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Study of the Antimatter at Large Hadron Collider


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AACIMP 2009 Summer School lecture by Valery Pugatch.

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Study of the Antimatter at Large Hadron Collider

  1. 1. STUDY OF THE ANTIMATTER AT LARGE HADRON COLLIDER. <ul><li>Valery PUGATCH </li></ul><ul><li>Institute for Nuclear Research </li></ul><ul><li>National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine </li></ul><ul><li>15 . 08 . 200 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Kiev </li></ul>
  2. 2. Content of the lecture <ul><li>What is ANTIMATTER ? </li></ul><ul><li>How ANTIMATTER is studied ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is CERN ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is LHC at CERN? </li></ul><ul><li>Status and Prospective of the Antimatter studies </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding remarks </li></ul>
  3. 3. Universe: Creation and Evolution
  4. 4. Universe: Creation and Evolution E = mc 2 MATTER = ANTI-MATTER
  5. 5. The History of Antimatter (by Rosy Mondardini) <ul><li>The history of antimatter begins in 1928 with a young physicist Paul Dirac and a strange mathematical equation... </li></ul><ul><li>The equation predicted the existence of an antiworld identical to ours but made out of antimatter . </li></ul><ul><li>From 1930, the search for the possible constituents of antimatter, antiparticles , began … </li></ul>
  6. 6. N ew Universe M ade out of A ntimatter <ul><li>In 1928 , Paul Dirac ’s equation ( quantum theory and special relativity ) , for electron could have two solutions, one for an electron with positive energy , and one for an electron with negative energy . </li></ul><ul><li>T he energy of a particle must always be a positive number ! - Dirac interpreted the result that every particle has a corresponding antiparticle , exactly matching the particle but with opposite charge. </li></ul><ul><li>In his Nobel Lecture (1933) , Dirac speculated on the existence of a completely new Universe made out of antimatter ! </li></ul>
  7. 7. From 1930, the hunt for the mysterious antiparticles began... <ul><li>In 1932 Carl Anderson , a young professor at the California Institute of Technology stud ied cosmic particles and found a track left by &quot;something positively charged, and with the same mass as an electron&quot; . </li></ul><ul><li>H e decided the tracks were antielectrons . He called the antielectron a &quot; positron &quot;, for its positive charge ( Nobel Prize , 1936 ) and proved the existence of antiparticles as predicted by Dirac. </li></ul><ul><li>T he anti - proton was discovered 22 years later ... </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  8. 8. Matter and anti-matter particles are produced in the interaction of particles with matter     and    particles having the same mass, spin… but Opposite electric charge opposite curvature in a magnetic field For instance:
  9. 9. Matter-Antimatter in Universe
  10. 10. The U niverse and the P articles after Big Bang … <ul><li>S mall difference between matter and antimatter was first observed in 1964 in an experiment with K-mesons for which Cronin and Fitch were awarded the 1980 Nobel Prize </li></ul><ul><li>I ts connection to the existence of matter in the universe was realized in 1967 by academician Andrei Sakharov . Physicists call this difference CP violation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Matter- Antimatter in Universe
  12. 12. Matter-Antimatter in Universe
  13. 13. Fundamental particles of the Standard Model LEPTONS QUARKS
  14. 14. The elementary particles of the Standard Model <ul><li>All tests of the SM have been successful up to now ! Yet: </li></ul><ul><li>Why 3 families ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why several interactions with very different intensities ? </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of the particles mass (ad-hoc Higgs boson) ? </li></ul><ul><li>Mass hierarchy ? </li></ul><ul><li>The neutrinos masses , m   0 ? </li></ul>W ± , Z 0 (weak) g : gluon (strong) <ul><li> (electromagnetic) </li></ul>matter : (building blocks - fermions): 3 families interactions : gauge bosons NB : the gravitational force is extremely weak in the particles world  not discussed here + antiparticles Charged leptons quarks
  15. 15. Properties of building blocks , forces and underlying dynamics can be described by rotation and/or translation symmetries in four-dimensional real space ( t , x , y , z ) or some “internal” space
  16. 16. Fundamental interactions.
