Introductions: 5 minutesRate Yourself Activity and Discussion: 5 minutes
Ask participants to think about their definition of a primary source. (2 minutes)Primary source sort (8 minutes)Rework definition of primary source (2 minutes)
Using Primary Sources to Teach Inquiry with Primary Source Analysis Tool (10 minutes)Picture: Reader in a Cigar Factory He reads books and newspapers at the top of his voice all day long. This is all the education many of these workers receive. He is paid by them and they select what he reads. Tampa, Florida January 1909 from the Lewis Hine collection
Do Waldseemuller Map Activity -Give a piece of the map to each person or pair-Ask participants to record observation about their section of the map on the primary source analysis sheet-Next, ask participants to get with another group and compare notes.-Once they are done sharing notes, ask participants to circulate around the room and put the map together. Notes about the Map: Crated by Martin Waldseemuller around 1507. It is the first known map to use the word “America.”
Notes: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way, US Capitol, 1861
Notes: Final Version, 1862
Pass out Top Ten Places to Find Primary Sources
Reference Historical Thinking Standards,
Primarily Teaching: Teaching with Primary Sources
Primarily Teaching:Using Primary Sources toEngage Students in the Study of History Stefanie Rosenberg Wager Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter: @srwteacher Blog: www.stefaniewager.blogspot.comWebsites: www.technologynow.wikispaces.com www.usingprimarysources.weebly.com
Poll Everywhere Question: Do you use primary sources in your classroom at least once a week? http://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_ polls/MTQ1ODUzOTA3Ng
Using Primary Sources? In a recent study, teachers cited three main reasons they don’t use primary sources: No time to find primary sources. Too many resources available. It’s hard to funnel down to “best” resources. Don’t know how to effectively use primary sources with students.
So, What is a Primary Source? What is your definition of a primary source? Primary Source Sort Working with your elbow partner, rework your definition of a primary source. Be ready to share out!
One Definition Primary sources provide first hand testimony or direct evidence concerning a topic under investigation. They are created by witnesses or recorders who experienced the events or conditions being documented. Often these sources are created at the time when the events or conditions are occurring, but primary sources can also include autobiographies, memoirs, and oral histories recorded later.
Guiding Questions Observe Reflect Question I Know• What do you • Why do you • What do you • What do you notice first? think this wonder now know• What people image was about? about the and objects made? • Who? image after are shown? • What’s • What? examining it?• How are they happening in • When? arranged? the image? • Where?• What is the • When do you • Why? physical think it was • How? setting? made?• What details • What can can you see? you learn from examining this image?
Political Cartoons Cartoon analysis guide Have students label elements of political cartoons Symbolism Exaggeration Labeling Analogy Irony
Prints & Photographs Zoom instrategy(usemagnifyingglasses) Prequel/Sequel
Continued… Put yourselfin the image ThoughtBubbles 30 SecondLook and ThenDig Deeper
Analyzing Maps The Devil is in the Details Give students pieces of a map and have each student examine one piece of the map. Have them record what they know on sticky notes and place on the map. Then have them share with a partner or larger group. Finally, have students put the map together to see the “big picture.”
Analyzing Documents Quote MVP Give students quotes and ask them to select their MVP (most valuable point) related to the lesson essential question. Tampering with History Change the document so it’s easier to read for struggling readers. Jigsaw with cooperative learning groups
Music/ Sound Recordings Use a song or sound recording as a class opener. Using music to teach a certain time period in history Example: Civil War music, Great Depression, etc. LOC Jukebox (www.loc.gov/jukebox) LOC Sound Recordings Example: WPA Slave Narratives http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/voice s/
Using Art to Teach Historical Analysis “Reading” a Portrait Smithsonian American Art Museum Discussion of art as a primary vs. secondary source
General Strategies Weighing the evidence Example: Give students 5-7 documents related to causes of the Civil War. Students have to “weigh” which documents carry more weight and answer the essential question. Civil War Causes and Effects http://docsteach.org/activities/3895 Sorting/categorizing primary sources Five senses chart Students analyze various documents and record what they hear, see, taste, feel, and smell.
Continued… Historical Debates Have students play the role of historical figures. Four Corners Pose a historical question and ask students to move to the corner of the room they agree with. Label corners agree, strongly agree, disagree, strongly disagree. For example: Slavery was the cause of the Civil War.
