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Sustainabel use of Baltic Sea natural resources
  based on ecological engineering and biogas
production - a good exampel o...
Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
• Eutrophication – the most serious
  environmental problem of the Baltic Sea

• Action plan by the Helsinki Comission
  (...
Sustainable use of Baltic sea biomass resources based on ecological retrieval of biomass (reed and algae)
for production o...
Objectives of the study
• Compare the efficiency of reed and macro
  algae harvesting and mussel farming with
  respect to...
Rivers
                            706 000 tons/y
                              Agriculture
                              ...
Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
Figure 1: Nodularia spumigena
                         (Helcom, 2004)




      dw 16 - OP             dw 16 - N          ...
Forming fabric


                                        Figure 7: Forming fabric is
Figure 6: Outline of an oil boom with...
Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
Reed
• Grows as large
  monospecific stands
  along the Baltic coast
  of Sweden
• Swedish total reed
  area: 100 000 ha
•...
Aquatic Plant Harvester RS 2000

• Floating device with front
  conveyors
• Makes harvest of water
  plants possible (i.e....
Algae
• Heavy algal blooms and growth
  due to surplus of nutrients, and
  internal distribution of N and P.
• Harvestable...
Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
Mussels
•   Grow on hard substrates down to
    dephts of 30 m, prefers salinity
    above 18 PSU.

•   Reduced growth rat...
Long line mussel farming

• Rope wires are held up by
  floating barrels

• Mussel lines are hanged from the
  rope wires
...
Photo; Pia & Karl Norling
Kalmarsund, 14 month




The biomass after 1 year was 4 kg m-1
or 16 kg for a long line.

                        Fredrik ...
Fritt val av foder




Kokt musselkött         Vanligt foder
Kompostering av musslor
Biogas
• Biogas is formed when volatile solids are broken down anaerobically by
  methane forming microorganisms.

• Bioga...
System boundaries




   Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
Nutrient removal efficiency
• Comparison of nutrient
  contents of the three
  biomasses, based on living
  weight
• Nitro...
2500
En erg y co n ten t [M J/to n n e w w ]
                                          2000


                            ...
Energy demands
                               600
Energy demands [MJ/tonne ww]
                               500

       ...
Energy balance

                                  6.E+05
Net energy benefit [MJ/tonne N]
                                 ...
Conclusions
• Reed has the highest net energy benefit,
  followed by macro algae.
• Blue mussels are not suitable for biog...
Advantage with Biomanupulation and the
                production of Biogas
• Biogas means less CO2 and is thus an importa...
Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production - a good example on ...
Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production - a good example on ...
Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production - a good example on ...
Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production - a good example on ...
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Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production - a good example on land and water management

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AACIMP 2010 Summer School lecture by Fredrik Gröndahl. "Sustainable Development" stream. "Sustainable Use of Baltic Marine Resources and the Production of Biogas" course.
More info at http://summerschool.ssa.org.ua

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Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production - a good example on land and water management

