Bioshield In Sri Lanka Dr Selvam


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Bioshield In Sri Lanka Dr Selvam

  1. 1. Bioshield programme in the project villages of Sri Lanka – some observations Dr. V. Selvam Programme Director M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation Chennai, India
  2. 2. <ul><li>Process followed: </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing by the project leaders and senior managers </li></ul><ul><li>Field Visit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Meeting with the community: Presentation by </li></ul></ul><ul><li> community members and discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting with other stakeholders: FD, CCD, Agri. Dept, Envir. Dept. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Visit to the site: along with the community and in most cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with other stakeholders and discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Visit to the nursery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finalization of the observation with accompanying staff </li></ul>
  3. 3. Villages visited and nature of bioshield Non-mangroves Kalumunai Maruthamunai Karaitheevu Amparai Non-mangroves Walhangoda Bramanawatta Pathegama Galle Non-mangrove Bathigama, Talalla Pelana Matara Mangroves Madilla Hambatotta Sand dune, non-mangrove, mangrove Adaragagasyaya Hambantota Sand dune, non-mangrove, mangroves Wandruppa Hambantota Bioshield Village District
  4. 4. Village 1. WANDRUPPU Sand dune Associated vegetation Village River Mangroves Open area 1.5 km SEA Profile
  5. 5. Sand dune Stakeholders have developed a good design Sea Foreshore Back dune Crest Front dune Spinifex Ipomea Scaevola Bushy type Cassia Morinda Calotropis Casuarina Coconut Terminalia etc.,
  6. 6. Sand dune - Suggestions 1.One of the choices of the people in back dune is PHONIX – related livelihood It may be included – propagation technique – training necessary 2.Scaevola propagation technique – people should be trained 3.Already GOAL planted casuarina – how to coordinate?
  7. 7. <ul><li>Open area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present idea is planting Pandanus all over the area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestion: Scaevola can be planted in the front (towards seaward side </li></ul></ul><ul><li> in two rows and Pandanus can be planted on the river side </li></ul><ul><li> This will result in pyramid type of bioshield </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue: Already Pandanus planted but because of poor attention to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>maintenance they are not growing well – trampled by cattle </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Fencing the area ???
  8. 8. Open area Scaevola Pandanus
  9. 9. Mangrove area Sonneratia caseolaris – KIRALA Fruit used to make a drink Well conserved – Acrostichum, a weed spreading Preventing nal increase in population Suggestion: Manual removal of Acrostichum And planting of seedlings of Kirala Issue: Technique to remove Acrostichum Propagation technique for Kirala Acrostichum Suggestion: Training Issue: GOAL Project site
  10. 10. Village 2. ANDRAGASYAYA Pandanus Sand dune Mangroves
  11. 11. Sand dune…... Complex multiple dune system Stabilized – creepers, some bushy type of vegetation, Pandanus occasionally seen
  12. 12. Sand dune…... <ul><li>Plan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planting Pandanus and Palmyra – permission obtained from CCD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palmyra can grow – but earlier attempt by IUCN was not very successful </li></ul></ul><ul><li> IMPROPER MAINTENANCE???? </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pandanus will not grow – limited moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><li> a study can be carried out on the plantation by IUCN and </li></ul><ul><li> based on the finding planing can be done </li></ul><ul><li> a lot of maintenance work is necessary – like watering </li></ul><ul><li> community suggested multiplication of NIRALU a </li></ul><ul><li>locally available species and informed they know the </li></ul><ul><li>multiplication method </li></ul><ul><li> A study on this can also be made before planning </li></ul>CASUARIANA ?????
  13. 13. Mangroves…... A small mangrove ecosystem Dominated by Luminitzera racemosa (veronia) Some part of the mangroves is fenced by the Forest Department for restoration and Conservation FD has also introduced some species like Rhizophora, Bruguiera etc.
  14. 14. A part of the land is undertaken for raising mangroves – typical wetland suitable for raising mangroves There is a dispute – govt. planning to allot this land to villagers – a community leader informed he would solve this problem and get the land allotted Suitable for Integrated Brackish water farming or canal plantation Canal plantation Rhizophora can be planted along the canal Luminitzera can be planted in between Maintenance will be a major issue - grazing THERE IS A NEED FOR DEEPENING OF THE CANAL – DRAINAGE Save the paddy field and provide more water for mangroves
  15. 15. B U N D Brackish water farming system to integrate mangroves plantation and culture Of fish and crabs Fish/ Crab Outlet Inlet Inner bund with mangroves Halophytes can also grown as cash crops Gravity flow of tidal water
  16. 16. View of the Integrated Seawater farm Inner bund TIDAL OUTLET Mangrove plantation Outer bund Grow out area For fish, crab
  17. 17. Rhizophora plantation Sesuvium plantation A halophyte can be used as a salad
  18. 18. <ul><li>It is more suitable to grow crab than fish </li></ul><ul><li>So far crab is not successfully grown in ponds because they easily climb the bund and escape and secondly, strong crab can kill and eat week crabs (Cannibalism) </li></ul><ul><li>In the present seawater farming system mangrove root provide </li></ul><ul><li>shelter for crabs and hence they would not escape </li></ul><ul><li>the main food of crab is organic matter and hence, degrading </li></ul><ul><li>mangrove leaves can become nutritious food for crabs </li></ul><ul><li>A farmer can earn 1.5 to 3 lakhs from crabs alone </li></ul>
