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Chapt07 holes lecture_animation

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Lecture PowerPointTo run the animations you must be inSlideshow View. Use the buttons on theanimation to play, pause, and turnaudio/text on or off.Please Note: Once you have used any ofthe animation functions (such as Play orPause), you must first click in the whitebackground before you can advance to thenext slide. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. 7.1: Introduction• Human skeleton initially cartilages and fibrous membranes• Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant cartilage• By age 25 the skeleton is completely hardened• 206 bones make up the adult skeleton (20% of bodymass) • 80 bones of the axial skeleton • 126 bones of the appendicular skeleton 2
  3. 3. Bone Classification Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Bone Classification: (b) • Long Bones • Short Bones • Sesamoid Bones • Flat Bones • Irregular Bones (c) • Wormian Bones (sutural) (d) 3 (a) (e)
  4. 4. Parts of a Long Bone• Epiphysis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Epiphyseal plates • Distal Articular cartilage • Proximal Spongy bone Proximal epiphysis• Diaphysis Space containing• Metaphysis red marrow• Compact bone Endosteum• Spongy bone Compact bone Medullary cavity• Articular cartilage Yellow marrow• Periosteum Diaphysis Periosteum• Endosteum• Medullary cavity• Trabeculae• Bone marrow • Red marrow and yellow marrow Distal epiphysis 4 Femur
  5. 5. Microscopic Structure• Bone cells are called osteocytes • in a lacuna• Osteocytes transport nutrients and wastes bycellular processes in canaliculi• The extracellular matrix of bone is largely collagenand inorganic salts • Collagen gives bone resilience & strength • Inorganic salts make bone hard 5
  6. 6. Compact Bone Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Osteon Osteon t caka Haversian System ne pa Central canal bo om containing blood C Endosteum• Central canal vessels and nerves ne gy bo pon Periosteum• Perforating canal aka S NerveVolkmann’s canal Blood Pores Central vessels canal• Osteocytes Perforating canal Compact Nerve• Lamellae bone Blood vessels• Lacunae Nerve• Bone matrix Trabeculae Bone matrix• Canaliculi Canaliculus Osteocyte Lacuna (space) 6
  7. 7. Spongy Bone • Spongy bone is aka cancellous bone Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Spongy boneCompact bone (a) Remnant of Spongy bone Compact bone epiphyseal plate (b) Spongy Compact 7 (c) bone bone a: © Ed Reschke; b,c: Courtesy of John W. Hole, Jr.
  8. 8. 7.3: Bone Development and Growth• Parts of the skeletal system begin to developduring the first few weeks of prenatal development• Bones replace existing connective tissue in one oftwo ways: • As intramembranous bones • As endchondral bones 8
  9. 9. Intramembranous Bones• Intramembranous Bones • These bones originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissues • They are the broad, flat bones • Skull bones (except mandible) • Are known as intramembranous bones 9
  10. 10. Endochondral Bones• Endochondral Bones • Bones begin as hyaline cartilage • Form models for future bones • These are most bones of the skeleton • Are known as endochondral bones 10
  11. 11. Endochondral Ossification • Hyaline cartilage model • Epiphyseal plate • Primary ossification center • Osteoblasts vs. osteoclasts • Secondary ossification centers Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Articular Remnants of cartilage Secondary epiphyseal ossification platesCartilaginous Developing Compact bone centermodel periosteum developing Spongy bone Epiphyseal plates Blood Medullary Medullary Medullary vessel cavity cavity cavity Compact bone Remnant of Epiphyseal epiphyseal Calcified Primary plate plate cartilage ossification Secondary Spongy center ossification bone center Articular cartilage(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 11
  12. 12. Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• First layer of cells Bone tissue of epiphysis • Closest to the end of epiphysis 1 Zone of resting cartilage • Resting cells 2 Zone of • Anchors epiphyseal plate proliferating cartilage to epiphysis 3 Zone of hypertrophic cartilage • Zone of resting cartilage• Second layer of cells 4 Zone of calcified cartilage • Many rows of young cells Ossified • Undergoing mitosis bone of diaphysis • zone of proliferating cartilage (a) (b) b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer 12
  13. 13. Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Third layer of cells Bone tissue • Older cells of epiphysis • Left behind when new 1 Zone of resting cells appear cartilage 2 Zone of • Cells enlarging and proliferating cartilage becoming calcified 3 Zone of hypertrophic • zone of hypertrophic cartilage cartilage• Fourth layer of cells 4 Zone of calcified cartilage • Thin Ossified bone of • Dead cells diaphysis • Calcified extracellular matrix • zone of calcified cartilage (a) (b) b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer 13
  14. 14. Homeostasis of Bone Tissue• Bone Resorption – action of osteoclasts and parathyroidhormone aka parathormone aka PTH• Bone Deposition – action of osteoblasts and calcitonin• Occurs by direction of the thyroid and parathyroid glands Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Developing medullary cavity Osteoclast 14 © Biophoto Associates/Photo Researchers, Inc.
