Broadband Lte Sae Update Intranet


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Broadband Lte Sae Update Intranet

  1. 1. Charting the Course for Mobile Broadband Heading Towards High-Performance All-IP with LTE/SAE
  2. 2. Executive Summary Nokia Siemens Networks expects five With a view to taking the next step up billion people to be connected to the the evolutionary ladder beyond HSPA, Contents web and a 100-fold traffic increase in 3GPP Rel8 has standardized a 02 Executive Summary the networks by 2015. Wireless access technology called Long Term Evolution/ to the Internet will be in step with System Architecture Evolution (LTE/ 03 Background wireline access. Access via mobile SAE). It is designed to 04 Market drivers and expectations phone supporting enhanced data 05 User benefits applications will complement notebook • Make the most of scarce spectrum 06 Operator expectations based usage. Wireless networks will be resources: Deployable in paired and used to extend broadband penetration 08 System approach unpaired spectrum allocations with beyond the reach of wireline networks. bandwidths ranging from 1.4 MHz 09 Standardization of the LTE air More and more user communities will to 20 MHz, LTE/SAE offers up to interface and enhanced packet enjoy multimedia services, driving total four times the spectral efficiency system bandwidth demand. This affords of HSDPA Release 6 mobile network operators a business 10 Optimizing total value of • Afford users an experience on opportunity they can capitalize on by par with today’s best residential ownership with Nokia Siemens improving their networks’ performance broadband access: LTE/SAE Networks´ LTE/SAE and efficiency. delivers peak user data rates 14 Conclusions ranging up to 173 Mbps and 15 Abbreviations reduces latency to as low as 10 ms • Leverage flat all-IP network 15 References architecture and a new air interface to significantly cut per-Mbyte costs, with later product innovations improving performance even further: For instance a 4x4 Multiple Input/ Multiple Output (MIMO) scheme will boost downlink data rates up to 326 Mbps Nokia Siemens Networks takes a cost- effective approach to introducing LTE/ SAE, enabling GSM-/WCDMA-, CDMA-, and greenfield network operators to grow their business and margins in the fast-approaching era of ubiquitous mobile broadband. 2 Network Evolution LTE/SAE
  3. 3. Background The Internet has changed many Mobile broadband users will expect people’s lives in the last decade. services, data rates, VoIP and multimedia Services delivered across the web capabilities similar to those enjoyed now supplant many offline processes. by fixed broadband users today, at The Internet has become a major affordable prices. This is why NGMN delivery platform for text, music, video, Ltd., a group of globally active mobile and other multimedia content. All this operators determined to match DSL has spurred broadband’s growth. With offerings’ performance and cost, has broadband adoption outpacing cellular raised the bar for the next generation voice, Nokia Siemens Networks predicts of mobile networks (NGMN) and that five billion people will enjoy Internet described their requirements in a access by 2015 and traffic in the white paper [1]. Seeking to satisfy networks will increase 100-fold. these demands, Nokia Siemens What’s more, mobile broadband is Networks and its parent companies tracing mobile telephony’s trajectory, participated in the Long Term Evolution becoming a widespread service to be (LTE) and System Architecture Evolution enjoyed by the user anywhere, anytime. (SAE) studies conducted by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). More and more people are embracing LTE/SAE aims to improve performance mobile broadband and enjoying data- and cost-efficiency with a more efficient heavy video and other multimedia air interface, more flexible use of radio content. This coincidental development spectrum, and flat, packet based presents a promising business network architecture. The ultimate opportunity for network operators, goal is to enable wireless broadband who responded by launching HSDPA communication commensurate with and flat rates in 2006, attracting many DSL in fixed networks. business users. And while this user segment may be small compared to The study phase of 3GPP work on the huge consumer market, overall LTE and SAE ended in mid-2006, mobile data traffic grew up to 400% transitioning to the specification phase within 6 months after service for the new radio access system (LTE) introduction in many networks. and the enhanced packet-based core network (SAE). 3GPP plans to complete the first set of specifications by the end of 2008, enabling friendly user trials in 2009 and the first commercial network rollouts at the beginning of 2010. Network Evolution LTE/SAE 3
