Differentiated
Instruction: A
Gateway to
Success with the
Common Core
Dr. Susan Santoli
Dr. Susan Martin
University of Sou...
Differences Among
Students
•
•
•
•

Learning styles and preferences
Readiness and skills
Students for whom English is not ...
Universal Design
First used in architecture to describe
buildings that were accessible to
everyone and were designed that ...
In education…
• In education, goal is that instructional
materials and activities allow learning
objectives to be achievab...
Differentiated Instruction
• Students have multiple options for taking in
information and making sense of ideas.
• Teacher...
Elements of Differentiation

Teacher adapts:
–Content
–Process
–Product
6
According to Students’

• Readiness
• Interest
• Learning Profiles

7
What DI is:
• Having a vision of success for students
• Realizing that not all students learn the same way
• Allowing stud...
What DI is NOT:
• A different lesson plan for each student
each day
• Assuming that all students learn by
listening and wr...
Just imagine…
• Shoe store……
• Dr.’s office……

10
Common Core
• Read closely
• Compare and
contrast
• Analyze
• Comprehend
• Question
• Summarize

•
•
•
•
•
•

Source Infor...
Increasing Reading
Comprehension and
Encouraging Close
Reading
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

SQ& ID (Super question & ID)
One pagers
Cor...
SQ&ID
• SQ&IDs process

13
SQ&ID Extension
• Explore the relationship between John Smith and two hardships
of Jamestown.
• Student response: John Smi...
One-Pagers
• Excellent tool for making connections
and synthesizing information
• Use for summarizing and condensing
info
...
Cornell Notes
• Excellent tool when notes require more
detailed content
• Requires focus questions
• Modeling… ―I do it…we...
Primary Documents
Dissection Tool
•
•
•
•
•

CONSTITUTION
THE BEDROCK DOCUMENT
DISSECTION
Purpose:
The purpose of this ass...
Primary Documents
Dissection Tool
• Install PDF Viewer, Adobe Acrobat
Adobe Acrobat Pro or just use a hard
copy
• Answer t...
Primary Documents
Dissection Tool
• Answer questions using highlighting
and typewriter tool in the PDF Viewer –
initial di...
Primary Documents
Dissection Tool
• Tie key components of Constitution to
founding father philosophy and current
events
• ...
Noteworthy Resources
• Read/Write/Think: International
Reading Association, NCTE,
Thinkfinity
• Reading Quest: Making Sens...
Questions and Comments

22
Next…
Applying that reading
knowledge through
analysis, evaluation, synt
hesis
Think color!
23
Analysis, Evaluation,
Synthesis (all ready for use)
1. Reading Like a Historian
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Historical Scenes Inves...
Reading Like a Historian:
• Each lesson revolves around a central
historical question and features sets of
primary documen...
Historical Scenes
Investigation

26
When Elvis Met Nixon

27
Historical Thinking
Matters
STUDENT INVESTIGATIONS focuses on five central topics from the post-Civil
War U.S. history cur...
29
The History Lab

30
31
Beyond the Bubble

32
Edison and the Kansas
Housewife
• Students read a letter to Thomas
Edison, then with the addition of several
extra facts, ...
Additional facts related to Mrs. Lathrop’s letter:
• 1. George Westinghouse invented the electric
range, not Thomas Edison...
Impossible to think about
primary sources without:
• Library of Congress
– American Memory Lesson Plans
• pdf

–
–
–
–
–

...
• National Archives and Records
Administration
– Suggested Methods for Integrating PS into
Classroom Instruction (pdf)
– D...
AND…
37
• National Museum of American History
(Smithsonian
– Engaging Students with Primary Sources
– Podcasts
– Featured Artifact...
Noteworthy Links
• Internet History Sourcebook (all time
periods and locations)
• Avalon Project (world history)
• EuroDoc...
Other Activities to Increase
Writing Effectiveness
1. Persuasive Writing
– RAFT
– Colonial Advertising Pitch