  17. 17. СРТ theorem : Antiparticles and their interactions are indistinguishable from particles moving along the same world-lines but in opposite directions in 3+1 dimensional space-time. The SM strictly conserves CPT . There are no however any theoretical reason why C , P and T should conserve separately. In particular, the mass of any particle is strictly equal to the mass of its antiparticle (experimentally checked in 1 part to 10 18 in K-meson studies). Fundamental interactions and some Rules
  18. 18. Baryogenesis <ul><li>Big Bang (~ 14 billion years ago) -> matter and antimatter equally produced; followed by annihilation -> n baryon /n g ~ 10 -10 Why didn’t all the matter annihilate ? </li></ul><ul><li>No evidence found for an “antimatter world” elsewhere in the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>One of the requirements to produce an asymmetric final state from a symmetric matter/antimatter initial state : CP symmetry must be violated [Sakharov, 1967] </li></ul><ul><li>CP is violated in the Standard Model, through the weak mixing of quarks For CP violation to occur there must be at least 3 generations of quarks So problem of baryogenesis may be connected to why three generations exist, even though all normal matter is made up from the first (u, d, e,  e ) </li></ul><ul><li>However, the CP violation in the SM is not sufficient for baryogenesis Other sources of CP violation expected -> good field to search for new physics </li></ul>
  19. 19. CP Violation We know examples which show matter world  anti-matter world. CP symmetry is violated !!
  20. 20. Evolution of Universe CP violation big bang matter anti-matter amount of matter = amount of anti-matter our universe only with matter
  21. 21. CPLEAR Experiment (1999) neutral kaon decay time distribution anti-neutral kaon decay time distribution CP violation 
  22. 22. Problem!! CP violation in the kaon decays can be explained by the Standard Model. CP violation in the universe cannot be explained by the Standard Model. LHCb experiment will look for CP violation beyond the Standard Model in the particle world using B (beauty) -mesons . 
  23. 23. Beauty (B) Physics BaBar , Belle , LHCb … experiments
  24. 24. LHCb – BEAUTY experiment at CERN <ul><li>What is BEAUTY ? </li></ul><ul><li>BEAUTY – Oscar Wilde, “The picture of Dorian Gray” - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… Wonder of wonders … a form of Genius – is higher, indeed, than Genius, as it needs no explanation.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B (Beauty)- mesons are composed </li></ul><ul><li>out of b-quark and one of the </li></ul><ul><li>other quarks: b-, u-, d-, c-, s : </li></ul><ul><li>~ 5 times heavier than proton </li></ul><ul><li>time of life ~10 -12 s </li></ul>, …
  25. 25. B Decays (Feynman diagrams) <ul><li>Dominant decays </li></ul><ul><li>Rare hadronic decays </li></ul><ul><li>Radiative and leptonic decays </li></ul>Semi-leptonic Hadronic Internal spectator Gluonic penguin W-exchange Radiative penguin Electroweak penguin Electroweak box Annihilation /83
  26. 26. The Standard Model <ul><li>Physical quark states in the Standard Model </li></ul><ul><li>Lagrangian for charged current weak decays </li></ul><ul><li>where </li></ul>/83
  27. 27. CP Violation in the Standard Model <ul><li>Requirements for CP violation </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>where </li></ul><ul><li>Using parameterizations </li></ul>/83 CP violation is small in the Standard Model
  28. 28. CKM (Cabibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa) Matrix Anti-quarks V ij proportional to transition amplitude from quark j to quark i weak states CKM matrix mass states /83 Quarks VCKM describes rotation between the weak eigenstates (d ' ,s ' ,b ' ) and mass eigenstates (d,s,b)
  29. 29. Role of Heavy Flavour Physics 2008 /83 Kobayashi - Maskawa
  30. 30. Wolfenstein Parameterization <ul><li>Wolfenstein parameterization (perturbative form) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects hierarchy of strengths of quark transitions </li></ul>Charge -1/3 Charge +2/3 d s b u c t O(1) O(  ) O(  2 ) O(  3 ) /83
  31. 31. The Unitarity triangle 0 1 Im    Re 0  +    Im Re   : B d mixing phase  : B s mixing phase  : weak decay phase Precise determination of parameters through B-decays study.
