Chapter 2
Atoms and Elements
2.1 Elements and Symbols
2.2 Periodic Table

LecturePLUS Timberlake

1
Elements
Pure substances that cannot be separated into
different substances by ordinary processes
Are the building block...
Symbols of Elements
Use 1 or 2 letter abbreviations
Capitalize the first letter only
Examples:
C carbon
N nitrogen
F flu...
Symbols from Latin Names
Element
Copper
Gold
Lead
Mercury
Potassium
Silver
Sodium
Tin

Symbol
Cu
Au
Pb
Hg
K
Ag
Na
Sn
Lectu...
% Major Elements in the Body
O 65.0 %
K
0.34
C 18.0
S
0.26
H 10.0
Na
0.14
N 3.0
Cl
0.14
Ca 1.4
Fe
0.004
P 1.0
Zn
0.003
Mg ...
Learning Check
Select the correct symbol for each:
A. Calcium
1) C
2) Ca
3) CA
B. Sulfur
1) S
C. Iron
1) Ir

2) Sl

3) Su
...
Solution
Select the correct symbol for each:
A. Calcium
2) Ca
B. Sulfur
1) S
C. Iron
3) Fe
LecturePLUS Timberlake

7
Learning Check
Select the correct name for each:
A. N
1) neon 2) nitrogen
3) nickel
B. P
1) potassium
2) phogiston
3) phos...
Solution
Select the correct name for each:
A. N
2) nitrogen
B. P
3) phosphorus
C. Ag
1) silver
LecturePLUS Timberlake

9
Periodic Table
The periodic table is an arrangement of
the elements according to similarities in
their chemical and physic...
Physical Properties
The characteristics of a substance that can be
observed without changing the substance.
 Color
 Size...
Groups of Elements
Vertical columns on the periodic table
Similar physical properties
Similar chemical properties

Lect...
Groups on the Periodic Table
1

2

3

4

LecturePLUS Timberlake

5

6

7

8

13
Representative Groups
Group 1

Alkali Metals

Group 2

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group 7

Halogens

Group 8

Noble Gases
...
Location of Some Groups
1
A
l m
k e
a t
l a
i l
s

2

3

4

A
l
k
a
l
i
n
e
LecturePLUS Timberlake

5

6 7

8
H
a
l
o
g
e
...
Periods on the Periodic Table
Horizontal rows from Group 1 to Group 8.
Numbered 1, 2, 3, ….
Include representative elem...
Periods on the Periodic Table
1
2
3
4
5
6
LecturePLUS Timberlake

17
Learning Check
A. Element in Group VIIA, Period 4
1) Br
2) Cl
3) Mn

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3
1) beryllium
2) mag...
Solution
A. Element in Group 7A, period 4
1) Br

B. Element in Group 2A, Period 3
2) magnesium

LecturePLUS Timberlake

19
Learning Check
A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4
1) Br
2) Cl
3) Mn
B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3
1) beryllium
2) magn...
Solution
A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4
1) Br
B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3
2) magnesium
C. Metals in Group IVA
1)...
Metals and Nonmetals
Metals
 Located to the left of the heavy line
 Shiny, ductile
 Good conductors of heat and electri...
Metals and Nonmetals

Transition
metals

ME
TA
LS

ME
TA
LS

LecturePLUS Timberlake

NO
NM
ET

AL
S
23
Learning Check
Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:
A. sulfur
____
B. chlorine
____
C. sodium
____
D. iron
____
E. ...
Solution
Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:
A. sulfur
2
B. chlorine
2
C. sodium
1
D. iron
1
E. carbon
2
F. silver...
Learning Check
Select the correct elements:
A. Metals in Group IVA
1) Ge, Sn, Pb
2) C, Si
3) C, Si, Ge, Sn
B. Nonmetals in...
Solution
A.

Metals in Group 4A
1)
Ge, Sn, Pb

B.

Nonmetals in Group 5A
2)
N, P, As

LecturePLUS Timberlake

27
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  • Elements and periodic table

