Lab #3Integumentary System
Overview of the Integumentary           System
Organization of the Epidermis:                            Figure 5–2
Layers of the epidermis are    known as “strata”
Layers of the EpidermisTop: Free surface of skin  - stratum corneum  - stratum lucidum  - stratum granulosum  - stratum sp...
A note on thick vs. thin skin• Thick skin has an  extra layer (lucidum)  but that is NOT the  reason that it is thicker  t...
The Dermis• Deeper part of cutaneous layer• Located between epidermis and  subcutaneous layer• Anchors epidermal accessory...
The Papillary Layer• Consists of areolar tissue• Contains smaller capillaries, lymphatic  vessels, and sensory neurons• Ha...
The Reticular Layer• Consists of dense irregular connective  tissue• Contains larger blood vessels, lymph  vessels, and ne...
Integumentary        Accessory Structures• Hair, hair follicles, sebaceous (oil) glands,  sweat glands, and nails:  – are ...
The Hair Follicle• Is located deep in dermis• Is made of epidermal tissue (with  connective tissue around the outside)• Pr...
Hair
Structures of Hair and Follicles                             Figure 5–9a
Accessory Structures of Hair• Arrector pili:  – involuntary smooth muscle  – causes hairs to stand up  – produces “goose b...
Inside theFollicle             Figure 5–9b
Exocrine Glands in the skin• Sebaceous glands and follicles (oil  glands):  – holocrine glands  – secrete sebum• Sweat gla...
Types of Sebaceous Glands• Sebaceous glands:  – associated with most hair follicles (on head    and body)• Sebaceous folli...
Sebaceous glands
Types of Sweat Glands• Apocrine:  – found in armpits, around nipples, and groin• Merocrine:  – more numerous, widely distr...
“Apocrine” Sweat Glands• Merocrine secretions, not apocrine• Associated with hair follicles in groin,  nipples, and axilla...
Merocrine Sweat Glands• Also called eccrine glands:  – coiled, tubular glands  – discharge directly onto skin surface  – s...
Sweat Glands of the Skin                      MerocrineApocrine
EpidermisWhat to look for:• Usually darkest between stratum  germinativum and stratum granulosm  (granulosm often a dark m...
Dermis: Papillary vs. Reticular layer
What to look for• Papillary layer  – has ridges  – is areolar  – Just under basal lamina• Reticular layer  – much thicker ...
More skin
Merocrine sweat gland• What to look for  – Found in most skin  – Coiled, tubular  – Small lumens in cross    section  – Ha...
Apocrine sweat glandWhat to look for:• Associated with  hair follicle• Only in nipples,  groin, armpit• Large lumens• Deep...
Apocrine sweat gland
Hair withsebaceousglands andarrector pilli
HairWhat to look for:• Follicles are rarely complete• Can often see root, papilla at base of hair• Arrector pilli muscle a...
Sebaceousglands
Sebaceous glandsWhat to look for:• Associated with hair follicle• Found most everywhere hair follicles are  found in skin•...
Sebaceous follicle
Sebaceous follicleWhat to look for:• Also look like cauliflower• Found on face and trunk only• NOT associated with hair fo...
Lab Activity #7• Look at slides:  – Axillary skin (armpit)  – Pigmented and Nonpigmented thin skin slide  – Scalp
What will you find there?                     Armpit    Scalp– Hair?                    Y    Y– Hair follicle?           Y...
Pigmented Thin Skin• Find:  – Epidermis     • Identify layers, starting with germinativum     • Find melanocytes  – Dermis...
Axillary skin• Locate:  – an apocrine sweat gland.  – a merocrine sweat gland  – also look for a sebaceous follicle (not  ...
Turn in one drawing page with…• Three types of glands (one sebaceous, a  merocrine sweat gland and an apocrine  sweat glan...
Assignment• For Next Thursday turn in:  – Your drawing  – Review Sheet #7 (you do not have to do the    parts about plotti...
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Lab 3 integument