  4. 4. Market drivers and expectations Evolving user services Video streaming Video conferencing Real- time New services will center on data and > 5 Mb/s gaming m2m: Audio/video multimedia communication alongside robot security; download video broadcast or within the context of voice. Figure 1 shows some of these services Bandwidth 1 Mb/s Mobile and their typical bandwidth and network office/e-mail FTP Multiplayer Interactive latency requirements. Services expected games remote Growth drivers to become major growth drivers are games MMS, Video telephony web-browsing Audio streaming highlighted. While voice remains the < 64kb/s SMS most popular application for large user Voice telephony segments, several distinct trends will m2m: remote control Voice mail influence mobile communications in the Network > 1 sec 200 ms 100 ms 20 ms Latency years ahead: Source: IST-2003-507581 WINNER, D1.3 version 1.0, Final usage scenarios. 30/06/2005; „Parameters for Tele-traffic Characterization in enhanced UMTS2“, University of Beira, Portugal, 2003 • Common, access-independent Internet applications will replace silos for mobile and residential Figure 1: Latency and bandwith requirements for various services applications Rising traffic, falling tariffs • Web2.0 applications empower users The key enabler for these trends to to participate in communities, and materialize in mobile communications is will generate content and interact in user gratification, which will depend on: Overall traffic (voice and data) in mobile virtual worlds networks is expected to grow fast. • Streaming services that deliver • The network’s capacity to support Data traffic in some European HSPA individual video content on demand high peak user data rates and high networks is edging towards exponential and mobile TV on demand are average data throughput rates growth. Analysts predict average price emerging as a favored application • Low user data plane’s and signalling per MB will decline as voice and • Mobile, interactive remote channels’ response time, or latency non-voice services drive traffic growth. gaming and real-time gaming • Guaranteed radio coverage A strong trend towards flat-rate pricing will undoubtedly become a major ensuring full use of services with is already sweeping the market. Data industry in its own right acceptable throughput up to the and multimedia service offerings with • Mobile office comprising smart cell’s edge attractive service packages and flat phones, notebooks, ubiquitous • Service continuity between rates are key business differentiators. broadband access and advanced access networks Voice services, in turn, are fast becoming security solutions will free business • Competitive prices, with many users a commodity, and price pressure is users from their office desk. favoring flat-rate fees for reasons of bound to rise. This compels operators transparency and cost control to respond by offering voice service by migrating it to packet based VoIP. And As users discover personal mobile as flat rates become more popular, services on par with household-centric Traffic volume Network cost operators will have to cut the per MB (existing technologies) services, they are sure to take advantage cost of sending data across the network. of mobile operators’ great strength – Fair usage policies need to be applied mobility. The key is to satisfy users’ in order to prevent bandwidth-greedy expectations of access whenever Revenue applications, especially peer-to-peer and wherever they want it. Profitability file sharing, from overloading the Network cost network. (LTE) Time Figure 2 shows that in Voice dominated networks the revenue was about Voice Data proportional with the traffic volume increase. In Data dominated networks dominated dominated offering flat rate or fair usage flat rate tariffs the traffic volume is expected to rise exponentially; but the revenues will only slightly increase, stay constant, Price per MByte has to be reduced to remain profitable or in some markets even decline. In order to stay profitable in the long term operators are forced to introduce new network technologies offering much lower costs, which are decoupled from the traffic volume to the greatest possible extent. Figure 2: Traffic increase requires low cost/bit technologies 4 Network Evolution LTE/SAE