  15. 15. Factors Affecting BoneDevelopment, Growth and Repair• Deficiency of Vitamin A – retards bone development• Deficiency of Vitamin C – results in fragile bones• Deficiency of Vitamin D – rickets, osteomalacia• Insufficient Growth Hormone – dwarfism• Excessive Growth Hormone – gigantism, acromegaly• Insufficient Thyroid Hormone – delays bone growth• Sex Hormones – promote bone formation; stimulate ossificationof epiphyseal plates• Physical Stress – stimulates bone growth 15
  16. 16. Animation:Bone Growth in Width Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer. 16
  17. 17. 7.4: Bone Function• Bones shape, support, and protect body structures 17
  18. 18. Support, Protection, and Movement• Support, Movement & Protection • Gives shape to head, etc. • Supports body’s weight • Protects lungs, etc. • Bones and muscles interact • When limbs or body parts move 18
  19. 19. Blood Cell Formation• Blood Cell Formation • Also known as hematopoiesis • Occurs in the red bone marrow 19
  20. 20. Inorganic Salt Storage• Inorganic Salt Storage • Calcium • Phosphate • Magnesium • Sodium • Potassium 20
  21. 21. 7.5: Skeletal Organization• The actual number of bones in the human skeletonvaries from person to person• Typically there are about 206 bones• For convenience the skeleton is divided into the: • Axial skeleton • Appendicular skeleton 21
  22. 22. Divisions of the Skeleton Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cranium• Axial Skeleton Face Skull • Skull Hyoid Clavicle • Spine Scapula Sternum • Rib cage Humerus Ribs Vertebral Vertebral column column• Appendicular Skeleton Hip Carpals bone Sacrum Radius Coccyx • Upper limbs Ulna • Lower limbs Metacarpals Femur Phalanges • Shoulder girdle Patella • Pelvic girdle Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges 22 (a) (b)
  23. 23. 7.6: Skull• Is composed of the cranium (brain case) and thefacial bones 23
  24. 24. Cranium Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Frontal Bone (1) Parietal bone • Forehead Frontal bone • Roof of nasal cavity Coronal suture • Roofs of orbits Lacrimal bone Ethmoid bone • Frontal sinuses Squamous suture Supraorbital foramen • Supraorbital foramen Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Nasal bone • Coronal suture Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone Sphenoid bone Middle nasal concha of the ethmoid bone Infraorbital foramen Zygomatic bone Inferior nasal concha Vomer bone Maxilla Mandible Mental foramen 24
  25. 25. Cranium• Parietal Bones (2) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Side walls of cranium • Roof of cranium Parietal bone Coronal suture • Sagittal suture Frontal bone Squamous suture Sphenoid bone Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone Occipital bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Temporal bone Zygomatic bone External acoustic meatus Temporal process of zygomatic bone Mastoid process Maxilla Mandibular condyle Styloid process Mental foramen Zygomatic process of temporal bone Mandible Coronoid process 25
  26. 26. Cranium Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Occipital Bone (1) • Back of skull Incisive foramen • Base of cranium Palatine process of maxilla Zygomatic bone Median palatine suture • Foramen magnum Frontal bone Sphenoid bone Palatine bone • Occipital condyles Zygomatic arch Greater palatine foramen Vomer bone • Lambdoidal suture Mandibular fossa Foramen lacerum Foramen ovale Styloid process Foramen spinosum External acoustic meatus Carotid canal Jugular foramen Stylomastoid foramen Occipital condyle Foramen magnum Mastoid foramen Lambdoid suture Temporal bone Condylar canal Occipital bone 26
  27. 27. Cranium• Temporal Bones (2) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Side walls of cranium • Floor of cranium Coronal suture Parietal bone Frontal bone • Floors and sides of orbits Squamous suture Sphenoid bone • Squamous suture Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone • External acoustic meatus Occipital bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone • Mandibular fossa Temporal bone Zygomatic bone • Mastoid process Temporal process External acoustic meatus of zygomatic bone • Styloid process Mastoid process Mandibular condyle Maxilla • Zygomatic process Styloid process Mental foramen Zygomatic process of temporal bone Mandible Coronoid process 27
