English IV Gerunds Infinitives


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  • First he bought milk then he remembered that he did First he remembered, then he bought milk. He did not forget They answered but then they didn’t remember the event They didnt answer it
  • English IV Gerunds Infinitives

    1. 1. CV <ul><li>What does a perfect CV have? </li></ul><ul><li>What does a perfect CV not have? </li></ul><ul><li>What should it have optionally ? </li></ul>
    2. 2. <ul><li>I can _____ English. (speak) </li></ul><ul><li>We have  _____ our homework. (do) </li></ul><ul><li>You must  _____ at home. (stay) </li></ul><ul><li>I will  _____ you. (help) </li></ul><ul><li>He cannot  _____ us. (see) </li></ul><ul><li>My little sister learns _____ (speak) . </li></ul><ul><li>They want _____  to the cinema. (go) </li></ul><ul><li>You should _____  your parents. (ask) </li></ul><ul><li>I'd like _____  a dog. (have) </li></ul><ul><li>May we _____  in? (come) </li></ul>Choose the correct form (infinitive with or without  to ).
    3. 3. Imagine you work in a tourist information. Tell your colleague what the tourists asked you. Transform the direct speech into infinitive constructions. <ul><li>Two women asked, &quot;How do we get to the castle?&quot; -> Two women asked  how to get to the castle. </li></ul><ul><li>A man asked, &quot;Where can I catch the bus?&quot; -> One man did not know __________ </li></ul><ul><li>An old lady asked, &quot;Why should I go to the zoo by bus?&quot; -> An old lady did not understand  __________ </li></ul><ul><li>Some teenagers asked, &quot;Shall we buy a map?&quot; -> Some teenagers wanted to know  __________ </li></ul><ul><li>Two teenage girls asked, &quot;Where can we go shopping?&quot; -> Two teenage girls asked  __________ </li></ul><ul><li>A family asked, &quot;Which film could we watch?&quot; -> A family wanted to go to the cinema but they did not know  __________ </li></ul><ul><li>A couple asked, &quot;Where can we buy tickets for the opera?&quot; -> A couple wanted to know  __________ </li></ul><ul><li>A young woman asked, &quot;When can I go on a sight-seeing tour?&quot; -> A young woman asked  __________ </li></ul><ul><li>A businessman asked, &quot;What bar can I go to?&quot; -> A businessman did not know  __________ </li></ul><ul><li>A drunk asked, &quot;How do I get home?&quot; -> A drunk could not remember  __________ </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>You must _____   him. (meet/to meet) </li></ul><ul><li>I want  _____  you a secret. (tell / to tell) </li></ul><ul><li>We should  _____  them. (help / to help) </li></ul><ul><li>They can _____   another biscuit. (have/to have) </li></ul><ul><li>We will _____  for you. (wait / to wait) </li></ul><ul><li>He has  _____  up early. (get / to get) </li></ul><ul><li>May I  _____  the film? (watch / to watch) </li></ul><ul><li>They would not  _____  this. (do /to do) </li></ul><ul><li>I would like  _____  shopping in the afternoon. (go / to go) </li></ul><ul><li>She doesn't  _____  football. (like / to like) </li></ul>Choose the correct form (infinitive with or without  to ).
    5. 5. Complete the sentences with the gerund form of the verbs in parentheses. <ul><li>She is good at  _____ (dance) . </li></ul><ul><li>He is crazy about  _____ (sing) . </li></ul><ul><li>I don't like  _____ (play)  cards. </li></ul><ul><li>They are afraid of  _____ (swim)  in the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>You should give up  _____ (smoke) . </li></ul><ul><li>Sam dreams of  _____ (be) a popstar. </li></ul><ul><li>He is interested in  _____ (make)  friends. </li></ul><ul><li>My uncle is afraid of  _____ (go)  by plane. </li></ul><ul><li>We insist on  _____ (cook) the dinner ourselves. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Choose simple present, infinitive or gerund <ul><li>We go ______ every week. (swim/to swim/swimming) </li></ul><ul><li>Let it ______. (be/to be/being) </li></ul><ul><li>He dreams of ______ an actor. (become/to become/becoming) </li></ul><ul><li>They enjoy ______. (cycle/to cycle/cycling) </li></ul><ul><li>It is not easy ______ good friends. (find/to find/finding) </li></ul><ul><li>My friend is afraid of ______. (fly/to fly/flying) </li></ul><ul><li>Jane is good at ______. (read/to read/reading) </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted ______ a new computer game. (buy/to buy/buying) </li></ul><ul><li>I am crazy about ______. (dance/to dance/dancing) </li></ul><ul><li>You must ______ to my party. (come/to come/coming) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Gerunds <ul><li>Eating fast foods is convenient </li></ul><ul><li>They recommend reducing fats in the food </li></ul><ul><li>She started buying McBreakfast everyday. </li></ul><ul><li>He remembered getting some fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>We are tired of reading calorie counts for food. </li></ul><ul><li>I didn't like him ordering fries. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Infinitives <ul><li>It's convenient to eat fast foods. </li></ul><ul><li>They plan to reduce fats in the foods. </li></ul><ul><li>She started to buy McBreakfast every day. </li></ul><ul><li>He remembered to get some fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>We were surprised to read the number of calories in food. </li></ul><ul><li>I told him to order fries. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Notes <ul><li>Gerund used as subject in the sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating fast foods is fun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not caring about calories is a mistake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The gerund is often used after certain verbs as the object of the verb. