces oocytes • Site of fertilization and fetal developmentSite of fertilization and fetal development • Produces milkProduces milk • Produces hormones that influence sexualProduces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviorsfunction and behaviors • Ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands,Ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structuresand associated structures
  28. 28. 28 Organ Systems, continued… h.h. Reproductive System (Male)Reproductive System (Male) • Produces and transfers spermProduces and transfers sperm cells to femalecells to female • Produces hormones thatProduces hormones that influence sexual functions andinfluence sexual functions and behaviorsbehaviors • Testes, accessory structures,Testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penisducts, and penis
  29. 29. 29 Structural Levels, continued… 6.6. OrganismOrganism – any living thing– any living thing considered as a wholeconsidered as a whole a.a. Unicellular, multicellularUnicellular, multicellular b.b. Human organism is a complex of organHuman organism is a complex of organ systems that are mutually dependent onsystems that are mutually dependent on one anotherone another
  30. 30. 30 IV. Characteristics of Life A.A. Six Essential Characteristics of LifeSix Essential Characteristics of Life 1.1. OrganizationOrganization – an organism’s parts are– an organism’s parts are interrelatedinterrelated a.a. All living things are composed of cellsAll living things are composed of cells 2.2. Metabolism (Energy)Metabolism (Energy) – ability to use energy– ability to use energy to perform vital functions such as growth,to perform vital functions such as growth, movement, and reproductionmovement, and reproduction a.a. Energy from sun (plants) or food (animals)Energy from sun (plants) or food (animals)
  31. 31. 31 Six Essential Characteristics of Life, continued… 3.3. HomeostasisHomeostasis – ability of an organism to sense– ability of an organism to sense changes in the environment and make thechanges in the environment and make the adjustment that help maintain its lifeadjustment that help maintain its life 4.4. GrowthGrowth – ability of an organism to increase in size– ability of an organism to increase in size (partially or totally)(partially or totally) a.a. Either by increasing cell number or cell sizeEither by increasing cell number or cell size
  32. 32. 32 Six Essential Characteristics of Life, continued… 5.5. CellsCells – all organisms are made of one more– all organisms are made of one more cellscells 6.6. ReproductionReproduction – the formation of new cells or– the formation of new cells or organismsorganisms a. Sexual or asexual reproductiona. Sexual or asexual reproduction
  33. 33. 33 B. Environmental Requirements of Organisms OrganismsOrganisms requirerequire certain factors in their environmentcertain factors in their environment or surroundings:or surroundings: 1.1. WaterWater 2.2. FoodsFoods 3.3. OxygenOxygen 4.4. Heat – energy from metabolic reactionsHeat – energy from metabolic reactions 5.5. PressurePressure a.a. AtmosphericAtmospheric  breathingbreathing b.b. HydrostaticHydrostatic  blood pressureblood pressure
  34. 34. 34 V. Homeostasis – Maintenance of Life • The existence and maintenance of aThe existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment withinrelatively constant environment within the bodythe body – Narrow range of conditions (Narrow range of conditions (variablesvariables)) • Temperature, volume, chemical contentTemperature, volume, chemical content – Set pointSet point = ideal normal value= ideal normal value – Normal rangeNormal range = range of values in which= range of values in which an organism can operate normallyan organism can operate normally
  35. 35. 35 Examples: Cold = shiver Hot = sweat
  36. 36. 36 D. Negative Feedback • Maintains homeostasis by resistingMaintains homeostasis by resisting deviation from the set pointdeviation from the set point 1.1. Three components:Three components: a.a. ReceptorReceptor – monitors the value of a– monitors the value of a variablevariable b.b. Control centerControl center – establishes the set point– establishes the set point around which the variable is maintainedaround which the variable is maintained c.c. EffectorEffector – can change the variable– can change the variable
  37. 37. 37 Negative Feedback, continued… Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 8th ed., Shier, et al, 2003, McGraw-Hill Higher Education 2.2. Example:Example: • Stimulus/ResponseStimulus/Response: exercise increases HR: exercise increases HR and blood pressure increasesand blood pressure increases • ReceptorReceptor: blood vessels near heart: blood vessels near heart • Control centerControl center: brain receives message and: brain receives message and sends message to decrease HRsends message to decrease HR • EffectorEffector: heart decreases HR: heart decreases HR • ResponseResponse: blood pressure decreases: blood pressure decreases