  28. 28. Cranium• Sphenoid Bone (1) • Base of cranium Lesser wing Optic canal • Sides of skull Greater wing • Floors and sides of orbits Foramen rotundum Foramen spinosum • Sella turcica Transverse section (a) Sella turcica Foramen ovale • Sphenoid sinuses Lesser wing Greater wing Superior orbital fissure Foramen rotundum Lateral pterygoid plate Medial pterygoid plate (b) 28
  29. 29. Cranium• Ethmoid Bone (1) • Roof and walls of nasal cavity • Floor of cranium • Wall of orbits Perpendicular • Cribiform plates plate Crista galli • Perpendicular plate Crista galli Superior nasal concha • Superior and middle Cribriform plate nasal conchae Transverse section Ethmoidal sinuses Middle nasal concha • Ethmoid sinuses Orbital surface Perpendicular plate • Crista galli (a) (b) 29
  30. 30. Facial Skeleton• Maxillary Bones (2) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Upper jaw Coronal suture • Anterior roof of mouth Parietal bone Frontal bone • Floors of orbits Squamous suture Sphenoid bone • Sides of nasal cavity Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone • Floors of nasal cavity Occipital bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Temporal bone • Alveolar processes External acoustic meatus Zygomatic bone Temporal process • Maxillary sinuses of zygomatic bone Mastoid process • Palatine process Maxilla Mandibular condyle Styloid process Mental foramen Zygomatic process of temporal bone Mandible Coronoid process 30
  31. 31. Facial SkeletonCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal sinus Ethmoidal sinuses Sphenoidal sinus Maxillary sinus 31
  32. 32. Facial Skeleton• Palatine Bones (2) • ‘L’ shaped bones located behind the maxillae Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Posterior section of hard palate • Floor of nasal cavity Perpendicular • Lateral walls of portion nasal cavity Coronal section Horizontal portion 32
  33. 33. Facial Skeleton• Zygomatic Bones (2) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Prominences of cheeks Coronal suture • Lateral walls of orbits Parietal bone Frontal bone • Floors of orbits Squamous suture Sphenoid bone • Temporal process Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone Occipital bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Temporal bone Zygomatic bone Temporal process External acoustic meatus of zygomatic bone Mastoid process Maxilla Mandibular condyle Styloid process Mental foramen Zygomatic process of temporal bone Mandible Coronoid process 33
  34. 34. Facial Skeleton• Lacrimal Bones (2) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Medial walls of orbits • Groove from orbit to nasal Parietal bone Coronal suture cavity Frontal bone Squamous suture Sphenoid bone• Nasal Bones (2) Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone • Bridge of nose Nasal bone Temporal bone Zygomatic bone Temporal process External acoustic meatus of zygomatic bone Mastoid process Maxilla Mandibular condyle Styloid process Mental foramen Zygomatic process of temporal bone Mandible Coronoid process 34
  35. 35. Facial Skeleton• Vomer Bone (1) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture • Inferior portion of nasal Temporal bone septum Frontal bone Parietal bone Squamous suture Sphenoid bone Frontal sinus Lambdoid suture Nasal bone Occipital bone Crista galli Internal acoustic meatus Cribriform plate Ethmoid bone Perpendicular plate Jugular foramen (nasal septum) Sella turcica Inferior nasal concha Palatine process Hypoglossal canal of maxilla Styloid process Foramen magnum Maxilla Sphenoidal sinus Mastoid process Palatine bone Vomer bone Mandible Alveolar processes 35
  36. 36. Facial Skeleton• Inferior Nasal Conchae (2) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Extend from lateral Coronal suture Temporal bone walls of nasal cavity Frontal bone Parietal bone Squamous suture Sphenoid bone Frontal sinus Lambdoid suture Nasal bone Occipital bone Crista galli Internal acoustic meatus Cribriform plate Ethmoid bone Perpendicular plate Jugular foramen (nasal septum) Sella turcica Inferior nasal concha Palatine process Hypoglossal canal of maxilla Styloid process Foramen magnum Maxilla Sphenoidal sinus Mastoid process Palatine bone Vomer bone Mandible Alveolar processes 36
  37. 37. Facial Skeleton• Mandible Bone (1) • Lower jaw Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Body Coronoid process Mandibular Coronoid process • Ramus foramen Mandibular condyle • Mandibular condyle • Coronoid process Ramus Alveolar • Alveolar process Mandibular border foramen Body • Mandibular foramen (a) Mental foramen Body Alveolar arch • Mental foramen (b) 37
