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Pre independence architecture in india


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Pre independence architecture in india

  1. 1. Development of secular architecture from History and theory of architecture
  2. 2. Intro • Architecture is product of its environment. Secular architecture in particular evolves to suite the needs of the people. • Homes, cities, forts, palaces, schools, universities, hospitals, man made reservoirs, step wells, resting place for travelers etc. are prime examples of secular architecture. • Monuments such as ceremonial gateways, carved edicts, victory pillars and towers are also examples of secular architecture. • Such monuments are globally popular – such as Nelson’s column (to celebrate victory over the French), Eifel tower (to mark a major event), Lincoln memorial (honor a great man) etc. • Secular architecture was built with local material.
  3. 3. Renaissance architecture • Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, in which there was a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. • Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. • The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. • Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
  4. 4. • During the Renaissance architects began to look back to the Romans and Greeks for inspiration when designing buildings. • Much of Renaissance architecture style was taken from Ancient Rome and Greece and then altered to fit their current lifestyle. St. Peter's Basilica is a prime example of Renaissance architecture
  5. 5. What was the Renaissance? • Period following the middle ages (1450-1550) • “Rebirth” of classical Greece and Rome • Began in Italy • Moved to northern Europe
  6. 6. Objectives • During the middle ages • Find God • Prove pre-conceived ideas • During the Renaissance • Find man • Promote learning
  7. 7. • "The Renaissance gave birth to the modern era, in that it was in this era that human beings first began to think of themselves as individuals. • In the early Middle Ages, people had been happy to see themselves simply as parts of a greater whole – for example, as members of a great family, trade guild, nation, or Church. • This communal consciousness of the Middle Ages gradually gave way to the individual consciousness of the Renaissance.“
  8. 8. Humanism • Pursuit of individualism • Recognition that humans are creative • Appreciation of art as a product of man • Basic culture needed for all • Life could be enjoyable • Love of the classical past
  9. 9. Causes of the Renaissance • Lessening of feudalism • Church disrespected • Nobility in chaos • Growth of Middle Class through trade • Fall of Constantinople • Greek scholars fled to Italy • Education • Nostalgia among the Italians to recapture the glory of the Roman empire
  10. 10. Renaissance Architecture • During the Renaissance more secular buildings became popular. • The Roman Classics became a primary reference at this point • Architects made the transition from being skilled laborer to artists
  11. 11. Features/Characteristics of Renaissance Architecture buildings Renaissance architecture had some distinct features that were fairly common to major construction: • Square - Many buildings were built as square or rectangle symmetrical shapes. • Front - The front or "façade" of the buildings were generally symmetrical around the vertical axis. • Columns - They used Roman type columns. • Arches and Domes - Arches and domes were popular. This was again taken from Roman and Greek architecture. • Ceilings - The ceilings of buildings were generally flat. Previously in the Middle Ages ceilings were often left open.
  12. 12. Filippo Brunelleschi • Braunelleschi was considered the first renaissance architect. • Helped engineer the dome of the Florence Cathedral. • Style spread quickly.
  13. 13. Influencing Europe • Florence- soon spreading to the rest of Italy • France- brought major Italian architects to influence their architectural style • Soon followed by Germany, England, and Russia
  14. 14. Forms of Renaissance Architecture • Elizabethan • Romanesque • Mannerism • French Renaissance Architecture • Palladian Architecture • Tudor Architecture
  15. 15. Elizabethan Architecture • Elizabethan style prevailed during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England. • Renaissance motifs were mixed with Flemish decorative work, such as strap work, and late-Gothic mullioned and transomed windows. • The Elizabethan style is more symmetrical than earlier architecture. • Elizabethan mansions usually had numerous towers, gables, parapets, balustrades, and chimneystacks. • Pavillions, gardens, fountains, and terraces were also popular. • During Elizabeth I reign Characterized by Dutch gable and Flemish strap work Can be seen on Wolltan Hall and Burghley House English Renaissance style
  16. 16. Romanesque Architecture • As the name indicates, Romanesque is ultimately inspired by Roman architecture. • Similarities between Roman and Romanesque include round arches, stone materials, and the basilica-style plan (used for secular purposes by the Romans). • But the influences that led to the Romanesque style are far more complex than that. • Romanesque architecture also shows influences from Visigothic, Carolingian, Byzantine and Islamic architecture. • Transition from Renaissance to Gothic styles • Popular Norman style
  17. 17. Characteristics of Romanesque Architecture • Reference to the Roman style of building • Arches that would influence Gothic style • Most popular in the Netherlands • Can be seen in the Plan of Saint Gall Church • Most Romanesque churches (the primary type of Romanesque architecture) have the following characteristics: • harmonious proportions • stone barrel vault or groin vault • thick and heavy walls • thick and heavy pillars • small windows • round arches supporting the roof • round "blind arches" used extensively for
  18. 18. Characteristics of Romanesque Architecture • nave with side aisles (though some modest churches are aisleless) • galleries above the side aisles, separated from the nave by a triforium • a transept (section crossing the nave at a right angle, giving the church a cross shape) • an apse (semicircular niche, usually in the east end) • an ambulatory (often with radiating chapels) around the apse • multiple towers, usually at the west end and over the transept crossing • sculptured decoration on portals, capitals and other surfaces (except in Cistercian monasteries) • painted decoration throughout the interior (little of which survives today) • Gothic architecture adopted many of these characteristics, but the major development that marked the beginning of the Gothic style was the ability to support heavy stone vaults on much thinner walls. This provided the opportunity for large glass windows, thinner walls and pillars, and generally more delicate and more vertical architecture.