  32. 32. e + e -   (4S)  B 0 anti-B 0
  33. 33. CP-violation has been measured by experiments BaBar and BELLE at the B factories <ul><li>These are experiments (in the US and Japan) running on the  (4S) resonance: e + e -   (4S)  B 0 B 0 or B + B - </li></ul><ul><li>The CP asymmetry </li></ul><ul><li>A(t) = {N(B 0  J/ Ψ K S ) - N(B 0  J/ Ψ K S )} / </li></ul><ul><li>{N(B 0  J/ Ψ K S ) + N(B 0  J/ Ψ K S )} </li></ul><ul><li>A(t) = - sin 2 β sin Δ m t in the Standard Model </li></ul><ul><li>BABAR + BELLE measure sin 2 β = 0.674 ± 0.026 (see next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>This can be compared with the indirect measurement from other constraints on the Unitarity Triangle </li></ul>
  34. 34. Summary of the Angles 15/6/2009 CERN/FNAL Summer School /83
  35. 35. V. Gibson
  36. 36. 3 Types of CP Violation <ul><li>CP violation if </li></ul>CPV in Mixing Indirect CP Violation Direct CP Violation CPV in Decay CPV in Interference between mixing and decay Indirect CP Violation Golden case: CP final state and single dominating amplitude /83
  37. 37. Two types of experiments at accelerators Fixed Target : В експериментах з фіксованою мішенню продукти взаємодії летять переважно вперед. Тому детектор має вигляд конуса-піраміди і розташовується в напрямку бомбардуючого пучку («форвардний спектрометр») Colliding Beams : В колайдерному експерименті продукти летять в усіх напрямках, тому детектор має вигляд циліндра.
  38. 38. Colliders … HERA at DESY 320 GeV ep 1992 – 2007 Tevatron at Fermilab 2 TeV pp-bar 1985 – 2009 International Linear Collider ~0.5 TeV e + e - collider extending LHC discovery reach LHC at CERN 14 TeV pp collider from 2008
  39. 39. The LHC machine at CERN pp collisions at √s = 14 TeV in a 27km ring
  40. 40. The European Organization for Nuclear Research - CERN <ul><li>T he world's largest particle physics laboratory , suburbs of Geneva on the Franco - Swiss border, established in 1954 . </li></ul><ul><li>The organization has twenty European member states </li></ul><ul><li>CERN's main function - high-energy physics research. </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN by international collaborations </li></ul>
  41. 41. CERN - European laboratory for particle physics ~ 2,600 full-time employees and ~8000 scientists and engineers (representing 580 universities and research facilities and 80 nationalities). Member states' contributions to CERN for the year 2008 totalled CHF 1 billion (approximately € 664 million).