  38. 38. Infantile Skull• Fontanels – fibrous membranes Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal suture (metopic suture) Frontal bone Anterior fontanel Sagittal suture Posterior fontanel (b) 38
  39. 39. 7.7: Vertebral Column• The vertebral column, or spinal column, consists ofmany vertebrae separated by cartilaginous intervertebraldiscs. 39
  40. 40. Vertebral Column Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Cervical vertebrae (7) Cervical Cervical curvature vertebrae Vertebra• Thoracic vertebrae (12) prominens• Lumbar vertebrae (5) Rib facet• Sacral (4-5 fused segments) Thoracic • Sacrum is fused bone Thoracic curvature vertebrae• Coccygeal (3-4 fused segments) • Coccyx is fused bone Intervertebral Intervertebral foramina Lumbar Lumbar vertebrae curvature Sacrum Sacral curvature Coccyx 40 (a) (b)
  41. 41. Vertebral Column Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Cervical curvature Cervical Cervical• Thoracic curvature curvature vertebrae Vertebra prominens• Lumbar curvature• Sacral curvature Rib facet• Rib facets Thoracic vertebrae• Vertebral prominens Thoracic curvature• Intervertebral discs (IVD) Intervertebral• Intervertebral foramina (IVF) Intervertebral foramina Lumbar Lumbar vertebrae curvature Sacrum Sacral curvature Coccyx 41 (a) (b)
  42. 42. Typical Vertebrae• Includes the following parts: • Vertebral body • Pedicles • Lamina • Spinous process • Transverse processes • Vertebral foramen • Facets 42
  43. 43. Cervical Vertebrae Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Atlas – 1 ; supports head st Facet that articulates Posterior• Axis – 2nd; dens pivots to with occipital condyle Vertebral foramenturn head• Transverse foramina Transverse process• Bifid spinous processes Anterior Facet that articulates Transverse with dens (odontoid process) foramen• Vertebral prominens – useful of axis Atlas (a)landmark Anterior articular facet for atlas Dens Spinous process Spinous Superior process articular facet Transverse foramen Body Inferior articular process Transverse process Dens (odontoid Axis (b) (c) process) 43
  44. 44. Thoracic Vertebrae Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superior articular • Long spinous processes process Pedicle Transverse • Rib facets process Facet for Body tubercle of rib Intervertebral notchSuperior Bodyarticularprocess Inferior articular SpinousTransverse process processprocess (a)Inferior articular Spinous processprocess Lamina Intervertebral Transverse process disc Facet for tubercle of rib Superior articular process Vertebral foramenSpinous Anterior Pedicleprocess Body (b) 44 Posterior (c)
  45. 45. Lumbar Vertebrae• Large bodies• Thick, short spinousprocesses Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Spinous process Lamina Superior articular process Transverse process Pedicle Vertebral foramen Body (c) Lumbar vertebra 45
  46. 46. Sacrum• 4-5 fused segments Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Median sacral crest• Posterior sacralforamina Sacral promontory Superior articular process Sacral canal• Posterior wall of pelviccavity• Sacral promontory aka Auricular surfacebase Sacrum Tubercle of median• Area toward coccyx is sacral crest Posterior sacralthe apex foramen Sacral hiatus Anterior sacral foramen Coccyx (a) (b) 46
  47. 47. Coccyx• Aka tailbone Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• 3-4 fused segments Sacral promontory Superior articular process Sacral canal Auricular surface Sacrum Tubercle of median sacral crest Posterior sacral foramen Sacral hiatus Anterior sacral foramen Coccyx (a) (b) 47
  48. 48. 7.8: Thoracic Cage• The thoracic cage includes the ribs, the thoracicvertebrae, the sternum, and the costal cartilages thatattach the ribs to the sternum. 48
  49. 49. Thoracic Cage Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Jugular notch (suprasternal notch)• Ribs (12) Sternal angle 1 Thoracic vertebra Clavicular notch• Sternum 3 2 Manubrium• Thoracic vertebrae (12) True ribs (vertebrosternal ribs) 5 4 Body Sternum• Costal cartilages 7 6 Xiphoid process• Supports shoulder girdle Vertebrochondral 8 Ribs 9and upper limbs False ribs Costal ribs cartilage 10 11• Protects viscera Floating ribs (vertebral ribs) 12• Role in breathing (a) 49 (b) b: © Victor B. Eichler, PhD