  1. 1. Sustainabel use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production - a good exampel on land and water management Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Fredrik Gröndahl (fgro@kth.se) Industrial Ecology KTH, Stockholm, Sweden Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  2. 2. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  3. 3. • Eutrophication – the most serious environmental problem of the Baltic Sea • Action plan by the Helsinki Comission (HELCOM) – 21 000 tonnes N, 290 tonnes P – Good ecological status 2021 Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  4. 4. Sustainable use of Baltic sea biomass resources based on ecological retrieval of biomass (reed and algae) for production of energy and new innovative products (including fertilizers) with an associated waste stream. Blue squares indicate technology dependent processes and the yellow clouds shows the sustainability and feasibility aspects. Gröndahl et. al. 2008 Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  5. 5. Objectives of the study • Compare the efficiency of reed and macro algae harvesting and mussel farming with respect to nutrient removal from the Baltic Sea. • Provide and compare energy budgets for the full process chain from harvesting of biomass to biogas production for reed, macro algae and mussels. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  6. 6. Rivers 706 000 tons/y Agriculture Traffic Atmospheric N-Fixation by deposit Cyanobacteria 264 000 tons/y 400 000 tons/y Baltic Sea Traffic 909 000 tons/y Sediments and Biomass Point Sources Loss 39 000 tons/y Denitriphication Waste water 500 000 tons/y treatment
  7. 7. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  8. 8. Figure 1: Nodularia spumigena (Helcom, 2004) dw 16 - OP dw 16 - N dw 22 - GPT dw 19 - N dw 20 - OPB Figure 11: The forming fabrics after being pulled through algal rich water
  9. 9. Forming fabric Figure 7: Forming fabric is Figure 6: Outline of an oil boom with attached to the oil boom skirt forming fabric attached
  10. 10. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  11. 11. Reed • Grows as large monospecific stands along the Baltic coast of Sweden • Swedish total reed area: 100 000 ha • Biomass above ground in the middle, and south of Sweden in august: 1 kg dw/m2 Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  12. 12. Aquatic Plant Harvester RS 2000 • Floating device with front conveyors • Makes harvest of water plants possible (i.e. both algae and reed) Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  13. 13. Algae • Heavy algal blooms and growth due to surplus of nutrients, and internal distribution of N and P. • Harvestable amount of algae along the South coast of Sweden: 43 000 tonnes dry weight • Collection take place in the water (within an area 100 m from the coastline) • Assumptions of quantities per hectare is based on the present collection performed by the municipality of Trelleborg Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  14. 14. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  15. 15. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  16. 16. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  17. 17. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  18. 18. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  19. 19. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  20. 20. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  21. 21. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  22. 22. Mussels • Grow on hard substrates down to dephts of 30 m, prefers salinity above 18 PSU. • Reduced growth rate, and size compared to the North Sea (3 cm in Baltic Sea). • Dominate the Baltic Sea – 90 % of the animal biomass growing on hard bottoms • Clean water – Filter feeding through their gills – Feed on phytoplankton – Filtration rate: 1-4 liters per hour Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  23. 23. Long line mussel farming • Rope wires are held up by floating barrels • Mussel lines are hanged from the rope wires • The larvae settle on the mussel rigs from where they feed on foodstuffs that naturally exists in the surrounding water. • The mussels are harvested through scraping the mussels off the lines by a machine Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  24. 24. Photo; Pia & Karl Norling
  25. 25. Kalmarsund, 14 month The biomass after 1 year was 4 kg m-1 or 16 kg for a long line. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  26. 26. Fritt val av foder Kokt musselkött Vanligt foder
  27. 27. Kompostering av musslor
  28. 28. Biogas • Biogas is formed when volatile solids are broken down anaerobically by methane forming microorganisms. • Biogas mainly consists of methane (50-60 volume-%) and CO2 (25-40 volume-%) (hydrogen gas, sulphur-hydrogen, and steam) • Formation occurs in four steps – Methane formation • Sensitive step • High concentration of ammonia, phosphorus, potassium, heavy metals, sulphur and certain fatty acids can restrain the sensitive methane forming bacteria • Different factors have influence on the biogas production, such as temperature and technique of the biogas production process, pre- treatment of the substrate and chemical composition of the substrate Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  29. 29. System boundaries Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  30. 30. Nutrient removal efficiency • Comparison of nutrient contents of the three biomasses, based on living weight • Nitrogen content of mussels > 3 times higher • Phosphorus content of mussels > 2 times higher • Harvest of mussels is most efficient according to nutrient removal Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  31. 31. 2500 En erg y co n ten t [M J/to n n e w w ] 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Algae Reed Mussels Sludge Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  32. 32. Energy demands 600 Energy demands [MJ/tonne ww] 500 400 300 200 100 0 Algae Reed Mussels Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  33. 33. Energy balance 6.E+05 Net energy benefit [MJ/tonne N] 5.E+05 4.E+05 3.E+05 2.E+05 1.E+05 0.E+00 Algae Reed Mussels Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  34. 34. Conclusions • Reed has the highest net energy benefit, followed by macro algae. • Blue mussels are not suitable for biogas production, but are better than reed or algae when the ambition is to remove nitrogen or phosphorus from the Baltic Sea. • Biogas production from reed and macro algae may be important in the future but need further investigations. Fredrik Gröndahl, Industrial Ecology, KTH
  35. 35. Advantage with Biomanupulation and the production of Biogas • Biogas means less CO2 and is thus an important contributor to decreasing climate change. • The establishment of wetlands will stimulate biological diversity in the region and will deal with the nutrient load from surrounding farm land. • Harvesting of the reed belt will remove the nutrients from the wetland area. • Harvesting of macro algae will remove nutrients and heavy metals from the Baltic Sea and improve local beaches for recreation purposes. • The removal of Cyanobacteria will remove nutrients from the Baltic Sea, but perhaps the most important contribution is that it will improve recreational value in the region. • When the shallow coastal waters are cleansed from oxygen-depleting, decaying accumulated macro algae, large areas will again become available to sustain the growth of juvenile fish.

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