2. Mechanics...
RAFT
R—Role
A—Audience
F—Format
T—Topic
General SS examples
Internment camp examples
41
Colonial Advertising Pitch

42
Color Coded Writing
Rubric
• Differentiate Structure of Essay

43
PPT on National Building:
Aiding Students in Citing
Sources
TYPE OF SOURCE
•
•
•
•

Textbook
American History Database
AVL...
Lewis and
Clark
Expedition

45
Think Tac Toe
Idea behind concept is to give students
choices in products. Same concept as
game-3 in a row. Can include wr...
Questions and Comments

47
Increasing the Ability to
Analyze and Use Visual and
Auditory Sources
1. Visual Literacy
2. Before, During and After
3. Ot...
8. French Revolution You Tube
9. Hamilton Rap
10.Too Late to Apologize

49
What is visual literacy?
• Research shows that visual literacy, ―a
person’s ability to interpret and create
visual informa...
Studies done by Lynn O’Brien of Specific
Diagnostic Studies – ―students whose
strongest learning channel is auditory
compr...
Before, During and After
• ~If this artwork is
the beginning of a
story, what might happen
next?
• ~If it this artwork is
...
Using Art to Inspire
Writing in Social Studies
•

•

•
•
•
•
•
•

•

Look at a painting or poster, and then invent a histo...
ABC Books
• Creation of ABC books offer good opportunity
for collaboration and differentiationBased on
British ABC for Bab...
Westward Expansion-Visuals and
Written Sources
• Students are in pairs or threes
• Each group receives a primary source wh...
Excerpts from letters and diaries

56
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/homestead-act/images/
homesteading-family.gif
57
Library of Congress
Call number Portfolio 134,
Folder 13

58
John McCarthy, photographer. John Bakken Sod House, Milton, ND, c 1895. NDSU Institute for
Regional Studies. Reproduction ...
http://www.loc.gov, ppmsca 09855
60
Follow-up
• After all items are viewed, students are asked to
complete the following questions:
• What conflicting message...
Great Depression Tiered Lesson
Plan-Library of Congress
(Visuals, Auditory, Text)
http://web.archive.org/web/2007031617495...
Same learning
content, different process

63
Everyone will answer these questions:
• Describe what you see in the photograph. Include as
much detail as possible.
• Com...
Tier 1: If we could hear the people talking about
their life, what would they be saying?
Tier 2: From what you see in the ...
Same content information, same analysis
process, different PRODUCTS

66
Tier 1: Create a timeline of the Dust Bowl and
Great Depression era. Include the following 10 events
with accompanying vis...
Same task, 3 different SOURCES OF
INFORMATION
Choose one of the following primary sources below.
Examine both the informat...
Dorothea Lange Photograph
of the Migrant Mother, 1936

69
American Life Histories, Manuscript from
the Federal Writer’s Project, North
Carolina, 1938

Nina Boone-North Carolina

70
Mrs. Mary Sullivan-August, 1940

A Traveler’s Line
This is a song written and sung by a woman who lived
during the Depress...
Auditory Literacy
• 21st Century options such as podcasts and
You-Tube videos help students make
authentic connections to ...
Noteworthy
Art, Writing, SS Sites
•
•
•
•
•
•

Picturing America
Art at the Heart wiki
Posters to Go
Project Zero Visible ...
Questions and Comments

74
• The powerpoint and resources used for
this presentation will be posted at:
www.differentiatedcurriculum.wikispaces.com.
...
• Please feel free to contact us with
questions/suggestions you may have.
Susan Santoli:
ssantoli@southalabama.edu
Twitter...
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NCSS 2013 Differentiated Instruction: A Gateway to Success with the Common Core

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Workshop presented at 2013 NCSS conference in St. Louis. Web sites, activities, resources to involve all students in successfully meeting Common Core standards.