  50. 50. Ribs Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Jugular notch (suprasternal notch) Thoracic vertebra• Humans have 12 pairs of ribs: Sternal angle 1 Clavicular notch 2 • True ribs (7) 3 Manubrium • False ribs (5), of which: True ribs 4 (vertebrosternal ribs) 5 Body Sternum • Floating (2) 7 6 Xiphoid process 8 Ribs Vertebrochondral 9• There are some anomalies: False ribs Costal ribs cartilage 10 11 • Cervical ribs Floating ribs (vertebral ribs) 12 • Lumbar ribs (a) 50 (b) b: © Victor B. Eichler, PhD
  51. 51. Rib Structure Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Shaft Head Neck• Head – posterior end; Tuberclearticulates with vertebrae Anterior end Shaft• Tubercle – articulates with Costal groovevertebrae (a) Spinous process• Costal cartilage – hyaline Facetcartilage Tubercle Neck Head Facet Shaft Anterior end (b) (sternal end) 51
  52. 52. Sternum Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Jugular notch (suprasternal notch)• Three (3) parts of the Sternal angle 1 Thoracic vertebra Clavicular notchsternum: 2 Manubrium 3 • Manubrium True ribs (vertebrosternal ribs) 5 4 Body Sternum • Body 7 6 Xiphoid process • Xiphoid process Vertebrochondral 8 Ribs 9 False ribs Costal ribs cartilage 10 11 12 Floating ribs (vertebral ribs) (a) 52 (b) b: © Victor B. Eichler, PhD
  53. 53. 7.9: Pectoral Girdle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Also known as the Acromion process Acromial end Sternal end Clavicle Head ofshoulder girdle humerus• Clavicles Coracoid process• Scapulae• Supports upper limbs Sternum• True shoulder joint is Costalsimply the articulation of Scapula Rib cartilagethe humerus and scapula Humerus Ulna Radius (a) 53
  54. 54. Clavicles Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Articulate with manubrium Acromion process Acromial end Sternal end Clavicle• Articulate with scapulae Head of humerus(acromion process) Coracoid process• A-C joint Sternum Costal Scapula Rib cartilage Humerus Ulna Radius (a) 54
  55. 55. Scapulae • Spine • Acromion process • Supraspinous fossa • Coracoid process • Infraspinous fossa • Glenoid fossa or cavity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superior border Coracoid process Suprascapular Acromion notch process Acromion Coracoid process process Supra- Spine glenoid Glenoid tubercle cavity Glenoid cavity Subscapular Infra- fossa Supraspinous glenoid fossa tubercle Lateral Infraspinous (axillary) border fossa Medial (vertebral) border(a) (b) (c) 55
  56. 56. 7.10: Upper Limb Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Humerus Humerus• Radius Humerus Olecranon Olecranon process fossa Head of radius• Ulna Ulna (c) Neck of radius(Interosseous membrane)• Carpals• Metacarpals Radius• Phalanges Ulna Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges (a) Hand (palm anterior) (b) Hand (palm posterior) (d) 56 d: © Martin Rotker
  57. 57. Humerus Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Head Greater tubercle Head Greater tubercle Anatomical• Greater tubercle Intertubercular groove neck• Lesser tubercle Lesser tubercle Surgical neck• Anatomical neck• Surgical neck• Deltoid tuberosity Deltoid tuberosity• Capitulum• Trochlea• Coronoid fossa• Olecranon fossa Coronoid Olecranon fossa fossa Lateral Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle epicondyle Capitulum Trochlea 57 (a) (b)
  58. 58. Radius Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Lateral forearm bone Trochlear notch Olecranon process• Head Coronoid process Head of radius• Radial tuberosity Olecranon process• Styloid process Radial tuberosity Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch Radius (b) Ulna Head of ulna Styloid process Styloid process Ulnar notch of radius 58 (a)
  59. 59. Ulna Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Medial forearm bone Trochlear notch Olecranon process• Trochlear notch Coronoid process Head of radius• Olecranon process Olecranon process• Coronoid process Radial tuberosity Trochlear notch• Styloid process Coronoid process Radial notch Radius (b) Ulna Head of ulna Styloid process Styloid process Ulnar notch of radius 59 (a)
  60. 60. Wrist and Hand• Carpal Bones (16 total bones) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Scaphoid Radius • Lunate Scaphoid Ulna Lunate Scaphoid Capitate Capitate • Triquetral Trapezoid Hamate Trapezoid Triquetrum • Pisiform Trapezium Pisiform Trapezium • Hamate Carpals • Capitate (carpus) • Trapezoid 1 1 Metacarpals 5 5 • Trapezium (metacarpus) 2 3 4 4 3 2• Metacarpal Bones (10) Proximal phalanx• Phalangeal Bones (28) Phalanges Middle phalanx • Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx • Middle phalanx • Distal phalanx (a) (b) 60

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