Differentiated Instruction


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  • 1. No one can learn everything in every textbook. We forget more than we remember. It is crucial then, for teachers to articulate what is essential for learners to recall, understand, and be able to do in a given domain. In a differentiated classroom, the teacher fully fashions instruction around the essential concepts, principles and skills of each subject. Some of us are funny, some of us struggle with reading, some of us have bad tempers, some of us have eyes that don’t work as well as others, some are good at kicking a ball. We share the same basic needs for nourishment, shelter, safety, belonging, achievement, contribution and fulfillment, but we have lots of differences. In a differentiated classroom, the teacher accepts students as they are and expects them to be all that they can be. Assessment is ongoing and diagnostic. Goal is to provide day to day data on students readiness for particular ideas and skills, interests and learning profiles. Assessment doesn’t just come at the end of a unit to find out what students learned. Even when using formal assessment at the end of a unit or chapters, teachers seek varied means of assessments. The content is what the teachers want students to learn, process described the activities designed to ensure that students use key skills to make sense out of essential ideas and information. Products are the vehicles through which students demonstrate and extend what they’ve learned. Some students will need repeated experiences to master concepts and others master them swiftly; continually tries to understand what works with each child. Students can let teachers know when task are too hard or too easy, when learning is interesting and when it isn’t, when they need help and when they are ready to work alone. Some decisions will apply to the class as a whole; others will be specific to the individual.
  • 1. In many classes, a student is unsuccessful if he falls short of 9 th grade standards. That the student grew more than anyone in the room counts for little if he lags behind grade level expectations. Similarly, a child is expected to remain in 9 th grade even though she achieved those standards two years ago.When a student struggles, teachers has two goals: to accelerate the students skills and understanding as quickly as possible and to ensure that the students and parents are aware of the individual’s goals and growth. Same is true when a learner has advanced beyond grade-level expectations 2. Sometimes the teacher says who will work together, sometimes the students decide. Sometimes the teachers is the primary helper of students and sometimes the students help one another
  • Give example from the ACOS standards for WWII Stop here and divide students: develop 4 core concepts that will go through the entire course
  • Content—the material the student uses to gain knowledge The process-the method strategies used to gain knowledge/organize thoughts/ gain access to content The product—the way to demonstrate mastery
  • Academic Ability-based on pre-assessment on content knowledge Interest-based on interest surveys, student choice Readiness : student pacing based on readiness to work at a faster pace, more independently, based on past performance
  • Can be used to begin the day, when students complete an assignment, when students are stuck and waiting for help
  • Can differentiate virtually anything through agendas-materials subjects, topics within subjects, teacher support, pacing. Allow students to work on long term products in class where teacher can monitor and coach their planning, research, production. Can alwo allow for differentiation by readiness or student interest.
  • This is a summary of the similarities and differences between different tiers in a lesson.
  • Example
  • This would destroy the wholeness of the class. Instead, you select moments in the instructional sequence to differentiate based on formal or informal assessment. She selects a time in her teaching plans to differentiate by interest. She provides options that make it natural for students to work alone or for others to work together.
  • Differentiated Instruction

    1. 1. Many Different Needs, One Curriculum: Differentiating Instruction for Student Success SED 457
    2. 2. Not all students are alike! <ul><li>Varying background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Preferences in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>
    3. 3. Differentiated Instruction <ul><li>Students have multiple options for taking in information and making sense of ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers adjust the curriculum, presentation of information and assessment to learners rather than asking learners to modify themselves to the curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom teaching is a blend of whole- class and individual instruction. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Elements of Differentiation <ul><li>The teacher focuses on the essentials </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher attends to student differences </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment and instruction are inseparable </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher adapts content, process and/or products </li></ul><ul><li>All students participate in respectful work </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration between teacher and student </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>The teacher balances group and individual norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher and students work together flexibly. </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>All differentiation begins with assessment! </li></ul>
    7. 7. Assessment <ul><li>Assessment is today’s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Think of assessment for learning vs. assessment of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment should always have more to do with helping students grow, than cataloging their mistakes </li></ul>From Carol Ann Tomlinson
    8. 9. What Differentiated Instruction IS <ul><li>Having a vision of success for students </li></ul><ul><li>Realizing that not all students learn the same way </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing students some choice in their routes to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Providing opportunities for students to demonstrate knowledge they know and move forward </li></ul><ul><li>Offering lessons of varying degrees of difficulty to meet the same standard </li></ul><ul><li>Combining whole class instruction with individual and/or group work </li></ul>
    9. 10. What Differentiated Instruction IS NOT <ul><li>A different lesson plan for each student each day </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming that all students learn by listening and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning more work to students who have demonstrated mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Only for students who need acceleration or remediation </li></ul><ul><li>Giving all students the same work/assignments all of the time </li></ul>
    10. 11. The What… <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul>
    11. 12. The How… <ul><li>Readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Style </li></ul>
    12. 13. Content Process Product According to Students’ Readiness Interest Learning Profile Teachers Can Differentiate From the Access Center: Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999).