  19. 19. Characteristics of Romanesque Architecture
  20. 20. Gothic Architecture • Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. • It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. • Originating in 12th-century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as Opus Francigenum ("French work") with the term Gothic first appearing during the latter part of the Renaissance. • Its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. • Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe. • It is also the architecture of manycastles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings.
  21. 21. Characteristics of Gothic Architecture • Pointed arches • Flying buttresses • Ribbed vault • Mainly used in Cathedrals and castles • Can be found in universities, churches, and town halls
  22. 22. Abbot Suger • Friend of Louis VI and VII • Asked to rebuild Church of Saint- Denis • Said to be the first church built in the Gothic style • Completed with rose windows, large pointed arches, ribbed vaults and flying buttresses.
  23. 23. Rose windows
  24. 24. Mannerist Architecture • Mannerism is a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. • It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it, but Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century. • Led to Baroque style- has the same characteristics • Period marked with works by Michelangelo, Giulio Romano, Baldassare Peruzzi, and Andrea Palladio.
  25. 25. Mannerist Architecture continues • Mannerism art is generally characterized by the supremacy of form over content. • The refined technique, virtuosity manner, demonstrating skill does not meet the poverty concept, secondary and imitative ideas. • Mannerism is positioned as a transition from the classical style of massive, monumental forms in the decoration of interiors of the Renaissance (Renaissance) to the new style that promotes the pomp and grandeur, luxury and inspiration - the Baroque style. • To Mannerism is characterized by: elongated shapes, tension poses (kontropost), unusual or bizarre effects associated with the size, lighting, or perspective, and bright colors.
  26. 26. The main elements of Mannerism style • painting walls and ceilings decorated with frescoes (paintings, ornaments, psevdolepnina, psevdobarelefy, psevdostatui, false doors and windows); • overwrought, the lack of stylistic unity; • bizarre beauty and expressiveness of the details; • superficiality, layouts of buildings, lack of certain principles of organization forms more lively and original use of color and form than in the Renaissance; • rich, golden, silver inlay; • rejection of old forms, with their eclectic and hypertrophy.
  27. 27. French Renaissance architecture • French Renaissance architecture is the name given to the French architecture, between the 15th and early 17th centuries, in different regions of the Kingdom of France. • Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture (born in France in the 12th century) and was succeeded by Baroque architecture.
  28. 28. Palladian architecture • Palladianism is a style based on the designs of the 16th-century Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1508-1580). • Palladio was inspired by the buildings of ancient Rome. • In turn, British designers drew on Palladio's work to create a Classical British style. • Palladian exteriors were plain and based on rules of proportion. • By contrast, the interiors were richly decorated. • Palladianism was fashionable from about 1715 to 1760. The Great Dining Room at Houghton Hall, designed by William Kent, 1743. Museum no. 20603:5
  29. 29. Characteristics Palladian architecture Columns • Columns with acanthus leaf capitals at the top (called 'Corinthian') are characteristic of Palladian design. Scallop shells • Scallop shells are a typical motif in Greek and Roman art. The shell is a symbol of the Roman goddess Venus, who was born of the sea, from a shell. Pediments • Pediments were used over doors and windows on the outside of buildings. They are also found over inside doors. The design of objects in the Palladian style often incorporates this sort of architectural element. Symmetry • Palladian design tends to be highly symmetrical. This means that when a line is drawn down the middle, each side is a mirror image of the other. Symmetry and balance were important in the ancient Greek and Roman architecture that inspired Palladianism. Masks • Masks are faces used as a decorative motif. They are based on examples from ancient Greek and Roman art. Terms • Terms are based on free-standing stones representing the Roman god, Terminus. They consist of a head and upper torso, often just the shoulders, on top of a pillar and were originally used as boundary markers.