  5. 5. User benefits Advances in technology Optimizing digital signal processing algorithms and advances in antenna technologies will push the air interface’s spectral efficiency ever closer to its While many consumers have no Figure 3 compares LTE/SAE’s peak theoretical limits. particular interest in technology, they data rates, average cell throughput, do expect unimpeded access to the VoIP capacity and latency with earlier Improved IP transport (pervasive Internet and personalized services, WCDMA/HSPA releases. On the Gbit Ethernet) and QoS assurance at anytime and in any place. physical layer, LTE/SAE with 2x2 technologies boost packet-centric MIMO delivers peak downlink data networks’ data and voice performance, Today’s residential broadband access rates ranging up to about 173 Mbps, efficiency and carrier-grade reliability. shapes consumers’ expectations of and even 326 Mpbs with 4x4 MIMO. Together with advances in IP Internet access and their perceptions integration in network equipment and of network performance. Coexistence, interoperability, roaming, implementation of spectrally efficient and handover between LTE/SAE and VoIP techniques, this all will soon make This perceived network performance, existing 2G/3G networks and services the all-IP vision a reality. LTE/SAE in turn, is formed by a blend of the are inherent design goals, so full mobility enables operators to implement all peak user data rate, average user support is given from day one. services on a single IP-centric, purely throughput, cell throughput, signaling packet based network. This will make delays, and user data latency. One IP applications as genuinely mobile of the keys to differentiating mobile as voice is in today’s mobile networks. products is boosting perceived mobile These advances, alongside a simplified broadband performance. architecture, will also reduce operational expenditures and, consequently the network’s lifecycle costs. Average cell throughput (marco cell, 2x20MHz or equivalent) * Maximum peak data rate * 2x20MHz 1 carrier, 70 350 2x20MHz Downlink Downlink 60 300 Uplink Uplink U 50 250 1 carrier, 2x20MHz Mbps 2x20MHz 200 40 Mbps/cell 4 carriers, each 2x5MHz 30 150 4 carriers, 20 100 each 2x5MHz 2x5MHz 10 50 2x5MHz 0 0 HSPA R6 HSPAevo LTE LTE HSPA R6 HSPAevo LTE LTE (2x2 MIMO (2x2 MIMO/ (4x4 MIMO/ Rel8 (2x2/1x2 (4x4/1x4 + 64QAM) 16 QAM) 64 QAM) (MIMO) MIMO) Latency (Roundtrip delay) ** VoIP capacity * 80 70 GSM/EDGE Downlink 60 Uplink HSPA Rel6 Calls/MHz/Cell 50 40 HSPAevo (Rel 8) 30 20 min. max. LTE 10 20 0 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 ms 0 DSL (~ 20 - 50 ms, depending on operator) HSPA R6 LTE FDD * LTE values according to Nokia and Nokia Siemens Networks ** Server near RAN simulations for NGMN performance evaluation report V1.3 (marco cell, full buffer, 500m ISD, pedestrian speed) Figure 3: Comparison of throughput (maximum, typical) and latency: LTE shows excellent performance Network Evolution LTE/SAE 5
  6. 6. Operator expectations Major operators formulated their Competitive Network Cost Superior User Experience 1 2 expectations for the LTE air interface performance in a whitepaper [1]: Peak throughput Latency Cost per MByte ~ 50% • High spectral efficiency (3-4 times that of HSPA Rel 6 in DL and 2-3 Factor 10 Factor 2-3 times that of HSPA Rel 6 in UL) and > 70% cell edge performance • High peak data rate >100 Mbps in DL and >50 Mbps in UL for 20 MHz HSPA LTE HSPA LTE UMTS HSPA I-HSPA LTE bandwidth Figure 4: Key building blocks of operator success • Low latency (round trip delays below 20 ms) • Flexible and scalable bandwidth The user benefits outlined above • Gearing up to re-farm frequency deployable in all IMT2000 spectrum translate into revenue potential for the bands such as GSM and possibly (450 MHz up to 2.6 GHz) both for operator. To tap this potential and turn operating in lower frequency bands paired (FDD) and unpaired (TDD) into profits, operators must optimize to exploit spectrum options and frequency bands both revenues and costs. And the need to maximize coverage at lower to improve cost efficiency increases as investment, especially in rural Network complexity data traffic rises and per-MB prices drop. areas with lower traffic density. Re-farming GSM and CDMA requires a solution suitable for small Air interface performance The consensus is that the complexity bandwidth allocations, as operators of system architectures and diversity and flexibility probably can not release much of protocols are major cost drivers for spectrum from the beginning due to networks and terminals. This complexity Driving down cost per MB entails legacy GSM or CDMA traffic. and diversity can be mastered by: improving the air interface’s efficiency • Reducing the latency of user data and applicability by: transmitted over the air interface in • Simplifying the network architecture order to reduce the overall download with a flat hierarchy and much fewer • Increasing spectrum efficiency times of Web pages and thus protocol conversions (or content and cell edge bit rates, and flexibly improve the overall throughput on mappings) allocating bandwidth by making the the application level • Introducing open, streamlined most of available spectrum • Supporting fast service access to interfaces and reducing protocol • Operating in the 3G spectrum – if minimize system load and maximize options necessary, alongside a 3G system the number of simultaneously • Employing IP-centric communication, – and in soon-to-be assigned new served users equipment and VoIP throughout the spectrum core and radio networks • Extensively employing low-cost backhauling such as carrier-grade Ethernet rather than E1/T1 based leased lines • Supporting self-configuring and self- optimizing network technologies to reduce installation and management costs 6 Network Evolution LTE/SAE