    13. 14. A Sample of Instructional Strategies that Support Differentiation <ul><li>Anchor Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Centers/Stations </li></ul><ul><li>Layered Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Tiered Lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Points </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Compacting </li></ul>
    14. 15. Anchor Activity <ul><li>Student activities that are designed to extend and review already learned skills </li></ul><ul><li>Self directed </li></ul><ul><li>Can free up classroom teacher to work with small groups or individual students </li></ul>
    15. 16. Examples of Anchor Activities <ul><li>Journals or learning logs </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementary readings </li></ul><ul><li>Learning packets </li></ul><ul><li>Learning/Interest Centers </li></ul><ul><li>Investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Research projects </li></ul><ul><li>Think-tac-toe (example to follow) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Contracts (example to follow) </li></ul><ul><li>Webquests or web activities </li></ul><ul><li>Silent reading </li></ul>
    16. 17. Using Anchor Activities to Create Groups Teach the whole class to work independently and quietly on the anchor activity. Half the class works on anchor activity. Other half works on a different activity. Flip-Flop 1/3 works on anchor activity. 1/3 works on a different activity. 1/3 works with teacher---direct instruction. 1 2 3 www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/curriculum/enriched/giftedprograms/docs/ anchor .ppt
    17. 18. Geography Anchor 6 th grade <ul><li>Students create an imaginary continent-can include country names, borders, capitals </li></ul><ul><li>Can add how various governments work, different cultures, laws, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can work on for whatever length of time the teacher chooses </li></ul><ul><li>Any time the students are finished with their work, the work on their anchor. </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><ul><li>Teacher creates an agenda that will last 2-3 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A particular time is set aside as agenda time (each day, each week) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students generally determine the order in which they’ll complete agenda items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This could also be a choice of projects or assignments </li></ul></ul>Agendas-personalized list of tasks that a student must complete in a specified time
    19. 20. Examples of Think Tac Toe Projects <ul><li>East Asia </li></ul><ul><li>2008 Presidential Election </li></ul>
    20. 21. Centers/Stations <ul><li>Spots for concentrated work on particular skills or assignments or or areas that students move through that contain different assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Holocaust Centers </li></ul>
    21. 22. Layered Curriculum <ul><li>Students have a variety of activities from which to choose </li></ul><ul><li>Choices are presented in layers, where each represents a different type of thinking or depth of understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Generally correlated to grades of A,B,C, </li></ul>
    22. 23. Layered Examples <ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Kathy Nunley site www.help4teachers.com/samples2.htm </li></ul>
    23. 24. Tiered Lessons <ul><li>Strategy that addresses a specific standard, concept or generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Allows several pathways for students to arrive at understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Can be tiered by interest, learning style or readiness </li></ul>
    24. 25. Tiered Lessons-Summary <ul><li>Things in common… </li></ul><ul><li>Same concept or skill </li></ul><ul><li>Whole class activity </li></ul><ul><li>Some activities in the lesson may be the same </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in… </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of structure </li></ul><ul><li>Number of facets </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Pace </li></ul><ul><li>Level of independence </li></ul><ul><li>All Tiers should… </li></ul><ul><li>Build understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge Students </li></ul><ul><li>Be interesting and engaging </li></ul><ul><li>Be respectful </li></ul>http://curriculum.leeschools.net/Summer/Preschool/PowerPoints/DI/World%20Languages.pp
    25. 26. <ul><li>Tiered Activities-used when a teacher wants to make sure that students with different learning needs work with the same essential ideas and use the same study skills </li></ul><ul><li>Examples from textbook resources </li></ul>
    26. 27. <ul><li>Great Depression Tiered Lesson Plan-Library of Congress </li></ul><ul><li>http://web.archive.org/web/20070316174958/http://www.primarysourcelearning.org/teach/best_practices/diff_instruct_bulletin_sec.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Standard for lesson plan: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the social, economic, and technological changes of the early twentieth century by identifying the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on Americans, and the major features of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal. </li></ul>
    27. 28. Same content information, different LEARNING PROCESS
    28. 29. <ul><li>Everyone will answer these questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what you see in the photograph. Include as much detail as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast your home to the home you see in the photograph. What is similar and what is different? </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the first two questions, student pairs will each receive one of the following questions based on academic readiness level. </li></ul>
    29. 30. <ul><li>Tier 1: If we could hear the people talking about their life, what would they be saying? </li></ul><ul><li>Tier 2: From what you see in the photograph, explain how you think this room might be used by the family and why. </li></ul><ul><li>Tier 3: Assess the Great Depression’s social and economic impact on this family from the evidence in the photo. </li></ul>
    30. 31. Same content information, same analysis process, different PRODUCTS
    31. 32. <ul><li>Tier 1: Create a timeline of the Dust Bowl and Great Depression era. Include the following 10 events with accompanying visuals and written description. </li></ul><ul><li>Tier 2: Create a scrapbook depicting the life of a child affected by the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. Include information about where the child lives, his/her family’s economic and social situation, recreation, education, and prospects for the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Tier 3: In the role of a political candidate, create a persuasive speech proposing actions to address the concerns of the Dust Bowl farmers during the Great Depression. Incorporate information about the farmers’ economic, social and political problems and propose how the government can and cannot assist them. Support your plan with evidence from both primary and secondary sources. </li></ul>
    32. 33. Same task, 3 different SOURCES OF INFORMATION Choose one of the primary sources below. Examine both the information about the item and the item itself. Take notes of important details that will help you answer the following question: WHAT WERE SOME OF THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL EFFECTS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION ON PEOPLE?