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NCSS 2013 Differentiated Instruction: A Gateway to Success with the Common Core

  1. 1. Differentiated Instruction: A Gateway to Success with the Common Core Dr. Susan Santoli Dr. Susan Martin University of South Alabama NCSS 2013 1
  2. 2. Differences Among Students • • • • Learning styles and preferences Readiness and skills Students for whom English is not their first language Students with special learning needs (per law) – Learning disabled – Emotionally disturbed – Speech impaired – Mentally retarded – Physically disabled – Gifted 2
  3. 3. Universal Design First used in architecture to describe buildings that were accessible to everyone and were designed that waypreplanned-not just added on 3
  4. 4. In education… • In education, goal is that instructional materials and activities allow learning objectives to be achievable by individuals with wide differences in learning styles, preferences, challenges. • Apply different instructional strategies so that diversity is not a hindrance to common learning. 4
  5. 5. Differentiated Instruction • Students have multiple options for taking in information and making sense of ideas. • Teachers adjust the curriculum, presentation of information and assessment to learners rather than asking learners to modify themselves for the curriculum. • Classroom teaching is a blend of wholeclass and individual instruction. 5
  6. 6. Elements of Differentiation Teacher adapts: –Content –Process –Product 6
  7. 7. According to Students’ • Readiness • Interest • Learning Profiles 7
  8. 8. What DI is: • Having a vision of success for students • Realizing that not all students learn the same way • Allowing students some choice in their routes to learning • Providing opportunities for students to demonstrate knowledge they know and move forward • Offering lessons of varying degrees of difficulty to meet the same standard • Combining whole class instruction with individual and/or group work 8
  9. 9. What DI is NOT: • A different lesson plan for each student each day • Assuming that all students learn by listening and writing • Assigning more work to students who have demonstrated mastery • Only for students who need acceleration • Giving all students the same work/assignments all of the time 9
  10. 10. Just imagine… • Shoe store…… • Dr.’s office…… 10
  11. 11. Common Core • Read closely • Compare and contrast • Analyze • Comprehend • Question • Summarize • • • • • • Source Information Perspective Make Connections Cause and effect Write effectively Determine Reliability 11
  12. 12. Increasing Reading Comprehension and Encouraging Close Reading 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. SQ& ID (Super question & ID) One pagers Cornell notes Primary Document Dissection Tool Noteworthy Resources 12
  13. 13. SQ&ID • SQ&IDs process 13
  14. 14. SQ&ID Extension • Explore the relationship between John Smith and two hardships of Jamestown. • Student response: John Smith experienced several hardships in Jamestown. Once the colonists disembarked in Jamestown, John Smith took charge, enforcing strict rule. In 16061607, Jamestown’s people died from malnutrition and starvation. The colonists were more concerned with finding gold, and they were unaccustomed to work. John Smith forced all colonists to work. If they did not work they did not eat. John was also subjected to a mock execution by Indian chief, Powhatan. His mock execution was meant to show peace between the Indians and the European settlers. Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas saved John from his ―execution‖. She then became an intermediary between the Indians and settlers. Although John Smith encountered several hardships in Jamestown, he persevered and helped make Jamestown a more prosperous 14 place.
  15. 15. One-Pagers • Excellent tool for making connections and synthesizing information • Use for summarizing and condensing info • Assign for textbook reading • Use Smart Art, One-Note, Word or paper and pencil • Summer reading assignment for AP class 15
  16. 16. Cornell Notes • Excellent tool when notes require more detailed content • Requires focus questions • Modeling… ―I do it…we do it…you do it.‖ Example 16
  17. 17. Primary Documents Dissection Tool • • • • • CONSTITUTION THE BEDROCK DOCUMENT DISSECTION Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to intensely dissect the nation’s bedrock document, the Constitution. The information you analyze and internalize will be used throughout this year, and hopefully, all your life. Remember! You must bear your portion of this democracy on your shoulders and substantial and comprehensive ingestion of this material is essential 17 for this task.