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I dislike eating fast foods every day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John considered not eating fast foods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I dislike his eating fast foods (possesive formal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I dislike him eating fast foods (obj pron informal) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Notes <ul><li>Some verbs can be followed by the infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Three patterns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs always followed directly by the infinitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They hope to open a new McDonald’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She chose not to give up on meat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs followed by an object +the infinitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I told you to try the new restaurant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She convinced him not to order fries </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Notes <ul><ul><li>Verbs that can be followed directly by the infinitive or by an object + the infinitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I want to try that new restaurant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I want her to try it to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Some verbs can be followed by either the gerund or the infinitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I started bringing my own lunch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I started to bring my own lunch </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Notes <ul><li>Be careful a few verbs (for ex stop, remember, forget ) can be followed by either a gerund or the infinitive BUT the meanings are very different! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She stopped eating pizza (She doesn’t eat pizza anymore) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She stopped to eat pizza. (She stopped another activity in order to eat pizza) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Notes <ul><li>What are the differences in these: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He remembered buying milk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He remembered to buy milk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They forgot answering the letter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They forgot to answer the letter. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Notes <ul><li>The gerund is the only verb form that can follow a preposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I read an article about counting calories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be careful! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TO can be a preposition or a part of the infinitive. Use the gerund after the preposition TO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We look forward to having dinner with you. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Notes <ul><li>The infinitive can often follow an adjective. Many of these adjectives express feelings or attitudes about the action in the infinitive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were eager to try the new taco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She was glad to hear that it was low in calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are ready to try something different </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Notes <ul><li>The infinitive can also follow certain nouns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s time to take a break </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I have the right to eat what I want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They made a decision to lose weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s a high price to pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He has permission to stay out late </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Notes <ul><li>Use the infinitive to explain the purpose of an action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doug eats fast food to save time. (in order) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To make general statements you can use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gerund + verb + adjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooking is fun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It + verb + adjective + infinitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It ’s fun to cook </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Common Adjectives Followed by an Infinitive Example:    I am eager to see   you.   Adjective Infinitive   afraid determined frightened ready alarmed disappointed furious relieved amazed distressed glad reluctant angry disturbed happy sad anxious eager hesitant scared ashamed ecstatic interested shocked astonished embarrassed intrigued sorry careful encouraged lucky surprised curious excited pleased touched delighted fascinated prepared upset depressed fortunate proud willing
    19. 19. Common Verbs Followed by an Infinitive Example:      I refuse to lie to my customers.   Verb Infinitive   afford come hesitate prefer swear agree consent hope prepare tend appear continue hurry pretend threaten arrange dare incline profess turn out ask decide intend promise venture attempt deserve learn prove volunteer begin determine like refuse want can’t afford elect long request wish can’t bear endeavor love resolve would like can’t stand expect manage say yearn can’t wait fail mean seek   care get need seem   chance grow up offer shudder   choose guarantee pay start   claim hate plan strive
    20. 20. Verbs Followed by Object + Infinitive *Indicates verbs that can be followed by an infinitive only (no object). *Indicates verbs that can be followed by an infinitive only (no object). Example: They invited me to go to the party.   Verb Object Infinitive   advise force remind allow hire require ask* invite teach cause need* tell choose* order urge convince pay* want* encourage permit warn expect* persuade would like* forbid prepare*  
    21. 21. Common Verbs Followed By Gerunds An asterisk (*) denotes a verb that can also be followed by infinitive Example   I dread seeing my Aunt Bessie   Verb Gerund   abhor endure practice tolerate acknowledge enjoy prefer try* admit escape prevent understand allow evade prohibit urge appreciate explain propose   attempt fancy practice   avoid feel like prefer*   be worth feign prevent   began finish prohibit   *can't bear forgive propose   can't help give up (stop) quit   can't stand* hate* recall   celebrate imagine recollect   confess justify recommend   consider keep (continue) regret*   *continue like* report   defend love* resent   delay mention resist   deny mind (object to) resume   detest miss risk   discontinue necessitate shirk   discuss omit shun   dislike permit start*   dispute picture suggest   dread postpone support  
    22. 22. Go + Gerund Combinations Example: We go skiing whenever it snows.   Go + Gerund   go birdwatching go fishing go shopping go snorkeling go boating go hiking go sightseeing go swimming go bowling go hunting go skating go tobogganing go camping go jogging go skateboarding go window shopping go canoeing go mountain climbing go skiing   go kayaking go running go skinnydipping   go dancing go sailing go sledding