  7. 7. • Deployment of LTE on existing Service provisioning Operators expect that this huge sites and sharing of common ecosystem can be leveraged for infrastructure (e.g. antenna masts; LTE/SAE as most terminals will Recent surveys indicate that user site infrastructure like power supply, be UMTS/LTE or GSM/UMTS/LTE expectations are difficult to predict air conditioning, and security multimode terminals offering cost over the long-term. In reality, analysts equipment; feeder cables and even advantages from the common terminal expect services to become a short-term antennas) platform and production quantities. business offering. This means operators • Sharing of backhauling equipment need to consider: between LTE/SAE and existing Interworking with and network technologies provided • The means to create highly at the same site migration from non-3GPP personalized services, and deliver • Common network management radio access systems every type of service, including platforms end-user self-provisioning • Depending on the implementation • Individual support for every type of Optimal interworking with existing of existing network elements, the access based on a common service GSM/WCDMA networks, including upgradability of their HW platforms to control and provisioning platform service continuity when roaming LTE/SAE or even a sharing of parts • An improved user experience between LTE/SAE and such networks, of the network element HW platform for every service offering and is a natural expectation of operators with existing 2G/3G technologies diversified offerings, including and inherent design goal for the LTE/ offers opportunities for CAPEX and flexible service bundling across SAE standard. However, operators of OPEX savings. all breeds of access non-3GPP radio access systems, like • Simple and transparent billing CDMA, also expect an easy evolution Size of the ecosystem procedures which foster of their networks to LTE/SAE, in order subscriber loyalty to benefit from the scale of the 3GPP Mobile systems based on 3GPP ecosystem representing more than standards represent with a market 85% market share in the mobile industry. Asset reuse share of more than 85% by far the 3GPP acknowledged this need by greatest ecosystem in the mobile specifying an improved interworking When introducing new network industry, which provides enormous between LTE/SAE and non-3GPP radio technologies, operators expect that their cost advantages to operators and access systems. In particular the existing investment will be protected end users: standard supports seamless mobility and that deployed infrastructure can be and handover between LTE and re-used to the greatest possible extend. • A huge variety of different terminals, CDMA2000. The main focus is thereby directed to starting from simple and cheap topics representing a major part of voice only terminals up to real operators’ total cost of ownership, multimedia terminals such as: • Cost benefits for terminals and network infrastructure products due to the huge quantity of produced products and the amount of different vendors offering such products. Network Evolution LTE/SAE 7
  8. 8. System approach Simplified network High-performance In light of the efforts to standardize LTE/ SAE underway, 3GPP defined the air architecture air interface interface, network architecture, and system interfaces. Figure 5 shows Today’s WCDMA core network The LTE air interface will differ markedly an LTE/SAE network’s high-level architecture for the PS domain from legacy technology. Figure 6 architecture. 3GPP standardized a comprises SGSN and GGSN. summarizes the technologies applied packet-based network architecture with The radio network architecture at the LTE air interface. fully IP-based transmission. LTE/SAE comprises NodeB and RNC. will not entail a circuit-switched domain Advanced applied Orthogonal anymore; that is, VoIP will serve to LTE/SAE architecture is streamlined to Frequency Division Multiplexing implement voice. The IP backbone optimize network performance, maximize (OFDM) technologies achieve network will support guaranteed QoS data throughput, and minimize latency. performance and savings goals on demand with a very simplified, but Rather than four nodes in the user data based on low total cost of ownership. backward compatible QoS concept. plane (Node B, RNC, SGSN, GGSN), The goal is to use carrier-grade Ethernet the