  18. 18. Primary Documents Dissection Tool • Install PDF Viewer, Adobe Acrobat Adobe Acrobat Pro or just use a hard copy • Answer the questions using highlighting and notes tools 18
  19. 19. Primary Documents Dissection Tool • Answer questions using highlighting and typewriter tool in the PDF Viewer – initial dissection after reading for homework • LD to AP • Independent - In class; smaller numbers of questions to highlight in one day • Regular – In class; two days with parts due at the end of each class • AP – at home - independently 19
  20. 20. Primary Documents Dissection Tool • Tie key components of Constitution to founding father philosophy and current events • Blue sticky – tie to founding father philosophy • Green sticky – tie to current events • Purple sticky – definition • Constitution PDF Example 20
  21. 21. Noteworthy Resources • Read/Write/Think: International Reading Association, NCTE, Thinkfinity • Reading Quest: Making Sense in Social Studies • Reading Like a Historian: Stanford, Historical Reading Skills and Inquiry 21
  22. 22. Questions and Comments 22
  23. 23. Next… Applying that reading knowledge through analysis, evaluation, synt hesis Think color! 23
  24. 24. Analysis, Evaluation, Synthesis (all ready for use) 1. Reading Like a Historian 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Historical Scenes Investigation Historical Thinking Matters The History Lab Beyond the Bubble Library of Congress National Archives and Records Administration 8. National American History Museum 9. Noteworthy Links 24
  25. 25. Reading Like a Historian: • Each lesson revolves around a central historical question and features sets of primary documents designed for groups of students with diverse reading skills and abilities. Japanese Segregation Example 25
  26. 26. Historical Scenes Investigation 26
  27. 27. When Elvis Met Nixon 27
  28. 28. Historical Thinking Matters STUDENT INVESTIGATIONS focuses on five central topics from the post-Civil War U.S. history curriculum. Each investigation includes: •An introductory movie framing a question of historical debate; •Ten historical sources; •Guided questioning that fosters historical thinking skills such as sourcing, contextualization, close reading, and corroboration; •Text annotations and audio and video clips that provide additional commentary; •An assignment that asks students to respond to the investigative question by drawing on their previous engagement with the sources; •Directed explorations of virtual archives. TEACHER MATERIALS offers instructors, pre-service teachers and teachereducators classroom materials and strategies, examples of student and teacher 28 work, and supplementary resources
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. The History Lab 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. Beyond the Bubble 32
  33. 33. Edison and the Kansas Housewife • Students read a letter to Thomas Edison, then with the addition of several extra facts, determine whether the writer was typical of Americans in the 1920s. 33
  34. 34. Additional facts related to Mrs. Lathrop’s letter: • 1. George Westinghouse invented the electric range, not Thomas Edison. • 2. Before the Rural Electrification Act of 1936, less than 10% of rural America had electricity. • 3. The 19th Amendment, which guaranteed women the right to vote, was passed only one year before this letter was written. • 4. At the time of Mrs. Lathrop’s letter, less than 5% of American women were college graduates. Question: Which 2 of the 4 facts above help you determine whether Mrs. Lathrop was typical or atypical of American women in the 1920s? Explain your reasoning. 34
  35. 35. Impossible to think about primary sources without: • Library of Congress – American Memory Lesson Plans • pdf – – – – – Primary Source Sets Themed Resources Teaching with Primary Sources journal Professional development videos Classroom video conferencing AND 35
  36. 36. • National Archives and Records Administration – Suggested Methods for Integrating PS into Classroom Instruction (pdf) – Digital Vaults-Build your own collection – 100 Milestone Documents of American History – Google Maps tours to ―visit the past‖ – Primary Source Analysis Worksheets – Docs Teach: Examples next page 36
  37. 37. AND… 37
  38. 38. • National Museum of American History (Smithsonian – Engaging Students with Primary Sources – Podcasts – Featured Artifact – Lesson Plans ALL SI museums have educator sites 38