  30. 30. Palladian house • A Palladian house is one inspired by Andrea Palladio (1508-1580), an Italian mason turned architect who made a career out of building Villas for Venetian- based landowners.
  31. 31. Tudor Architecture • Tudor Houses - Architecture (1485 - 1603) 15th century and 16th century • The Tudor period is the time when the Tudor family came to the throne. Henry VIII is the most famous tudor king. • You can see many Tudor houses in England today. Some of them are over 500 years old! • Most ordinary homes in Tudor times were half timbered - they had wooden frames and the spaces between were filled with small sticks and wet clay called wattle and daub. • Tudor houses are known for their 'black- and-white' effect.
  32. 32. Characteristics of Tudor houses • Tudor houses are made from a wooden framework of beams. • The timber beams on Tudor houses are uneven because they were cut by hand rather than by machine. • The wooden beams can be seen on the outside of Tudor houses.
  33. 33. BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE 1600-1750 • Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state. • It was characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow and dramatic intensity.
  34. 34. BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE • The facades consisted of many curves, often using the double curve (in at the sides, out in the middle). • Baroque pediments (triangular area between the rooftop and the end of the roofs) were often highly decorated. The tips were sometimes turned into scrolls and gilded . • In these two examples, St. Moise in Venice (on the right) has a more ornate facade than does St. Ignatius in Mainz, Germany; however the interior of St. Ignatius is almost Rococo. • The most distinct shape of the Baroque style is the oval. The baroque architects used marble, gilt, and bronze in abundance on the interior. • One often finds the interiors surrounded by numerous gilded puttos (little angels) as well as some life sized ones.
  35. 35. Characteristics of Baroque Architecture • Visible statement of wealth and power • Theatrical • Linked to Counter Reformation • Baroque- ‘mis-shapen pearl’ • High alters and chapels
  36. 36. Rococo Architecture • Rococo architects applied Baroque ideas with a lighter, more graceful touch. • In French, the word rocaille refers to rocks, shells, and the shell-shaped ornaments used on fountains. During the 1700s, a highly ornamental style of art, furniture, and interior design became popular in France. • Called Rococo, the lavish style combined the delicacy of French rocaille with Italian barocco, or Baroque, details. • Rococo architecture is actually a later version of the Baroque style. • While elaborate Baroque architecture is found in France, Italy, England, Spain, and South America, the softer Rococo styles are found throughout Germany, Austria, Eastern Europe, and Russia. • While there are many similarities between the Baroque and the Rococo styles, Rococo buildings tend to be softer and more graceful. Colors are pale and curving shapes dominate.
  37. 37. Rococo Architecture • Appeared first in France • Arranged in “organized chaos”
  38. 38. Characteristics of Rococo Architecture • Organic based objects • Light • Delicate colors • Rippling surfaces • Often used in interior design
  39. 39. Revival Architecture • 18th and 19th century expansion • Marks the growth of the Roman Catholic Church • Became popular with the growth of industrialization and the need for more churches and cathedrals.
  40. 40. Characteristics of Revival Architecture • Drawing from the previous forms of architecture • Often used in rebuilding or remodeling • Mostly used when constructing new churches
  41. 41. Modern Architecture • Ideals of Modernism • Draw from previous popular forms • More practical in comparison
  42. 42. Characteristics of Modern Architecture • Functional • Formal shapes • Symbolic values of the classics • Spacious • Diverse
  43. 43. Architectural Changes in Cities • Society was agriculturally based throughout until the Industrial Revolutions • During the 18th and 19th centuries change to more industrialized cities and the move out to suburbs would occur
  44. 44. The End SRUTHI VANDANA