LTE architecture will comprise a far Many sub-carriers may be allocated where possible; in particular to connect simpler configuration of just eNode B according to carrier bandwidth available the eNode B, the LTE’s base station. and the SAE Gateway (SAE GW). The in the downlink. The uplink employs SAE GW consists of two logical user a single carrier FDMA technology plane entities, the Serving Gateway (SC-FDMA) to preclude high peak- Service Control and Data Bases and PDN Gateway. The Serving Gateway to-average power ratios, thereby provides the user plane anchor that streamlining the RF design and manages mobility between GSM and extending the battery life of the IMS PCRF HSS/AAA WCDMA/HSPA access systems terminals. standardized according to LTE and Access Core Switching & Transport 3GPP. The PDN Gateway interworks Advanced scheduling in the time and with the Internet or intranets and the frequency domain, MIMO antenna user plane anchor to enable mobility technology, Hybrid Automatic Repeat MME between LTE and non-3GPP based Request (HARQ) and higher order SAE access systems such as CDMA modulation (up to 64 QAM), combined GW Internet networks. It also provides policy control with fast link adaptation methods and Serving GW PDN (HA) eNode B and charging functions. For roaming a short Transmit Time Interval (TTI) purposes, the Serving Gateway resides of 1 ms, maximize spectral efficiency. in the visited network, and the PDN Gateway in the home network. In principle, operators need not acquire Figure 5: LTE/SAE target architecture new spectrum. The LTE air interface is The interface between Serving GW designed to operate in the same spectrum and PDN Gateway is standardized as and in parallel with the legacy to support roaming scenarios; but both WCDMA/HSPA air interface, for example functionalities can be implemented on on a separate carrier. The system’s the same physical platform. flexible spectrum allocation (including scalable bandwidth) allows carriers to The signaling protocols of the control be spread across any suitable spectrum plane will be handled by the Mobility licensed for 2G or 3G operation. Management Entity (MME). Deployable in spectrum bands with Because the access network operates bandwidths of 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and without a central controller (BSC, RNC), 20 MHz, LTE offers unique spectrum base stations (eNode B) interconnect flexibility. The small 1.4 and 3.0 MHz via standardized interfaces to exchange bandwidths are optimized for GSM and control and user information. They also CDMA re-farming, where operators connect directly to the core network. might not initially be able to free up more bandwidth. This approach entails fewer interfaces and minimal complexity caused by LTE air interface is designed for protocol conversion and content deployment in paired (FDD Mode) and mapping. unpaired (TDD mode) spectrum bands. The initial deployments outside China are expected to be for FDD mode in paired spectrum. 8 Network Evolution LTE/SAE
  9. 9. 64 QAM Fast Link Adaptation scalable Hybrid ARQ Modulation 1 2 NACK ACK DL: OFDMA UL: SC-FDMA 1 Combined Available bandwidth decoding Sub-carriers 2 Rx Buffer Short TTI =1 ms ... Transmission time interval OFDM symbols Frequency ... Guard RX TX intervals Advanced Scheduling Time MIMO Time & Frequency Channel RX TX (Frequency Selective Scheduling) Figure 6: The beauties of LTE Channel only changes amplitude and phase of sub-carriers Standardization of the LTE air interface and enhanced packet system 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Now 3GPP working groups are working program) is standardizing the LTE/SAE hard on finishing all protocol (stage 3) system for their Release 8. and performance specifications. Their RAN working groups started LTE/ It is expected that all LTE/SAE SAE standardization in December 2004 specifications will be finished by with a feasibility study for an evolved end of 2008, the specification of the UTRAN and the System Architecture physical layer of the air interface Evolution (SAE) for the all IP based, (forming the basis of the chip design) flat core network architecture. This for the FDD mode of operation by was transformed into the Work Item mid-2008 already. phase in June 2006. In December 2007 all LTE functional specifications (stage 2) were finished. SAE functional specifications reached major milestones, both for interworking to 3GPP and CDMA networks. Network Evolution LTE/SAE 9