  38. 38. 38 Negative Feedback, continued…Negative Feedback, continued…
  39. 39. 39 E. Positive Feedback • Mechanism by which any deviationMechanism by which any deviation from an ideal normal value or set pointfrom an ideal normal value or set point is made greateris made greater – DoesDoes notnot maintain homeostasismaintain homeostasis
  40. 40. 40 Positive Feedback, continued… Example
  41. 41. 41 VI. Terminology and the Body Plan • Etymology = the origin of a word – Example: Dorsal (dorsum, back)
  42. 42. 42 A. Directional Terms 1.1. Anatomic Position –Anatomic Position – standing erect withstanding erect with the arms at the sidesthe arms at the sides and palms turnedand palms turned forwardforward
  43. 43. 43 Directional Terms, continued…Directional Terms, continued…
  44. 44. 44 Directional Terms, continued…Directional Terms, continued…
  45. 45. 45 Directional Terms, continued…Directional Terms, continued…
  46. 46. 46 B. Body Parts and RegionsB. Body Parts and Regions Anterior ViewAnterior View
  47. 47. 47 Body Parts and Regions, continued…Body Parts and Regions, continued… Posterior ViewPosterior View
  48. 48. 48 Body Parts and Regions, continued…Body Parts and Regions, continued…
  49. 49. 49 C. Planes • Imaginary flatImaginary flat surfacessurfaces used to “lookused to “look inside” andinside” and observe theobserve the body’sbody’s structuresstructures
  50. 50. 50 Planes, continued…
  51. 51. 51 D. Body Cavities 1.1. Thoracic cavityThoracic cavity a.a. Boundaries: rib cage and diaphragmBoundaries: rib cage and diaphragm b.b. Contains: mediastinum, pericardial cavityContains: mediastinum, pericardial cavity (heart), left and right pleural cavities(heart), left and right pleural cavities (lungs)(lungs) c.c. MediastinumMediastinum contains esophagus,contains esophagus, trachea, blood vessels, thymus, hearttrachea, blood vessels, thymus, heart
  52. 52. 52 2.2. Abdominal CavityAbdominal Cavity a.a. Boundaries: abdominal musclesBoundaries: abdominal muscles b.b. Contains: stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneysContains: stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys 2.2. Pelvic CavityPelvic Cavity a.a. Bones of pelvisBones of pelvis b.b. Contains: urinary bladder, part of large intestine, internal reproductiveContains: urinary bladder, part of large intestine, internal reproductive organsorgans 2.2. Abdominopelvic Cavity:Abdominopelvic Cavity: abdominal and pelvic cavitiesabdominal and pelvic cavities D. Body Cavities
  53. 53. 53 E. Serous Membranes 1.1. Visceral serous membranesVisceral serous membranes covercover organs (the “viscera”)organs (the “viscera”) 2.2. Parietal serous membranesParietal serous membranes form theform the outer wall of a fluid-filled cavityouter wall of a fluid-filled cavity 3.3. AA cavitycavity is the fluid-filled space betweenis the fluid-filled space between the serous membranesthe serous membranes
  54. 54. 54 4. Thoracic Cavity and Membranes 4. Thoracic Cavity and Membranes a.a. Pericardial CavityPericardial Cavity surrounds the heartsurrounds the heart i.i. Visceral pericardiumVisceral pericardium covers heartcovers heart ii.ii. Parietal pericardium linesParietal pericardium lines pericardial cavitypericardial cavity b.b. Pleural CavityPleural Cavity surrounds each lungsurrounds each lung i.i. Visceral pleura coverVisceral pleura cover lungslungs ii.ii. Parietal pleura line pleuralParietal pleura line pleural cavitycavity
  55. 55. 55 5. Abdominopelvic Cavity and Membranes 5. Abdominopelvic Cavity and Membranes a.a. Peritoneal CavityPeritoneal Cavity surrounds the many organs insurrounds the many organs in the abdominopelvic cavity andthe abdominopelvic cavity and the inferior surface of thethe inferior surface of the diaphragmdiaphragm i.i. Visceral peritoneum coversVisceral peritoneum covers organsorgans ii.ii. Parietal peritoneum linesParietal peritoneum lines peritoneal cavityperitoneal cavity • Pleural CavityPleural Cavity surroundssurrounds each lungeach lung i.i. Visceral pleura cover lungsVisceral pleura cover lungs ii.ii. Parietal pleura line pleuralParietal pleura line pleural cavitycavity
  56. 56. 56 Abdominopelvic Cavity and Membranes, continued… Abdominopelvic Cavity and Membranes, continued… ii.ii. MesenteriesMesenteries – 2 layers– 2 layers of fused peritoneum thatof fused peritoneum that hold abdominal organs inhold abdominal organs in place; provide passageplace; provide passage for blood vessels andfor blood vessels and nervesnerves iii.iii. Retroperitoneal organsRetroperitoneal organs – organs “behind”– organs “behind” parietal peritoneumparietal peritoneum • Kidneys, adrenal glands,Kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, parts ofpancreas, parts of intestines, and bladderintestines, and bladder