  39. 39. Noteworthy Links • Internet History Sourcebook (all time periods and locations) • Avalon Project (world history) • EuroDocs (European History) • Digital Public Library of America • Navigating Primary Source Material on the Internet • Social Studies Central Primary Source 39 Links
  40. 40. Other Activities to Increase Writing Effectiveness 1. Persuasive Writing – RAFT – Colonial Advertising Pitch 2. Mechanics – PPT on nation building issue – Color coded sources 3. Options – Think-Tac-Toe 40
  41. 41. RAFT R—Role A—Audience F—Format T—Topic General SS examples Internment camp examples 41
  42. 42. Colonial Advertising Pitch 42
  43. 43. Color Coded Writing Rubric • Differentiate Structure of Essay 43
  44. 44. PPT on National Building: Aiding Students in Citing Sources TYPE OF SOURCE • • • • Textbook American History Database AVL Google open search 44
  45. 45. Lewis and Clark Expedition 45
  46. 46. Think Tac Toe Idea behind concept is to give students choices in products. Same concept as game-3 in a row. Can include writing and non-writing assignments. East Asia Think Tac Toe Presidential Think Tac Toe 46
  47. 47. Questions and Comments 47
  48. 48. Increasing the Ability to Analyze and Use Visual and Auditory Sources 1. Visual Literacy 2. Before, During and After 3. Other Ways to Use Art in Social Studies 4. ABC Books 5. Westward Expansion 6. Great Depression 48
  49. 49. 8. French Revolution You Tube 9. Hamilton Rap 10.Too Late to Apologize 49
  50. 50. What is visual literacy? • Research shows that visual literacy, ―a person’s ability to interpret and create visual information—to understand images of all kinds and use them to communicate more effectively,‖ is a successful strategy for all learners (Burmark, 2002, p. v). 50
  51. 51. Studies done by Lynn O’Brien of Specific Diagnostic Studies – ―students whose strongest learning channel is auditory comprise less than 15% of the population. On the other hand, students who comprise a visual learning style are about 40% of the population…kinesthetic students form around 45% of the population.‖ Dickinson, D. (2002). Learning through the arts. Seattle, WA: New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved from Http://www.newhorizons.org 51
  52. 52. Before, During and After • ~If this artwork is the beginning of a story, what might happen next? • ~If it this artwork is the middle of a story, what might have happened before? What might be about to happen? • ~If this artwork is the end of a story, what might the story be? • ~Use your imagination 52
  53. 53. Using Art to Inspire Writing in Social Studies • • • • • • • • • Look at a painting or poster, and then invent a history. Write something about how the artist was feeling when it was painted, why the curator purchased this painting, or something about the subject. Write about three works of art you would purchase if price were no object. This is the beginning of a personal art collection. Write about the choices. Give a title to a work of art. Write a conversation that might be taking place in the work of art. What sounds or smells do you detect in a work of art. Write a press release for the opening of an artists’ show. If the artist were in the room, what would you like to ask him/her? Students find several works of art that are based on a myth, historical event, or person, and then write about the events or people that inspired the works of art. Compare an artistic work to a historical account of the event. 53
  54. 54. ABC Books • Creation of ABC books offer good opportunity for collaboration and differentiationBased on British ABC for Baby Patriots promoting Imperialism • AP students create an entire book or…students assigned to work in groups • Books may be digital or hard copy • Options for rhyming, original art, multi-media 54
  55. 55. Westward Expansion-Visuals and Written Sources • Students are in pairs or threes • Each group receives a primary source which is numbered • Each group answers these basic questions regarding the source: • What are you viewing? • What message does it contain about western expansion in the 1800s? • At end of 5 minutes, each group passes its primary source to another group, receives another source and answers the same questions for the new source 55
  56. 56. Excerpts from letters and diaries 56
  57. 57. http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/homestead-act/images/ homesteading-family.gif 57
  58. 58. Library of Congress Call number Portfolio 134, Folder 13 58
