Negative relations: mentor that is exploitive and/or egocentric. Sabotage: one takes revenge on the other (ex. Protégé did not get “promised” promotion may give mentor the silent treatment; Mentor who depends on protégé may sabotage protégé’s move to another company, etc.) Difficulty: person has good intentions but psycho-social problems get in way. Ex: mentor tells female protégé to delay having children in order to advance career. Spoiling: Problems are related to vocational interests. “Betrayed” party regrets investing so heavily in mentorship. Protégé feels mentor is stealing his/her ideas and not giving proper credit; mentor didn’t think this was an issue; protégé goes over mentor’s head; mentor feels betrayed) Relationship is spoiled.
Centering on MentoringA Training Program For Mentors And Mentees
Mentorship A mentor is an individual with expertise who can help develop the career of a mentee. The mentor guides, trains, advises, and promotes the career development ofthe mentee. Two types of mentoring functions: Career Psychosocial
Mentoring FunctionsCareer Functions: Help the mentee learnthe ropes and prepare for careeradvancement. Coaching Challenging assignments Exposure and visibility Protection
Mentoring FunctionsPsychosocial Functions: Help the menteedevelop a sense of competence and clarityof identity. Role-Modeling Acceptance and confirmation Counseling Friendship
Stages of MentoringInitiation StageCultivation StageSeparation StageRedefinition Stage Not all stages are beneficial to the mentor or to the mentee.
Advantages of MentoringAdvantages for the mentee: Career advancement Salary Organizational/professional identificationAdvantages for the mentor: Career enhancement “Passing the torch to a new generation” Learning from mentee – new technologies, new developments, important features of next generation
Disadvantages of MentoringDisadvantages for the mentee: Overdependence on the mentor Micro-management from the mentor Negative halo from mentor who failsDisadvantages for the mentor: Mentee dependence on mentor Time, energy commitment to mentee Negative halo from mentee who fails
Problems With Cross- Gender MentoringMost common form of business mentoring:male mentor and male mentee.Other forms: Male mentor and female mentee (most common) Female mentor and male mentee Female mentor and female mentee (rare)
Advice for Same-Genderand Cross-Gender MentoringKeep relationship professionalBe sensitive to other people’s reactions andpotential rumorsAvoid perception of personal relationship Meet in public venues Transparency of relationship
MentoringDysfunctional mentoring: When therelationship does not work for one ormore parties. Linda Tripp/Monica Lewinsky Problems develop when: Interests of the parties change Differences in judgment between parties Intrusion/over-involvement in another’s personal problems Triangulation problem with others (mentor/mentee/supervisor) Destructive tone of relationship (e.g., envy/jealousy; dependency/suffocation; support/exploitation)
Four Potential Dysfunctions in Mentoring Relationships Psychosocial Career-related Bad intent Negative Sabotage toward other Relations (revenge, silent (bullies, enemies) treatment, career damage) Good intent Difficulty Spoiling toward other (conflict, binds) (betrayal, regret, mentor off fast track)Scandura, T. A. (1998)
Formal Mentoring ProgramsProgram length is specified (12 months)Purpose of program is to help early careerpsychologists establish and develop theircareersProgram participation is voluntaryMatching of mentors and mentees uses inputfrom participants Interest areas in psychology Demographics Experiences
Formal Mentoring ProgramsAdvocate developmental networksMonitoring program: Relationships should end assoon as they become dysfunctionalEvaluation of programLittle research on formal mentoring programs.Available research supports informal mentoringas a stronger relationship with better outcomes.No current research examining quality of formalmentoring programs and their outcomes.(Wanberg, Welsh, & Hezlett, 2003)
Developer Developer Developer Demo- Profess- Geograph- Matrix of Types of is org. is org. peer is org. graphic ional/ ical Developers and Development superior to to the subordinae match Interest location Functions in Organizational the mentee mentee to the area match Socialization mentee match - - 0 + 0Career-related: Coaching menteewith strategies for meeting jobexpectations + + - - 0 + 0Career-related: Challenging menteewith stretch assignments/goals + + - + + +Career-related: Enhancing thementee’s exposure and visibilityCareer-related: Protection of menteefrom potentially negative contacts + + + + + +with other org. members. + - - 0 0 0Career-related: Sponsorship ofmentee’s career development + + - + + +Psychosocial: Role Modeling + + + + + +Psychosocial: Counseling with workrelationships + + + - 0 0Psychosocial: Counseling ondeveloping work/career-relatedcompetenciesPsychosocial: Counseling with work-family balance 0 0 0 + 0 + + + + + + +Psychosocial: General acceptanceand confirmation (Chao, in press) “+”= likely function for this type of developer, “0” = possible function for this type of developer, “-” = unlikely function for this type of developer
Advice to Potential MenteesGet mentors! Internal mentors help with currentorganizational issues. External mentors help withlarger career issues and future organizationalmoves.One mentor is unlikely to fulfill all developmentalneedsBe proactiveAdopt a learning orientationSet SMART developmental goals Specific Relevant Measurable Time-bound Attainable
Role of MenteesSeek counsel and advice, not a supervisor whodirects actions.Be aware of potential pitfalls: Overbearingmentor, mentor exploitation of mentee’swork. Be sensitive to the differencebetween asking for help/advice from yourmentor and demanding favors from yourmentor.Synthesize lessons learned from allmentors – become your own person.Recognize dynamics of relationship.
Advice to Potential MentorsRecognize that mentee may be uncomfortableasking for help – break ice by sharing some of yourcareer experiencesStay in your zone of expertise/experienceBe clear that mentee sets pace of relationshipAdvise, do not manageExtend mentee’s developmental network – suggestadditional mentors to address unique needs
Role of MentorsOffer advice that helps mentee develop –role is NOT to make decisions for mentee ormicromanage.Train to be efficient. Guidance and advice for onementee may also be appropriate for another.Be aware of potential pitfalls: overdependence ofmentee, mentee exploitation of mentor’s influence.Be sensitive to difference between developing amentee and using a mentee.Be aware of dynamics of relationship: Developmentalneeds may change.
Distance MentoringHow to use e-mail Use e-mail to set up meetings (face-to-face or phone), clarify plans/goals, pose non-time urgent questions, review plans, maintain contact. Don’t use e-mail to give critical or complex feedback, provide impressions of other’s behavior, provide impressions of third parties, exchange sensitive information.Communication Challenges Listen for nonverbal cues (e.g., pregnant pauses, voice tone, tempo, volume) Push for specific information, clarify meanings Summarize agreements
After the Program EndsMany relationships come to a natural end when amentee learns enough to be independent fromspecific mentors.New mentoring relationships with others may bemore beneficial than continuing an exhaustedrelationship.Program end may not mean the end of therelationship – informal mentoring can continue ifboth parties agree.Pilot program will assess how mentoring met needsof both mentees and mentors.