  42. 42. Україна в ЦЕРНі <ul><li>Національна Академія Наук України </li></ul><ul><li>(офіційна Угода про співробітництво з ЦЕРН - 1993 р.) </li></ul><ul><li>ННЦ ХФТІ (м. Харків)- CMS, LHCb, ALICE </li></ul><ul><li>НТК Інститут монокристалів (м. Харків) – CMS, ALICE </li></ul><ul><li>Н . д. Технологічний Інститут Приладобудування (м. Харків) - ALICE </li></ul><ul><li>Інститут Теоретичної Фізики (м. Київ) - ALICE </li></ul><ul><li>Інститут Ядерних Досліджень (м. Київ) – LHCb, (ATLAS, MEDIPIX) </li></ul><ul><li>Інститут Прикладної Фізики (м. Суми) – ILC, (MEDIPIX) </li></ul><ul><li>Київський Національний Університет ім. Тараса Шевченка - (LHCb) </li></ul><ul><li>Харківський Національний Університет ім. В.Н. Каразіна - CMS </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul>
  43. 44. Energy of a proton in the beam = 7 TeV = 10 -6 J Question: why not to use mosquitos in particle physics? Answer: because N Avogadro = 6.022  10 23 (mol) -1 Energy of a mosquito is distributed among ~ 10 22 nucleons. On the other hand, total energy stored in each beam is 2808 bunches  10 11 protons/bunch  7 TeV/proton = 360 MJ It is explosive energy of ~ 100 kg TNT or kinetic energy of “Admiral Kuznetsov” cruiser traveling at 8 knots. It is about kinetic energy of a flying mosquito:
  44. 45. ATLAS, CMS
  45. 46. ATLAS - 4 π detector at the LHC
  46. 47. Central view of ATLAS detector with eight toroids around the calorimeter before moving it in the middle of the detector
  47. 48. The Higgs search P.W. Higgs, Phys. Lett. 12 (1964) 132 The Higgs boson is the cornerstone of the Standard Model … and still to be discovered !
  48. 49. Бозони Хіггса
  49. 50. New Physics
  50. 51. Supersymmetry
  51. 52. Properties of hadronic/nuclear matter at high temperature/density <-> Quark Gluon Plasma in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions ALICE : A Large Ion Collider Experiment Heavy Ions (Pb82+) ~ 1 month/year, from 2009 onwards pp for reference Pb-Pb at √s NN = 5.5 TeV Study the state of matter as it was soon after the Big Bang, <10 -5 s
  52. 53. Primary goal of LHCb – BEAUTY experiment at CERN To understand better the origin of CP violation. Possibly discovering new physics beyond the Standard Model.
  53. 54. Mechanism of CP Violation CP transformation contains complex conjugation: e  iH t  e iH*t i.e. H *  H  CP violation W q q  complex coupling constant Standard Model X q q  complex coupling constant New Physics
  54. 55. LHCb event seen by the vertex detector
  55. 56. LHCb експеримент в ЦЕРНі Tracking system VELO Trigger Tracker Inner/Outer Tracker Particle ID RICH1 and RICH2 Calorimeters Muon system Kinematics Magnet + Trackers Calorimeters Vertex Reconstruction VELO p p 250 mrad 10 mrad
  56. 57. LHCb Yoke RICH-1 Vertex Shielding plate Tracker Calorimeters Muon RICH-2 Coil The LHCb Experiment Netherlands Brazil France Germany Italy PRC Romania Spain Switzerland Ukraine UK USA Poland Russia Finland
  57. 58. b u,c,t u,c,t b W + W − V* ib V is V is V* ib Q vertex B s B D l - K – K - B-production B-decay L~1cm b d W − Bs c s s u Ds π u u b b s s Bs K - hadronisation decay mixing D-decay s s LHCb event
  58. 59. VErtex LOcator <ul><li>21 stations in vacuum tank </li></ul><ul><li>R/ φ sensors </li></ul><ul><li>~180k R-O channels </li></ul><ul><li>PVx position resolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>x,y: ~ 8 μ m </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> z: ~ 44 μ m </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IP precision: ~ 30 μ m </li></ul>Si sensor R-O chip VELO Sensors sensitive area 8mm from beam line (30 mm during injection) 1 m hybrid LHCb експеримент в ЦЕРНі
  59. 63. New Physics – Beyond the Standard Model
  60. 64. Institutes involved in the LHCb Silicon Tracker : Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg LPHE, EPFL Lausanne KINR , Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk Universidade de Santiago de Compostela Physik-Institut der Universität Zürich
  61. 65. Physics needs techniques for observations … Перші мікро-стріпові детектори з України на тестовому пучкові в ЦЕРН
  62. 66. KINR student – assisting mounting of microstrip detectors at CERN …
  63. 68. Radiation hard ASIC chip BEETLE - 128 channel (50 μ m pitch) charge sensitive preamplifier. Ultrasonic bonding via pitch adapter to microstrip detector.