Continued… Structured Academic Controversy (SAC) Socratic Seminars DBQs (Document Based Questions) Check out the DBQ Project (www.dbqproject.com) Reading Like a Historian Sourcing, Contextualizing, Corroboration, Close Reading Wordle (www.wordle.net) Copy and paste text to create a visual image Great discussion starter and to compare documents
Historical Book Backdrops Book backdrops are a way to infuse primary sources into children’s literature. Steps: Find a piece of children’s literature that deals with some historical aspect (slavery, WWII, etc.) As a way to teach the book, select 2-3 primary sources that connect to the book in some way. This varies depending on age level and other factors. For younger students you might just select one image. For older students, you can usually select one short piece of text and photographs. Use primary source strategies to not only teach the book, but also the historical aspects of the book through the use of the primary sources. (You can also bring in technology such as QR codes to help with this step.)
Book Backdrops Example QR CodesFor a more detailed explanation go to www.stefaniewager.blogspot.com
Continued… On loan from the Benjamin Shapell Family Manuscript Foundation (070, Lincoln to Grace Bedell) http://myloc.gov/Exhibitions/lincoln/vignettes/CandidateLincoln/ExhibitObjects/LincolnsBeard.aspx The Library of Congress www.lov.gov/teachers
Where Can I Find Primary Sources? Top Ten Places to Find Primary Sources Other sources? One of the best places to find primary sources is…. The Library of Congress (www.loc.gov)
Key Parts of Library of Congress Website American Memory (contains over 20 million digitized items) Exhibitions (place to view all exhibitions that have been at LOC) THOMAS (access to past and present Congressional records) World Digital Library (key primary sources from each region of the world) Veterans History Project (oral histories of veterans and other resources) Kids and Families Section Teachers Section (lots of resources on using primary sources, lesson plans, etc.) Researchers
Quick Guide toAmerican Memory Click on American Memory and then more browse options.
Here you cansearch for primarysources by date,topic, region, etc.
Today in History at LOC Click on Today in History. You can either see the document of the day or search by a specific date.
Exhibitions at LOCGo to www.loc.gov. At the bottom, click on more exhibitions. You cansee a list of every exhibit that has been at the Library of Congress.
LOC Resources for Teachers Go to www.loc.gov and click on Teachers. Here you can find a wealth of resources specifically for Teachers.
One example of theresources availableto teachers on theLOC site. These areready-made primarysource sets.
Using Primary Sources to Teach Historical Thinking Historical Thinking Skills Chronological Thinking Historical Comprehension Historical Analysis and Interpretation Historical Research Capabilities Historical Issues- Analysis and Decision Making An Introduction to Historical Thinking Skillswww.teachinghistory.org/historical-thinking-intro
Technology to Enhance Your History Classroom (Find many more links at www.technologynow.wikispaces.com) C-SPAN Classroom- Especially check out American History TV www.c-spanclassroom.org Glogster– Poster yourself www.edu.glogster.com Stixy– Create virtual bulletin boards http://stixy.com Live Binders- Create virtual binders http://livebinders.com Scribble Maps- Maps you can scribble on, add pictures, text, etc. www.scribblemaps.com
Continued… Docs Teach- Hundreds of ready-made activities around primary source documents from NARA. www.docsteach.org Voicethread- Collaborate around almost any type of media http://ed.voicethread.com Weebly- Create easy to use websites http://education.weebly.com Fotobabble- Create and share talking photos http://fotobabble.com Bitstrips- Create your own comic strips http://bitstrips.com
Continued… Capzles- Create virtual timelines http://capzles.com Dropbox- Free doc space and can share docs www.dropbox.com Show Document- Free web meetings www.showdocument.com Easy Bib- Create free bibliographies in MLA and APA http://easybib.com Edmodo- It’s like Facebook for K-12 education http://edmodo.com
Continued… Tube Chop- Easily edit any YouTube video www.tubechop.com Skype- Talk with anyone in the world… for FREE www.skype.com and http://education.skype.com Living Room Candidate- Presidential campaign ads since 1952. www.livingroomcandidate.org Cool Tools for Schools- Collection of Web 2.0 tools www.cooltoolsforschools.wikispaces.com