  10. 10. Optimizing total value of ownership with Nokia Siemens Networks´ LTE/SAE LTE/SAE will provide a mobile multimedia For many years, Nokia Siemens network that delivers broadband wireless Networks and its parent companies services with fixed-line quality and the have driven radio access and network cost efficiency of IP technologies. Nokia technology innovation by: Siemens Networks leverages leading architectural and systems expertise to • Participating in international allow operators to seamlessly evolve research programs their networks to LTE/SAE. • Pursuing many joint research activities in these areas with diverse Nokia Siemens Networks has ample industry and academic partners experience in implementing and • Driving 3GPP’s efforts to upgrading complex system architectures. standardize LTE/SAE The company is committed to enabling smooth migration, and is preparing its The world’s first live demonstrations of products to accommodate LTE/SAE the LTE air interface’s capabilities at technology. The track record of Nokia the 3G World Congress in Hong Kong Siemens Networks in efficient system in December 2006 and 3GSM World migration includes: Congress in Barcelona in February 2007 underscore Nokia Siemens • Easy introduction of EDGE Networks’ leadership in LTE/SAE. without system downtime In this demonstration (refer to figure 7) • HSPA (HSDPA and HSUPA), where a High Definition Television (HDTV) a software download upgrades the video was sent with a peak data rate of entire installed base 160 Mbps over an air interface based on • Combined 2G/3G networks enabling the preliminary LTE specifications and smooth migration from 2G to 3G and handed over in real time to an HSPDA ensuring cost-efficient operations air interface. • The SGSN and GGSN for the packet core, which today can handle both 2G and 3G traffic Multimode UE Access Core Services MIMO Video application IMS eNode B IPv6 (IMS-controlled (control node and AS) video supervision) Access Gateway (packet core) Video application IMS client Video application HSPA luB (Real-time video Node B IPv6 streaming – HDTV) Figure 7: Nokia Siemens Networks` LTE demonstrator: First live NGMN air interface – with applications and interworking with legacy 3G system – service continuity in one equipment 10 Network Evolution LTE/SAE
  11. 11. Further Nokia Siemens Networks initiated together with Nokia and six other vendors Nokia Siemens Networks drives LSTI. Schedule & Program Office Activities: and operators the so-called LTE-SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI). The goal is to early 2007 2010 2008 2009 demonstrate the capabilities of LTE/ SAE through performing a series of Test of OFDM Air Interface Proof of Concept joint tests including radio transmission performance tests, early interoperability Test of basic functions tests, field tests and full customer trials Interoperability IODT (refer to figure 8). By giving early feed- back about the LTE-SAE IOT performance and interoperability to standardization and industry, the time Trials Friendly customer trials for commercial product availability is expected to be significantly reduced. PR In the meantime further operators, Public Relation work terminal- and chipset vendors joined the group, which is open to any organisation that is committed to actively contribute to above goals. Figure 8: LSTI program and schedule The first proof of concept tests on An operator’s strategy for gaining the physical layer performance of the LTE competitive edge in mobile broadband eNB Site: HHI Building air interface (performed independently builds on three fundamental insights: by several companies) where already finished by the end of 2007 and • The key to sustaining fast subscriber successfully demonstrated that the growth is being part of a large physical layer of the LTE air interface ecosystem that accommodates 300 m specifications can be implemented and many different – as well as the fulfils the performance expectations. latest – user devices, as is evident from the recent churn from In December 2007 Nokia Siemens CDMA to GSM networks. GSM/ Networks demonstrated LTE in a multi- WCDMA is by far the largest user field trial under realistic urban mobile communications ecosystem MIMO/SIMO deployment scenarios in the center of worldwide. 120 Mbps Germany’s capital Berlin, reaching with • Once traffic attains critical volume, 600 m 100 Mbps a 2x2 MIMO antenna system peak there is only one way to achieve 80 Mbps data rates of up to 173 Mbps and still cost-efficient scale network capacity 60 Mbps more than 100 Megabits per second – via flat network architecture and 40 Mbps over distances of several hundred Ethernet based transport network. meters (refer to figure 9). This trial Until now, fixed broadband networks 20 Mbps 900 m DLink also successfully demonstrated that provided the blueprint; now I-HSPA future LTE networks can run on (Internet-HSPA) introduces flat existing base station sites. architecture to cellular networks. Figure 9: Nokia Siemens Networks multi-user LTE field trial in the centre of Berlin • Ubiquitous mobile broadband demands optimum use of scarce spectrum resources, cost-efficient networks, and high network performance as perceived by users. Network Evolution LTE/SAE 11
