Strength of acids and bases

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Strength of acids and bases

  1. 1. 11 HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and HClO4 are among the only known strong acids. Strong and Weak Acids/BasesStrong and Weak Acids/Bases The strength of an acid (or base) is determined by the amount of IONIZATION.
  2. 2. 22 Strong and Weak Acids/BasesStrong and Weak Acids/Bases • Generally divide acids and bases into STRONG orGenerally divide acids and bases into STRONG or WEAK ones.WEAK ones. STRONG ACID:STRONG ACID: HNOHNO33 (aq) + H(aq) + H22O (l) --->O (l) ---> HH33OO++ (aq) + NO(aq) + NO33 -- (aq)(aq) HNOHNO33 is about 100% dissociated in water.is about 100% dissociated in water.
  3. 3. 33 • Weak acidsWeak acids are much less than 100% ionized inare much less than 100% ionized in water.water. One of the best known is acetic acid = CHOne of the best known is acetic acid = CH33COOHCOOH Strong and Weak Acids/BasesStrong and Weak Acids/Bases
  4. 4. 44 • Strong Base:Strong Base: 100% dissociated in100% dissociated in water.water. NaOH (aq) ---> NaNaOH (aq) ---> Na++ (aq) + OH(aq) + OH-- (aq)(aq) Strong and Weak Acids/BasesStrong and Weak Acids/Bases Other common strongOther common strong bases include KOH andbases include KOH and Ca(OH)Ca(OH)22.. CaO (lime) + HCaO (lime) + H22O -->O --> Ca(OH)Ca(OH)22 (slaked lime)(slaked lime) CaOCaO
  5. 5. 55 • Weak base:Weak base: less than 100% ionizedless than 100% ionized in waterin water One of the best known weak bases isOne of the best known weak bases is ammoniaammonia NHNH33 (aq) + H(aq) + H22O (l)O (l)  NHNH44 ++ (aq) + OH(aq) + OH-- (aq)(aq) Strong and Weak Acids/BasesStrong and Weak Acids/Bases
  6. 6. 66 Weak BasesWeak Bases
  7. 7. 77 Ionization Constants for Acids/BasesIonization Constants for Acids/Bases AcidsAcids ConjugateConjugate BasesBases Increase strength Increase strength
  8. 8. 88 Equilibrium ConstantsEquilibrium Constants for Weak Acidsfor Weak Acids Weak acid has KWeak acid has Kaa < 1< 1 Leads to small [HLeads to small [H33OO++ ] and a pH of 2 - 7] and a pH of 2 - 7
  9. 9. 99 Equilibrium ConstantsEquilibrium Constants for Weak Basesfor Weak Bases Weak base has KWeak base has Kbb < 1< 1 Leads to small [OHLeads to small [OH-- ] and a pH of 12 - 7] and a pH of 12 - 7
  10. 10. 1010 RelationRelation of Kof Kaa, K, Kbb,, [H[H33OO++ ]] and pHand pH

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