    33. 34. Tier 1: Dorothea Lange Photograph of the Migrant Mother, 1936
    34. 35. Tier 2: Mrs. Mary Sullivan-August, 1940 A Traveler’s Line
    35. 36. Tier 3: American Life Histories, Manuscript from the Federal Writer’s Project, North Carolina, 1938 Nina Boone-North Carolina
    36. 37. <ul><li>Entry points-based on Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin topic with overview for whole class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow students to select entry points for investigation </li></ul></ul>
    37. 38. Entry Points <ul><li>Middle Ages example – Based on interest or student profiles </li></ul>
    38. 39. Academic/Learning Contracts Grapes of Wrath Environment <ul><li>Written agreements between students and teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What students will learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they will learn it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time period for learning experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they will be evaluated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually opportunity for student choice </li></ul>
    39. 40. Compacting <ul><li>Requires pre-assessment before beginning unit of study or development of a skill </li></ul><ul><li>Students who do well on the pre-assessment should not have to continue work on what they already know </li></ul><ul><li>A plan for meaningful and challenging use of student time will be developed </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be used in giving homework assignments </li></ul>
    40. 41. http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/curriculum/enriched/giftedprograms/docs/ppts/compactingfixed.ppt
    41. 42. <ul><li>General Compacting Example </li></ul><ul><li>The Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Thinkquest- www.thinkquest.org </li></ul><ul><li>Webquest- www.webquest.org </li></ul>Compacting Examples
    42. 43. Additional points to consider for ELLs: <ul><li>What vocabulary will be difficult? </li></ul><ul><li>What connection can I make to prior knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>What strategies does my ELL need to develop? </li></ul><ul><li>What assessment will realistically test the knowledge of my ELL without penalizing his level of learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly defined and written objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Organizers, outlines, labels, pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementary materials </li></ul><ul><li>Make it relevant. </li></ul><ul><li>Links to past experience and potential experience </li></ul><ul><li>Pacing & Student Engagement </li></ul>
    43. 44. There are 4 Language Domains <ul><li>Listening- process, understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken language in a variety of situations </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking - engage in oral communication in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and audiences </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Reading- process, interpret, and evaluate written language, symbols, and text with understanding and fluency </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Writing - engage in written communication in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences </li></ul>
    44. 45. Language Development & Lesson Planning <ul><li>If you can differentiate instruction you can make accommodations for ELLs. In fact, many of the accommodations made for ELLs are helpful for other students in the classroom as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the Dust accommodated and differentiated </li></ul>
    45. 46. Getting Started…. <ul><li>Start small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with your favorite unit/lesson plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin by teaching all students an anchor activity-meaningful work done individually and silently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early on, you may want to ask some students to work with anchor activity and others to work on a different task which also requires no conversation or collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try a differentiated tasks for only a small block of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow slowly, but grow </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. <ul><ul><li>Assess students before you begin to teach a skill or topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try creating one differentiated lesson per unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiate one product per semester </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find multiple resources for a couple of key parts of your curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give students more choices about how to work, how to express learning or which homework assignments to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and use a two day learning contract, then a 4 day, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    47. 48. <ul><li>You cannot differentiate everything for everyone every day! </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation is an organized yet flexible way of proactively adjusting teaching and learning to meet kids where they are and help them to achieve maximum growth as learners. </li></ul>
    48. 49. References and Resources <ul><li>Our references and resources are listed on the handout and are also posted on our wiki: www.differentiated-curriculum.wikispaces.com </li></ul>
    49. 50. Contact Information <ul><li>Dr. Susan Santoli [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Susan Ferguson [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>University of South Alabama </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Leadership and Teacher Educ. </li></ul><ul><li>UCOM 3107 </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile, AL 36688-0002 </li></ul>