  12. 12. • Operators running 2G networks Nokia Siemens Networks is committed Nokia Siemens Networks provides all (GSM/GPRS) can introduce LTE/ to providing a smooth evolutionary products of a mobile network end-to-end SAE directly or via one of the above path for every operator, following a solution using innovative technologies WCDMA/HSPA paths, depending roadmap that factors each operator’s and future-proof platforms: on their timetables for introducing installed base and strategy into the mobile broadband services and equation (see figure 10). • Nokia Siemens Networks designs the spectrum they have available. innovative base stations enabling Because LTE supports bands as • 3G operators who have deployed operators to flexibly upgrade to future small as 1.4 MHz, spectrum may be I-HSPA have flat network radio standards while reusing legacy re-farmed smoothly and gradually architecture similar to LTE/SAE in modules and without adding to the from GSM to LTE. place, and can thus cost-efficiently footprint. This affords operators total • CDMA operators can introduce LTE/ introduce LTE/SAE. investment protection. One example SAE networks directly or follow one • 3G operators with a deployed is the innovative Flexi-Multimode of the above paths. GSM/EDGE WCDMA/HSPA network can BTS platform, designed to support may be a good choice for strategies migrate directly to LTE/SAE. different radio standards and being more immediately focused on voice Migrating to the flat network SW upgradable to LTE. It is modular, centric business. The same applies architecture of Internet High with the flexibility required to upgrade a to Greenfield operators. Operators Speed Packet Access (I-HSPA) 2G/3G site to support LTE. To this end, opting to take the I-HSPA path may also be beneficial because it shares LTE-ready equipment in the can capitalize on the ecosystem it accommodates LTE/SAE’s flat RF chain – the antenna, the feeder, as of HSPA terminals, benefit from IP-based network architecture while well as – given deployment in the same the flat architecture today, and supporting legacy WCDMA/HSPA spectrum – RF modules. Different radio quickly optimize mobile broadband handsets. The operator can thus standards supported at the same site performance. enjoy the transport and network can also share the backhaul system. • Operators with TD-SCDMA scaling benefits immediately and Dedicated but identical hardware networks, which are currently easily upgrade the network to LTE/ baseband and control modules serve deployed in China only, will probably SAE later. to run the different radio standards migrate directly to LTE, preferably smoothly and independently. All this using the TDD mode of LTE. minimizes the operator’s spare parts inventory, logistics costs and installation efforts. GSM/WCDMA Enabling flat broadband architecture handset base LTE I-HSPA WCDMA/ HSPA GSM/ TD-SCDMA (E)GPRS CDMA Figure 10: The architectural evolution of existing 2G/3G networks to LTE 12 Network Evolution LTE/SAE
  13. 13. RAN Evolved Packet Core (EPC) GSM SGSN/MME PCRF BSC BTS SGSN SAE Gateway WCDMA Serving Content PDN RNC and service GW GW NodeB networks LTE Control plane HSS MME User plane eNodeB Figure 11: 3GPP Rel8 LTE/SAE network architecture (simplified) • PS domain network nodes connect The Nokia Siemens Networks’ LTE/ multiple access technologies and SAE solution enables operators to cost- interfaces to service control and efficiently introduce and run LTE/SAE: database functions. The SGSN and GGSN will evolve to serve as the • No additional site preparations SAE network’s MME and SAE GW. required: Nokia Siemens Networks’ Operators may also install SGSN- BTS platforms enable LTE radios to and MME-functions on separate be easily added to legacy equipment physical nodes without enlarging the footprint (refer to figure 11). • Flexible approach: If necessary, • A powerful means of migrating operators may run LTE alongside all services, the IP Multimedia GSM/EDGE, WCDMA/HSPA or Subsystem (IMS), provides other radio access systems such common service control. as CDMA, WLAN or WiMAX • The Nokia Siemens Networks’ • Painless migration: LTE/SAE fully network management system supports security, roaming, QoS, supports common operational and similar features procedures. • Reusable infrastructure: Current 2G/3G applications may be used These products feature high again in LTE performance technologies that configure and adapt flexibly to suit deployment requirements. They also bring to the table all the benefits of reliable carrier-grade systems. This approach ensures cost-effective network migration, early system availability and stability, and protects investments in the overall LTE/SAE solution. Network Evolution LTE/SAE 13
