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Mtn Types[1]

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Mtn Types[1]

  1. 1. WHAT IS OROGENY? Processes of mtn building <ul><li>Deformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folding and thrust-faulting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metamorphism </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusions: batholiths, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic Activity </li></ul>
  2. 2. TYPES OF MOUNTAINS <ul><li>Volcanic: Shield and composite </li></ul><ul><li>Fault-block: normal faulting and tension </li></ul><ul><li>Folded: reverse faults and compression </li></ul><ul><li>Complex: mixture of most of the above </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mauna Kea Shield volcano Hot Spot Basalt Mauna Loa in Background Kilaeua is Behind Mauna Loa
  4. 4. Kilaeua Newest ground in The world Asthenosphere coming To the surface
  5. 5. Composite Volcano Mt Rainier Compressive forces Subduction zones Andesitic composition
  6. 6. Guagua Pichincha, Ecuador Quito in foreground Composite volcanoes explosive
  7. 7. Normal fault Footwall moves Up relative to Hanging wall Tension forces FOOTWALL HANGING WALL
  8. 8. Tilted fault-block range: Sierra Nevada from east, Steep side of block fault; Ansel Adams photo
  9. 9. Tilted Fault-block Sierra Nevada from west Side, low angle Yosemite valley the result Of glaciation on low-angle relief
  10. 10. Wasatch Range From Salt Lake City Typically fault- Block system
  11. 11. Grand Tetons: Another fault-block system
  12. 12. Alternating normal faults lead to a characteristic pattern called a Horst and Graben system. An area under tension will often have Multiple mountain ranges as a result.
  13. 13. Basin and range province: tilted fault-block mountains in Nevada. The results of a horst and graben system. Nevada is under tension Because of rising magma which is unzipping the system, all the way From Baja California Sierra Nevada and Wasatch Ranges part of this system
  14. 14. REVERSE FAULTS: Hanging wall moves up relative to footwall Result of compression: plates colliding Two types: low-angle or thrust faults, and high-angle reverse faults Individual layers can move 100’s of kilometers Alps are a great example
  15. 15. Thrust faults main cause Of folded mountains
  16. 16. Appalachian Mountains of the US
  17. 17. Atlas Mountains, Northern Africa
  18. 18. Classic folded terrain: well-developed anticline
  19. 19. ZAGROS MTS PERSIAN GULF Alternating Anticlines and Synclines
  20. 20. High-angle reverse faults Forms “Sawtooth Mtns” Flatirons classic example Sawtooth effect result of Differential erosion
  21. 21. White Cloud peak SAWTOOTH RANGE, IDAHO Alice Lake
  22. 22. COMPLEX MOUNTAINS Tend to have a little of Everything: volcanoes, Folds, thrust faults, normal faults ALPS HIMALAYAS

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