  64. 69. Data flow at the LHCb
  65. 71. <ul><li>MMD applications </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-beam Profile Monitoring for Particles and Synchrotron Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Detectors at the focal plane of mass-spectrometers </li></ul><ul><li>and electron microscopes </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging sensors for X-ray and charged particle applications </li></ul><ul><li>Precise dose distribution measurements for micro-biology, medicine (mammography, dental treatment, hadron-therapy) etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial applications: micro-metallurgy, micro-electronics, etc. </li></ul>Metal Microstrip-Detectors Photo of ММ D -1024. 1024 Ni strips: 1.5 µм thick , 40 µм wide, 60 µм pitch <ul><li>Advantages of the MMD: </li></ul><ul><li>High Radiation tolerance (10-100 MGy) </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly transparent sensor – 1 μm thickness- </li></ul><ul><li>the thinnest detector ever made </li></ul><ul><li>for the particles registration </li></ul><ul><li>Low operation voltage (20 V) </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect spatial resolution (5 – 25 μm) </li></ul><ul><li>Unique, well advanced production technology </li></ul><ul><li>Commercially available readout hardware </li></ul><ul><li>and software. </li></ul>Institute of Applied Physics (NASU), Institute of Microdevices (NASU), Institute for Nuclear Research (NASU)
  66. 72. MEDIPIX в фокальній площині лазерного мас-спектрометра. Інститут Прикладної Фізики НАН України, м. Суми Ужгород, 17-18 травня 2007
  67. 73. Example of the mass-spectra measured in Sumi by TIMEPIX in a focal plane of the laser mass-spectrometer. <ul><li>Two dimensional presentation of the data accumulated in a different time slots allowed to identify problems in the mass-spectrometer performance (alignment, focusing, stability of electric and magnetic fields etc.,). That means that TIMEPIX may become a powerful tool in a feedback system for fine tuning of mass-spectrometer and similar devices. </li></ul>X – axis – along the focal plane (mass-spectrum) Y – axis – along the image of the laser beam spot at the target Z – axis – intensity of the analyzed ions
  68. 74. Position (mass) resolution is better (comparable) with one obtained by microchannel plates (~ 129 μ m)
  69. 75. Antimatter at the Earth <ul><li>Segre' and Chamberlain were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1959 for their discovery in 1955 of the antiproton - a further proof of the essential symmetry of nature, between matter and antimatter. </li></ul><ul><li>A year later at the Bevatron (B. Cork, O. Piccione, W. Wenzel and G. Lambertson) announced the discovery of the antineutron . </li></ul>
  70. 76. Antimatter at the Earth <ul><li>in 1965 - observation of the antideuteron , a nucleus of antimatter made out of an antiproton plus an antineutron (while a deuteron, the nucleus of the deuterium atom, is made of a proton plus a neutron). </li></ul><ul><li>The goal was simultaneously achieved by two teams of physicists, working at the Proton Synchrotron at CERN, and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) accelerator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York. </li></ul>
  71. 77. Antimatter production at the Earth <ul><li>In 1995 - antiatoms were produced at CERN. Although only 9 antiatoms were made, the news made the front page of many of the world's newspapers. </li></ul><ul><li>The antihydrogen atom could play a role in the study of the antiworld similar to that played by the hydrogen atom in over more than a century of scientific history. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen makes up three quarters of our universe, and much of what we know about the cosmos has been discovered by studying ordinary hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>D oes antihydrogen behave exactly like ordinary hydrogen ? – studies at the experimental facility at CERN : the Antiproton Decelerator . </li></ul>
  72. 78. Antimatter production at the Earth <ul><li>16 Sept 2002 The ATHENA collaboration, working at the Antiproton Decelerator, has announced the first controlled production of large numbers of antihydrogen atoms at low energies! </li></ul>
  73. 79. Gravitational properties of antimatter
  74. 80. Gravitational properties of antimatter