  14. 14. Conclusions The evolving mobile broadband business LTE/SAE charts a natural evolutionary opportunity calls for high performance course for 2G/3G operators because all-IP mobile broadband networks. it offers: The motivations, requirements and the solution based on the LTE/SAE standard • Investment protection by reusing have been discussed. Several user sites and network elements to the studies lead to the conclusion that maximum traffic in mobile networks will snowball • A superior user experience in the years ahead. The driving forces enhanced by high throughput and behind this growth are: low latency, offering rich potential for subscriber uptake • Broadband Internet access offering • Low cost per MB courtesy of a flat, a DSL-like user experience IP-based network architecture and • On demand video content and high spectral efficiency, enabling Web2.0 applications operators to cost-efficiently • Fixed voice substitution introduce flat rates • Service convergence across • Scalable bandwidth ranging multiple access technologies from 1.4 up to 20 MHz, enabling operators to exploit lower and While WCDMA/HSPA has made other economically-attractive significant strides towards efficient frequency bands where relatively mobile data and multimedia information little spectrum is available, achieving exchange, LTE/SAE will provide nationwide coverage at far lower extended network performance and costs reduced cost per MB that are able to deliver on the promise of future As an industry pacemaker, Nokia broadband mobile wireless Siemens Networks has a clear vision communications. and strategy for implementing LTE/ SAE. Geared to reuse as many system components as possible, Nokia Siemens Networks’ LTE/SAE solution will enable early migration to flat network architecture, optionally with I-HSPA as an intermediate step. Complying fully with the 3GPP LTE/SAE standard, this high performance mobile broadband network will be reliable and interoperable. By enabling its smooth, early introduction, Nokia Siemens Networks will optimize the LTE/SAE solution’s total value of ownership. 14 Network Evolution LTE/SAE
  15. 15. Abbreviations 3GPP Third Generation LSTI LTE-SAE Trial Initiative Partnership Project m2m Machine-to-Machine AAA Authentication, MGW Media Gateway Authorization, Accounting MIMO Multiple Input / Multiple aGW Access Gateway Output AS Application Server MME Mobility Management Entity ASN Access Service Network NGMN Next Generation of Mobile BS Base Station Networks BSC Base Station Controller OFDM Orthogonal Frequency BSS Base Station Subsystem Division Multiplexing BTS Base Transceiver Station PCF Policy Control Function CDMA Code Division Multiple PCRF Policy and Charging Rule Access Function DSL Digital Subscriber Line PDN-GW Packet Data Network EDGE Enhanced Data rates Gateway for GSM Evolution PDSN Packet Data Serving Node EGPRS Enhanced General Packet PS Packet-switched Radio Service PSTN Public Switched eNode B enhanced Node B Telephone Network ePDG Evolved Packet Data QAM Quadrature Amplitude Gateway Modulation FDMA Frequency Division Multiple QoS Quality of service Access RAN Radio Access Network FMC Fixed Mobile Convergence RF Radio Frequency FTP File Transfer Protocol RNC Radio Network Controller GGSN Gateway GPRS Service SAE System Architecture Node Evolution GSM Global System for Mobile SAE GW System Architecture Communications Evolution Gateway HA Home Agent SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency HLR Home Location Register Multiple Access HSDPA High-Speed Downlink SGSN Service GPRS Service Packet Access Node HSPA High-Speed Packet Access SMS Short Message Service HSUPA High-Speed Uplink Packet UE User Equipment Access UL Uplink HDTV High-Definition Television UMTS Universal Mobile HSS Home Subscriber Server Telecommunications I-HSPA Internet High-Speed Packet System Access VoIP Voice over IP IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem WCDMA Wideband Code Division IP Internet Protocol Multiple Access ISD Inter Site Distance LTE Long-Term Evolution References [1] NGMN white paper version 3.0: Next Generation Mobile Networks Beyond HSPA and EVDO White_Paper_-_Beyond_HSPA_and_EVDO.pdf Network Evolution LTE/SAE 15
  16. 16. Nokia Siemens Networks P.O. Box 1 FI-02022 NOKIA SIEMENS NETWORKS Finland Visiting address: Karaportti 3, ESPOO, Finland Switchboard +358 71 400 4000 (Finland) Switchboard +49 89 5159 01 (Germany) Order-No. C401-00143-WP-200711-3-EN Copyright © 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved. Nokia Siemens Networks and the wave logo are registered trademarks of Nokia Siemens Networks. Other company and product names mentioned here in may be trademarks or trade names of their respective owners. This publication is issued to provide information only and is not to form part of any order contract. The products and services described herein are subject to availability and change without notice.