  59. 59. John McCarthy, photographer. John Bakken Sod House, Milton, ND, c 1895. NDSU Institute for Regional Studies. Reproduction Number 120mm-0144 copy neg. 2029.061 59
  60. 60. http://www.loc.gov, ppmsca 09855 60
  61. 61. Follow-up • After all items are viewed, students are asked to complete the following questions: • What conflicting messages did you find? • Why do you think these occurred? • If you were summarizing, in one sentence, what westward expansion was like, what would you say? • Extend assignment by having students read the Homestead Act, examine homestead applications, design their own ad encouraging or discouraging settlers from moving west. 61
  62. 62. Great Depression Tiered Lesson Plan-Library of Congress (Visuals, Auditory, Text) http://web.archive.org/web/20070316174958/http://www.primarysourcelearning.org/ teach/best_practices/diff_instruct_bulletin_sec.pdf Standard for lesson plan: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the social, economic, and technological changes of the early twentieth century by identifying the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on Americans, and the major features of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New 62 Deal.
  63. 63. Same learning content, different process 63
  64. 64. Everyone will answer these questions: • Describe what you see in the photograph. Include as much detail as possible. • Compare and contrast your home to the home you see in the photograph. What is similar and what is different? In addition to the first two questions, student pairs will each receive one of the following questions based on academic readiness level. 64
  65. 65. Tier 1: If we could hear the people talking about their life, what would they be saying? Tier 2: From what you see in the photograph, explain how you think this room might be used by the family and why. Tier 3: Assess the Great Depression’s social and economic impact on this family from 65 the evidence in the photo.
  66. 66. Same content information, same analysis process, different PRODUCTS 66
  67. 67. Tier 1: Create a timeline of the Dust Bowl and Great Depression era. Include the following 10 events with accompanying visuals and written description. Tier 2: Create a scrapbook depicting the life of a child affected by the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. Include information about where the child lives, his/her family’s economic and social situation, recreation, education, and prospects for the future. Tier 3: In the role of a political candidate, create a persuasive speech proposing actions to address the concerns of the Dust Bowl farmers during the Great Depression. Incorporate information about the farmers’ economic, social and political problems and propose 67 how the government can and cannot assist them.
  68. 68. Same task, 3 different SOURCES OF INFORMATION Choose one of the following primary sources below. Examine both the information about the item and the item itself. Take notes of important details that will help you answer the following question: • WHAT WERE SOME OF THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL EFFECTS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION ON PEOPLE? 68
  69. 69. Dorothea Lange Photograph of the Migrant Mother, 1936 69
  70. 70. American Life Histories, Manuscript from the Federal Writer’s Project, North Carolina, 1938 Nina Boone-North Carolina 70
  71. 71. Mrs. Mary Sullivan-August, 1940 A Traveler’s Line This is a song written and sung by a woman who lived during the Depression. 71
  72. 72. Auditory Literacy • 21st Century options such as podcasts and You-Tube videos help students make authentic connections to historical events. • Student created videos are opportunities for collaboration and creativity • History Teachers video site • Lady Gaga…French Revolution (pdf) • Rock music tells the story (pdf) • Rap is everywhere…even the White House (pdf) 72
  73. 73. Noteworthy Art, Writing, SS Sites • • • • • • Picturing America Art at the Heart wiki Posters to Go Project Zero Visible Thinking site Learning to Look Seeing Art in a Historical Context 73
  74. 74. Questions and Comments 74
  75. 75. • The powerpoint and resources used for this presentation will be posted at: www.differentiatedcurriculum.wikispaces.com. On the left hand side, you’ll find a link to 2013 NCSS 75
  76. 76. • Please feel free to contact us with questions/suggestions you may have. Susan Santoli: ssantoli@southalabama.edu Twitter: @spsantoli Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/socialstudieseducation Susan Martin ferguson@southalabama.edu 76

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