Graphic Novels


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Graphic Novels

  1. 1. graphic novels ACI 12 th Grade
  2. 2. What is the difference between graphic novels and comic books? <ul><li>Comics: monthly, serialized, using cheap papers and staples </li></ul><ul><li>Comic strip: short strip of cartoons published in newspaper, magazine </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Novel: narrative work which uses comics to convey the story </li></ul><ul><li>May be original story, fiction or even non fiction, or collection of shorter works. </li></ul><ul><li>Book length and published using book materials, sold in book stores. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Is the “graphic novel” a genre? <ul><li>No, ‘comics’ is the name of a medium – the genre refers to the content matter e.g. superhero; social criticism, etc </li></ul>
  4. 4. Historically speaking? <ul><li>Stories originally told through pictures: cave paintings ; tapestries (Bayeaux 1077); woodcut illustrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1900’s: collections of comic strips became popular in US </li></ul><ul><li>1933: Funnies on Parade was the first regularly published comic book. </li></ul><ul><li>1938: Superman first appeared in Action Comics. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Only US? <ul><li>No.In Europe </li></ul><ul><li>collections of comic </li></ul><ul><li>strips were bound in </li></ul><ul><li>book form and sold. </li></ul><ul><li>The Adventures of Tintin, Asterix </li></ul><ul><li>Raymond Briggs </li></ul><ul><li>wrote long stories </li></ul><ul><li>for children in this </li></ul><ul><li>format in 1970’s </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Golden Age of comics <ul><li>late1930’s - late1940’s: provided cheap, easy entertainment for troops in WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Captain Marvel also dual identity superhero…but a teenage boy </li></ul><ul><li>Batman, Wonderwoman, all with magical reasons for their superpowers </li></ul><ul><li>Similar characters – too good to be true! </li></ul>
  7. 8. So they just grew in popularity? <ul><li>No … concerns about effects on young people. </li></ul><ul><li>1954: Seduction of the Innocent by Dr Fredric Wertham was published … blamed juvenile delinquency on comic books </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Code of Conduct’ was created to regulate content and curb violence </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Silver Age of comics <ul><li>1956 – 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Updated versions of Superheroes … new costumes, identities. </li></ul><ul><li>Characters more realistic, “self doubting and flawed”. </li></ul><ul><li>Magic – out; Science – in! </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The Flash ’ published in Showcase #4 </li></ul><ul><li>Girls and children targeted: Casper, Richie Rich, Little Dot. </li></ul>
  9. 11. The Bronze Age of comics <ul><li>1970’s – 1980’s </li></ul><ul><li>Similar superheroes </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in real world social issues e.g. drug abuse, racial prejudice. </li></ul><ul><li>Amazing Spiderman (3 part) 1971 commis s ioned by US govt . to make drug usage seem dangerous and unglamorous </li></ul>
  10. 12. Superman #105 1970
  11. 13. The Modern Age of comics <ul><li>Mid 1980’s – present time </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter much darker </li></ul><ul><li>Heroes psychologically more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Batman: The Dark Knight Returns </li></ul><ul><li>The Watchmen </li></ul><ul><li>Artistically more developed </li></ul><ul><li>Anti heroes common e.g. Wolverine </li></ul>
  12. 14. Superman in USA Today July 2009
  13. 15. The Watch- men
  14. 16. These are comic books. What about Graphic Novels? <ul><li>First modern graphic novel generally accepted as 1978 Will Eisner A Contract with God and Other Stories of Tenement Life </li></ul><ul><li>178 pages </li></ul><ul><li>Serious content about life in 1930’s Bronx; not aimed at teenage or children’s market </li></ul>
  15. 17. And… <ul><li>1987: Maus: A Survivor’s Tale by Art Speigelman </li></ul><ul><li>Biographical family memoir of Holocaust </li></ul><ul><li>1992: won Pulitzer prize for Literature </li></ul>
  16. 19. Persepolis <ul><li>Written </li></ul><ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>Mariane </li></ul><ul><li>Satrapi </li></ul><ul><li>2000 </li></ul>
  17. 20. What are ‘anime’ and ‘manga’? <ul><li>Anime: Japanese–style animation … popular with children in US 1990’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Manga: Japanese-style comics often for adults, fiction and non fiction, works of literature </li></ul>
  18. 21. Manga studio
  19. 22. What to look for … layout 1. <ul><li>Layout of page </li></ul><ul><li>Read left to right and top to bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Number and size of panels – emphasis, pacing, flow of story </li></ul><ul><li>Use of negative space (white bits in between panels) </li></ul>
  20. 24. Visuals 2. <ul><li>Visuals within panel </li></ul><ul><li>Like a storyboard for film </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective (high/low angle; close up etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Point of view (clear/blocked view … through a window, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning? Tone? </li></ul>
  21. 26. Visuals 3. <ul><li>Visuals: style of artwork </li></ul><ul><li>realistic – objective but flat, everyday </li></ul><ul><li>Caricature – subjective but lively, exciting </li></ul><ul><li>Often mixture used </li></ul><ul><li>Lines- strong, thick or thin, faint </li></ul><ul><li>Effect on reader? </li></ul>
  22. 28. Visuals 4. <ul><li>Visuals: color versus black/white </li></ul><ul><li>Use of particular color palettes </li></ul><ul><li>Effect on mood? </li></ul>
  23. 29. Text 5. <ul><li>Where are the words? </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd person narration </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Shape of balloon </li></ul><ul><li>Inner thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Point of view of story </li></ul><ul><li>Type of language used </li></ul>
  24. 31. White space or ‘gutter’ 6. <ul><li>Notice change between panels/frames – leads to ‘static’ or ‘dynamic’ stories </li></ul><ul><li>Time lapse: how much must we ‘fill in’ with our imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity between frames can be tedious … too much difference can be confusing </li></ul>
  25. 32. Points of interest 7. <ul><li>Contrast of text and image may produce irony </li></ul><ul><li>Image enhances text </li></ul><ul><li>Text supports image </li></ul><ul><li>Allusions to real events, politics, etc </li></ul>
  26. 33. Further Reading <ul><li>Non Fiction Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The Cartoon History of the Universe II (Gonick, 1994) covers the history of China and India up to the fall of Rome with irony and humor </li></ul><ul><li>9–11: Artists Respond (Chaos! Comics, Dark Horse Comics, & Image, 2002). In it various well-known comic artists like Will Eisner and Frank Miller respond to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Pieces touch on the heroics of the rescuers, the fears of children, reflections on hate, and much more. </li></ul><ul><li>Larry Gonick and Wollcott Smith wrote The Cartoon Guide to Statistics (1993). </li></ul><ul><li>The Four Immigrants Manga (Kiyama, 1999), was recently discovered and translated into English. It describes the life of four Japanese immigrants in San Francisco, California, from 1904 to 1924. </li></ul>