    1. 1. Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements 2.1 Elements and Symbols 2.2 Periodic Table LecturePLUS Timberlake 1
    2. 2. Elements Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes Are the building blocks of matter 112 elements known today Examples: carbon gold calcium LecturePLUS Timberlake 2
    3. 3. Symbols of Elements Use 1 or 2 letter abbreviations Capitalize the first letter only Examples: C carbon N nitrogen F fluorine O oxygen Co cobalt Ca calcium Br bromine Mg magnesium LecturePLUS Timberlake 3
    4. 4. Symbols from Latin Names Element Copper Gold Lead Mercury Potassium Silver Sodium Tin Symbol Cu Au Pb Hg K Ag Na Sn LecturePLUS Timberlake Latin name cuprum aurum plumbum hydrargyrum kalium argentum natrium stannum 4
    5. 5. % Major Elements in the Body O 65.0 % K 0.34 C 18.0 S 0.26 H 10.0 Na 0.14 N 3.0 Cl 0.14 Ca 1.4 Fe 0.004 P 1.0 Zn 0.003 Mg 0.50 Trace Elements As, Cr, Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, V LecturePLUS Timberlake 5
    6. 6. Learning Check Select the correct symbol for each: A. Calcium 1) C 2) Ca 3) CA B. Sulfur 1) S C. Iron 1) Ir 2) Sl 3) Su 2) FE 3) Fe LecturePLUS Timberlake 6
    7. 7. Solution Select the correct symbol for each: A. Calcium 2) Ca B. Sulfur 1) S C. Iron 3) Fe LecturePLUS Timberlake 7
    8. 8. Learning Check Select the correct name for each: A. N 1) neon 2) nitrogen 3) nickel B. P 1) potassium 2) phogiston 3) phosphorus C. Ag 1) silver 2) agean 3) gold LecturePLUS Timberlake 8
    9. 9. Solution Select the correct name for each: A. N 2) nitrogen B. P 3) phosphorus C. Ag 1) silver LecturePLUS Timberlake 9
    10. 10. Periodic Table The periodic table is an arrangement of the elements according to similarities in their chemical and physical properties. LecturePLUS Timberlake 10
    11. 11. Physical Properties The characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance.  Color  Size  Shape  Density  Freezing and Boiling Points  Odor LecturePLUS Timberlake 11
    12. 12. Groups of Elements Vertical columns on the periodic table Similar physical properties Similar chemical properties LecturePLUS Timberlake 12
    13. 13. Groups on the Periodic Table 1 2 3 4 LecturePLUS Timberlake 5 6 7 8 13
    14. 14. Representative Groups Group 1 Alkali Metals Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals Group 7 Halogens Group 8 Noble Gases LecturePLUS Timberlake 14
    15. 15. Location of Some Groups 1 A l m k e a t l a i l s 2 3 4 A l k a l i n e LecturePLUS Timberlake 5 6 7 8 H a l o g e n s I n e r t G a s e s 15
    16. 16. Periods on the Periodic Table Horizontal rows from Group 1 to Group 8. Numbered 1, 2, 3, …. Include representative elements and transition elements LecturePLUS Timberlake 16
    17. 17. Periods on the Periodic Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 LecturePLUS Timberlake 17
    18. 18. Learning Check A. Element in Group VIIA, Period 4 1) Br 2) Cl 3) Mn B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3 1) beryllium 2) magnesium 3) boron LecturePLUS Timberlake 18
    19. 19. Solution A. Element in Group 7A, period 4 1) Br B. Element in Group 2A, Period 3 2) magnesium LecturePLUS Timberlake 19
    20. 20. Learning Check A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4 1) Br 2) Cl 3) Mn B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3 1) beryllium 2) magnesium 3) boron C. Metals in Group IVA 1) Ge, Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, Sn D. Nonmetals in Group VA 1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P, As LecturePLUS Timberlake 3) N, P, As, Sb 20
    21. 21. Solution A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4 1) Br B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3 2) magnesium C. Metals in Group IVA 1) Ge, Sn, Pb D. Nonmetals in Group VA 2) N, P, As LecturePLUS Timberlake 21
    22. 22. Metals and Nonmetals Metals  Located to the left of the heavy line  Shiny, ductile  Good conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals  Located to the right of the heavy line  Dull and brittle  Poor conductors, good insulators LecturePLUS Timberlake 22
    23. 23. Metals and Nonmetals Transition metals ME TA LS ME TA LS LecturePLUS Timberlake NO NM ET AL S 23
    24. 24. Learning Check Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each: A. sulfur ____ B. chlorine ____ C. sodium ____ D. iron ____ E. carbon ____ F. silver ____ LecturePLUS Timberlake 24
    25. 25. Solution Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each: A. sulfur 2 B. chlorine 2 C. sodium 1 D. iron 1 E. carbon 2 F. silver 1 LecturePLUS Timberlake 25
    26. 26. Learning Check Select the correct elements: A. Metals in Group IVA 1) Ge, Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, Sn B. Nonmetals in Group VA 1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P, As 3) N, P, As, Sb LecturePLUS Timberlake 26
    27. 27. Solution A. Metals in Group 4A 1) Ge, Sn, Pb B. Nonmetals in Group 5A 2) N, P, As LecturePLUS Timberlake 27

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