IONIC BONDS:
BINARY COMPOUNDS
VOCABULARY
• Chemical Bond
• attractive force between atoms or ions that binds them together as a unit

• bonds form in or...
“Perhaps one of you gentlemen would mind telling me just
what is outside the window that you find so attractive..?”

Image...
CHEMICAL BONDING
Ionic Bonds:
atoms give up or gain electrons and are attracted
to each other by coulombic attraction
Na...
ELECTRONEGATIVIT
IES

1A

1

8A

H
2.1

Period

3

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

1.0

2

2A

1.5

2.0

2.5

3...
IONIC BONDING

NaCl

n=3
n=3

-

n=2
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Na
[Ne]3s1

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cl
[Ne]3s23p5...
PROPERTIES OF IONIC COMPOUNDS
VERY HARD
each ion is bonded to several oppositelycharged ions
HIGH MELTING POINTS
many bond...
TYPES OF BONDS

Ionic Bonding - Crystal Lattice
Table salt
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Ionic bonds

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Ionic bonds

  1. 1. IONIC BONDS: BINARY COMPOUNDS
  2. 2. VOCABULARY • Chemical Bond • attractive force between atoms or ions that binds them together as a unit • bonds form in order to… • • decrease potential energy (PE) increase stability Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem
  3. 3. “Perhaps one of you gentlemen would mind telling me just what is outside the window that you find so attractive..?” Image courtesy NearingZero.net
  4. 4. CHEMICAL BONDING Ionic Bonds: atoms give up or gain electrons and are attracted to each other by coulombic attraction Na loses an e– Na  Na1+ + e– ionic compounds = salts Cl gains an e– Cl + e–  Cl1– Na1+ + Cl1–  NaCl K1+ + NO31–  KNO3 where NO31– is a polyatomic ion: a charged group of atoms that stay together
  5. 5. ELECTRONEGATIVIT IES 1A 1 8A H 2.1 Period 3 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A Li Be B C N O F 1.0 2 2A 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Al Si P S Cl 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5 3.0 Na Mg 5B 6B K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.8 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.2 2.2 1.7 1.7 1.8 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At 0.9 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.2 2.2 1.8 1.8 2.0 Fr Ra Ac 0.7 7 4B 0.7 6 3B 0.8 5 1.2 0.8 4 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.1 8B 7B 1.5 1.8 2.2 1.8 1B 2B 0.9 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.4 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.4 2.1 Lanthanides: 1.1 - 1.3 Actinides: 1.3 - 1.5 Below 1.0 1.0 - 1.4 2.5 - 2.9 1.5 - 1.9 Hill, Petrucci, General Chemistry An Integrated Approach 2nd Edition, page 373 2.0 - 2.4 3.0 - 4.0 2.8 I 2.5 2.2
  6. 6. IONIC BONDING NaCl n=3 n=3 - n=2 - - - - - - - Na [Ne]3s1 - - - + - - - - - - - - - Cl [Ne]3s23p5 - - Na+ [Ne] - - - - Cl[Ne]3s23p6 Transfer of electrons to achieve a stable octet (8 electrons in valence shell).
  7. 7. PROPERTIES OF IONIC COMPOUNDS VERY HARD each ion is bonded to several oppositelycharged ions HIGH MELTING POINTS many bonds must be broken BRITTLE with sufficient force, like atoms are brought next to each other and repel
  8. 8. TYPES OF BONDS Ionic Bonding - Crystal Lattice Table salt

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