  19. 19. Village 3. Medilla <ul><li>Mangrove bioshield </li></ul><ul><li>Two sites – nearby the village and near to bridge (sea) – FD permission </li></ul><ul><li>obtained – a forest officer accompanied the trip </li></ul><ul><li>Species selected </li></ul><ul><li>Ceriops - Ponkandu </li></ul><ul><li>Bruguiera - Mulkadal </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizophora- Maa Kadndu </li></ul><ul><li>Avicennia officinalis x Mandu </li></ul><ul><li>Acanthus x Averi kadu </li></ul><ul><li>Luminitzera x Veronia </li></ul><ul><li>Acrostichum - people use tender shoot </li></ul><ul><li>but can be deleted from the list -pest </li></ul><ul><li>Community experienced how tsunami impact was reduced by the mangroves </li></ul><ul><li>- determined to raise the mangroves </li></ul><ul><li>Nursery being raised </li></ul>
  20. 20. Suggested pattern: Site near village <ul><li>Along the river bank Rhizophora </li></ul><ul><li>and Bruguiera can be planted in the </li></ul><ul><li>gaps found among Avicennia </li></ul><ul><li>Second tier – Luminitzera </li></ul><ul><li>Third tier – Acanthus </li></ul><ul><li>Along the boarder of the village’ </li></ul><ul><li>- Excoecaria </li></ul><ul><li>Issue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursery technique for Luminitzera and Aegiceras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantation of the above two species in small mounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propagation technique for Excoecaria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Site near bridge – near sea?? <ul><ul><li>Along the river bank Rhizophora </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and Bruguiera can be planted in the </li></ul><ul><li>gaps found among Avicennia </li></ul><ul><li>Along the canal – Luminitzera </li></ul><ul><li>In between – Acanthus </li></ul><ul><li>Along the try land boarder- Excoecaria </li></ul>Canal system of planting: <ul><li>Issue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to the site near village </li></ul></ul>POSSIBILITY OF DEMONSTRATING BRACKISHWATER FARMING SYSTEM CAN BE EXPLORED
  22. 22. MATARA DISTRICT and GALLE DISTRICT Bathigama, Talalla and Pelana and Walhangoda,Bramanawatta and Pattegama Only non-mangrove bioshield Bathigama - about 1 km long 2 to 5 m wide Talalla - about 1.5 km 2 to 10 m wide Pelana - about 1 km
  23. 23. General feature very narrow beach Physiographically may be divided into three zones Foreshore area or lower beach – Harsh environ. Wave Wind Salt spray Storm Beach crest Pandanus Scaevola Unidentified species Inland Ipomea Most of the areas converted
  24. 26. Suggested design: <ul><li>First tier Scaevola </li></ul><ul><li>Close spacing – 30 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Propagation - stem cutting </li></ul><ul><li> Seed </li></ul><ul><li>Number of rows ???? </li></ul><ul><li>Second tier Pandanus – Rana </li></ul><ul><li>Another type – Wattakaiya – may grow </li></ul><ul><li>only in land </li></ul><ul><li>Third tier Terminalia </li></ul><ul><li>Barringtonia </li></ul><ul><li>Thespesia </li></ul><ul><li>Coconut </li></ul>One of the Forest Officer told that space may be available for planting only one or two rows of plant!!!!!
  25. 28. In case no space then Pandanus Can be planted in the front row
  26. 29. <ul><li>Planting technique and Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Different species require different planting technique </li></ul><ul><li>Community needs to be trained </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Shade and watering for the third tier plants </li></ul>
  27. 30. AMPARAI DISTRICT Villages : Kalmunai, Marathumunai, Karaitheevu Only non-mangrove bioshield Kalmunai - Beach Profile Sea Small sand dune Boat land 65 m CCD Tsunami affected area Given to CCD Residential area
  28. 31. Sea Small sand dune Boat land 65 m CCD Residential area Present plan No bioshield activity Bioshield Casuarina Cashew Coconut
  29. 32. <ul><li>First tier Casuarina – should be closed spaced </li></ul><ul><li>Second tier Already coconut trees are there </li></ul><ul><li>in midst cashew will be planted </li></ul><ul><li>Third tier Coconut x </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested forth tier One row of closely spaced palmyra </li></ul><ul><li>Issue: </li></ul><ul><li>Access to resources by the community </li></ul><ul><li>There is an argument that coconut and cashew would not </li></ul><ul><li>grow together - community </li></ul><ul><li>But in a near place they are growing together – Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Planting technique – Training </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance – plan should be developed with the stakeholder </li></ul>
  30. 33. Maruthamunai Profile and bioshield plan SEA Beach – no bioshield activity Wet area Casuarina Coconut already present Cashew in the middle Tsunami affected area Residential area 65m CCD
  31. 34. Maruthamunai Profile and bioshield plan <ul><li>Community participation is total </li></ul><ul><li>Issues as in the case of Kalmunai </li></ul>
  32. 35. Conclusion <ul><li>Community is well mobilized but participation of men is limited </li></ul><ul><li>except in Amparai site </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders participation is good – formal agreement?? </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized nursery is good practice – income generation </li></ul><ul><li>awareness, participation </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of livelihood addressed in non-mangrove bioshield </li></ul><ul><li>Nursery practices need a lot of improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Staff and community members should be trained </li></ul><ul><li>They should regularly monitor and provide inputs to community </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Design of the bioshield is lacking – basic aspect of planning – Major lacuna </li></ul><ul><li>How many tiers </li></ul><ul><li>Each tier how many rows </li></ul><ul><li>What are the plants and how many </li></ul><ul><li>Design should be the base for nursery planning </li></ul><ul><li>What are the species? </li></ul><ul><li>How many to be grown in the nursery and when? </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation technique </li></ul><ul><li>for many species community is not </li></ul><ul><li>trained – different kind of ideas – some standardization required – thorough training is required </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange visit – community leaders from Amparai to Tamil Nadu – interaction in Tamil would benefit them – all components </li></ul>