River Valley Civilizations What was the relationship between early people and the environment?
River Valley Civilizations Why did hunters and gatherers not have permanent homes?
River Valley Civilizations What are the changes that took place as a result of the Neolithic Revolution?
Writing Organized Systems Government Organized Economy Elements of a Based on Trade Civilization Urban Setting Early Civilizations Yellow/Huang He Locations IndusNile Tigris-Euphrates New Technologies Writing Systems Contributions Architecture Laws Organized Religions
Timeline B.C. A.D. 05500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 500 Egyptian Sumerian Indian Chinese
The 4 Major Early River Valley Civilizations Sumerian Civilization Huang He R. Tigris and Chinese Euphrates R. Civilization Egyptian Indian Civilization Civilization Indus R. Where Civilization began
Civilization: Highly organized community with advanced elements of culture; politics, economy, art, technology, etc
Elements that define a civilization • Organized Government - Written laws (rules) - Leaders - Protection (police, military) • Organized Economy: - Trade within a culture and with other cultures - Tokens to represent value (money) - Reliable food supply • Writing System - Helps in communication - Record keeping - Using symbols to represent ideas • Urban Setting (Cities): - Many (unrelated) people living together in one large planned community
The 4 Major River Valley CivilizationsRiver Valley: NileCivilization: EgyptianImportant Things to Know: Leader called Pharaoh (King/God) Built the Pyramids – tombs for the Pharaohs Developed Hieroglyphics – picture-based writing
Rosetta Stone:Written in Latin,Greek and EgyptianHelped to translate theHieroglyphicsHoax?
Old KingdomUnited Upper and Lower Nile Pyramids & SphinxMummificationHieroglyphics
KhufuBuilt the Great Pyramid (Giza)Had the Sphinx builtPyramids for son and grandson
PyramidsSandstone & Limestone Treasure buried with PharaohsTombs of the Pharaohs Which came first?Servants buried alive?
SphinxBuilt in the image of the Pharaoh How?Body of Lion NOVA: Riddles of theHead of the Pharaoh Sphinx
Middle KingdomCreated new farm landImproved Technology (Irrigation)Hyksos Invasion (Chariots)
New KingdomHatshepsut – first female pharaohExpand tradeThutmoses III – Stepson, Military Power, Restored Sphinx
New KingdomTutankhamen – King TutFound by Howard Carter in 1922
New KingdomRamses II – 66 year rule Peace treatyBattles with Hittites (Asia) Great Builder
Ramses II Regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh. At 14 appointed Prince Regent by Seti Expanded Empire to greatest lengths Syria Campaign The Ramesseum – series of monuments and Temples
The Ramesseum“A kingdom greater than that of my father” – Ramses II
Abu SimbelRelocated in 1968 due to Aswan HighDamQueen Nefertari
Moses Born under the rule of Ramses I (Seti) Kill all new born boys Escaped on Nile Became Prince of Egypt Killed Slave Master Returned to free the Hebrews Exodus / Plagues of Egypt
The 4 Major River Valley Civilizations River Valley: Tigris / Euphrates Civilization: Sumerian / Babylonian Important Things to Know: Also called Mesopotamia (Greek for “land between two rivers”) Located in the Fertile Crescent Developed Cuneiform – wedge-shaped writing Invented the wheel First written laws: Code of Hammurabi
Code of Hammurabi 1780 BC Code consists of 282 laws Scaled Punishments "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” Social Status Justice?
The 4 Major River Valley CivilizationsRiver Valley: IndusCivilization: IndianImportant Things to Know: Two main cities Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro – very well organized Learned to weave cotton into cloth
The 4 Major River Valley Civilizations River Valley: Huang He (Yellow) Civilization: Chinese Important Things to Know: Writing symbols represented whole ideas Called themselves The Middle Kingdom, which is the belief that they were the center of the world (most important, better than others
What these Civilizations contributed to our life: - Irrigation – getting water to crops • New Technologies: - Use of money - Use of metal – tools and weapons
What these Civilizations contributed to our life: - Functional and beautiful• Architecture: - Used to praise gods and rulers
What these Civilizations contributed to our life:• Organized - Polytheism – belief in many gods - Belief in an afterlife Religions: - Developed rituals that we still use today
What these Civilizations contributed to our life: - Hammurabi’s Code of laws (1st written set of laws) came from the• Laws (written) Babylonian’s – based upon an “eye for an eye”
What these Civilizations contributed to our life: - First writing developed to record trading – greatly increased human• Writing Systems: intelligence
Essential Questions How is a civilization different from a community?
Essential Questions What is the reason that the greatest early civilizations all developed in river valleys?
Essential Questions Compare and contrast the Nile and Tigris- Euphrates civilizations
Essential Questions Why was the development of writing systems so important to the development of civilizations?