  75. 81. Applications of anti-particles <ul><li>T he electron-positron annihilations can reveal the workings of the brain in the technique called Positron Emission Tomography (PET) . </li></ul><ul><li>In PET , the positrons come from the decay of radioactive nuclei incorporated in a special fluid injected into the patient. The positrons then annihilate with electrons in nearby atoms : the energy emerges as two gamma-rays which shoot off in opposite directions to conserve momentum. </li></ul>
  76. 82. Applications of Annihilation <ul><li>Antimatter Propulsion (by Gordon Fraser) </li></ul><ul><li>The 1980s US Strategic Defense Initiative program (' Star Wars ') – </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation of antimatter as rocket fuel or to drive space-borne weapons platforms. </li></ul><ul><li>Antimatter , converting all its mass into energy, is the ultimate fuel . </li></ul><ul><li>However , … all the antiprotons produced at CERN during one year would supply enough energy to light a 100 watt electric bulb for three seconds! </li></ul><ul><li>T he efficiency of the antimatter energy production process would be 0.00000001%. Even the steam engine is millions of times more efficient! </li></ul>
  77. 83. Annihilation … <ul><li>Preliminary experiments carried out at CERN have shown that antimatter particle beams could be very effective at destroying cancer cells. </li></ul><ul><li>P ositron emission tomography relies on the principles of antimatter to create viable diagnostics for cancer presumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Dan Brown's book ‘Angels and Demons’ is exaggerat ing that entire cities could be wiped out from the face of the Earth with sufficient amounts of antimatter. </li></ul><ul><li>T here is no way for that to happen as far as antimatter in sufficient quantities will never be produced, at least at the LHC . </li></ul>
  78. 84. Antimatter energetics
  79. 85. Antimatter - Annihilation
  80. 86. Annihilation for ignition DT
  81. 87. Some publications on antimatter triggered thermonuclear explosions Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, U.S.A. : On the Utility of Antiprotons as Drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion by L. John Perkins, Charles D. Orth, Max Tabak, published 2004, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, U.S.A. : Controlled antihydrogen propulsion for NASA's future in very deep space by M.M. Nieto, M.H. Holzscheiter, and S.G. Turyshev, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia : The typical number of antiprotons necessary to heat the spot in D-T fuel doped with U by M.L. Shmatov, published 2005,
  82. 88. <ul><li>Механізм прискорення КП (до 10 15 еВ) - прискорення на фронтах ударних хвиль в оболонках Супернових. </li></ul>
  83. 89. в центрі Крабовидної туманності ( залишки SN-II, 1054 рік) знаходиться пульсар. - прискорення частинок до енергії 10 12 – 10 13 еВ За рахунок різниці потенціалів на поверхні і в магнітосфері
  84. 90. Antimatter studies at the LHC (CERN) are at the forefront of the modern high energy physics <ul><li>New level of the energy 14 Т eV at the LHC: </li></ul><ul><li>New particles: Higgs bosons, super-symmetric partners, … </li></ul><ul><li>New form of the matter : quark-gluon plasma , black micro-holes, antimatter … </li></ul><ul><li>Shedding more light on the matter-antimatter evolution of the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Observation of the super-high energy cosmic rays – signal about the existence of a new energy production processes ? </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental studies making challenge to existing technologies </li></ul><ul><li>provide progress in all spheres of the human beings life. </li></ul><ul><li>This requires enthusiasm of talented young people. </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome to High Energy Physics! </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgements </li></ul><ul><li>To LHCb Colleagues: </li></ul><ul><li>T. Nakada, V. Gibson, A. Golutvin, </li></ul><ul><li>N. Harnew (LHCb), M.-H.Shune, S. Barsuk </li></ul><ul><li>(for some slides copied from their LHCb presentations ) </li></ul>Concluding remarks.
  85. 91. Thank you for your attention ! I believe that in the anti-world an anti-rainbow means a good future which I wish to happen for you!