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Lab 3 : Integument Overview

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Lab 3 integument

  1. 1. Lab #3Integumentary System
  2. 2. Overview of the Integumentary System
  3. 3. Organization of the Epidermis: Figure 5–2
  4. 4. Layers of the epidermis are known as “strata”
  5. 5. Layers of the EpidermisTop: Free surface of skin - stratum corneum - stratum lucidum - stratum granulosum - stratum spinosum - stratum germinativumBottom: Basal lamina
  6. 6. A note on thick vs. thin skin• Thick skin has an extra layer (lucidum) but that is NOT the reason that it is thicker than thin skin.• Real reason is the other layers are thicker in thick skin than in thin skin.
  7. 7. The Dermis• Deeper part of cutaneous layer• Located between epidermis and subcutaneous layer• Anchors epidermal accessory structures (hair follicles, sweat glands)• Has 2 components: – outer papillary layer – deep reticular layer
  8. 8. The Papillary Layer• Consists of areolar tissue• Contains smaller capillaries, lymphatic vessels, and sensory neurons• Has dermal papillae projecting between epidermal ridges
  9. 9. The Reticular Layer• Consists of dense irregular connective tissue• Contains larger blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerve fibers• Contains collagen and elastic fibers
  10. 10. Integumentary Accessory Structures• Hair, hair follicles, sebaceous (oil) glands, sweat glands, and nails: – are derived from embryonic epidermis – are located in dermis – project through the skin surface
  11. 11. The Hair Follicle• Is located deep in dermis• Is made of epidermal tissue (with connective tissue around the outside)• Produces nonliving hairs• Is wrapped in a dense connective-tissue sheath• Base is surrounded by sensory nerves
  12. 12. Hair
  13. 13. Structures of Hair and Follicles Figure 5–9a
  14. 14. Accessory Structures of Hair• Arrector pili: – involuntary smooth muscle – causes hairs to stand up – produces “goose bumps”• Sebaceous glands: – lubricate the hair – control bacteria
  15. 15. Inside theFollicle Figure 5–9b
  16. 16. Exocrine Glands in the skin• Sebaceous glands and follicles (oil glands): – holocrine glands – secrete sebum• Sweat glands: – merocrine glands – watery secretions
  17. 17. Types of Sebaceous Glands• Sebaceous glands: – associated with most hair follicles (on head and body)• Sebaceous follicles: – discharge directly onto skin surface – found on face and trunk – when clogged  acne
  18. 18. Sebaceous glands
  19. 19. Types of Sweat Glands• Apocrine: – found in armpits, around nipples, and groin• Merocrine: – more numerous, widely distributed on body surface – especially on palms and soles (thick skin) Both are actually merocrine
  20. 20. “Apocrine” Sweat Glands• Merocrine secretions, not apocrine• Associated with hair follicles in groin, nipples, and axillae (armpits)• Become active at puberty• Produce sticky, cloudy secretions (thick sweat) that breaks down and causes odor
  21. 21. Merocrine Sweat Glands• Also called eccrine glands: – coiled, tubular glands – discharge directly onto skin surface – sensible perspiration for cooling (thin sweat) – water, salts, and organic compounds
  22. 22. Sweat Glands of the Skin MerocrineApocrine
  23. 23. EpidermisWhat to look for:• Usually darkest between stratum germinativum and stratum granulosm (granulosm often a dark meandering line)• Keratinized cells (s. corneum) often lift off the underlying layers• S. germinativum along basal lamina, along with melanocytes
  24. 24. Dermis: Papillary vs. Reticular layer
  25. 25. What to look for• Papillary layer – has ridges – is areolar – Just under basal lamina• Reticular layer – much thicker – Dense irregular CT• Hypodermis – Loose CTP
  26. 26. More skin
  27. 27. Merocrine sweat gland• What to look for – Found in most skin – Coiled, tubular – Small lumens in cross section – Have duct that goes all the way to the epidermal surface and ends in sweat pore – Smaller than apocrine, don’t extend as deep into dermis
  28. 28. Apocrine sweat glandWhat to look for:• Associated with hair follicle• Only in nipples, groin, armpit• Large lumens• Deeper in dermis than merocrine
  29. 29. Apocrine sweat gland
  30. 30. Hair withsebaceousglands andarrector pilli
  31. 31. HairWhat to look for:• Follicles are rarely complete• Can often see root, papilla at base of hair• Arrector pilli muscle at an angle• Associated glands (which are?)
  32. 32. Sebaceousglands
  33. 33. Sebaceous glandsWhat to look for:• Associated with hair follicle• Found most everywhere hair follicles are found in skin• Look like cauliflower (maybe?)
  34. 34. Sebaceous follicle
  35. 35. Sebaceous follicleWhat to look for:• Also look like cauliflower• Found on face and trunk only• NOT associated with hair follicle• Have duct that opens onto skin surface
  36. 36. Lab Activity #7• Look at slides: – Axillary skin (armpit) – Pigmented and Nonpigmented thin skin slide – Scalp
  37. 37. What will you find there? Armpit Scalp– Hair? Y Y– Hair follicle? Y Y– Sebaceous gland? Y Y– Sebaceous follicle? ? N– Apocrine sweat gland? Y N– Merocrine sweat gland? Y Y
  38. 38. Pigmented Thin Skin• Find: – Epidermis • Identify layers, starting with germinativum • Find melanocytes – Dermis • Papilary and reticular CT layers – Hypodermis
  39. 39. Axillary skin• Locate: – an apocrine sweat gland. – a merocrine sweat gland – also look for a sebaceous follicle (not associated with a hair)
  40. 40. Turn in one drawing page with…• Three types of glands (one sebaceous, a merocrine sweat gland and an apocrine sweat gland)• Epidermis (label the four layers)• Dermis (label papillary and reticular)• Hair follicles and shaft (label follicle, sebaceous gland, arrector pilli muscle if seen)
  41. 41. Assignment• For Next Thursday turn in: – Your drawing – Review Sheet #7 (you do not have to do the parts about plotting sweat glands and fingerprinting on page 104)

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