WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN LOMBOK IN RESPOND TO CHANGING CLIMATE (NTB)

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WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN LOMBOK IN RESPOND TO CHANGING CLIMATE (NTB)

  1. 1. Brief Discussion: WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN LOMBOK IN RESPOND TO CHANGING CLIMATE Surana Water Resources/OM Eng International Workshop:Building Scientific Capacity in Seasonal Climate Forecasting (SCF) For Improved Risk Management Decisions in a Changing Climate Kuala Lumpur, December 2011
  2. 2. OUT LINE• General info• ISSUES – IMPACT OF CC• FACT and FIGURES• Strategic Measures
  3. 3. Present /General Condition The West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) Province, located in the neighboring east of the Bali Island, Indonesia.  Population = 4.25 m  Average rainfall = 900 – 2.600 mm (Nov – Apr)  Potential surface water : 10 Mm3  Potential groundwater : 2 Mm3 Two Main Islands (river basins, ie Lombok and Sumbawa) and 18 sub-basins, of which, five of them, are increasingly deteriorating, among others, due to the impacts of widespread human activities in the upper watershed areas (and may be due to the impact of climate change(?))
  4. 4. NTB Main Water Rresources Infrastructures Irrigated Rice field = 169.505 ha Small Scheme Irrigation = 46.154 ha Villige Irrigation System & rf = 112.570 ha Ground Water Irrig system = 5.986 ha TOTAL Sawah = 334.215 ha Dam and Reservoir = 8 units Weirs = 288 units Small Ponds (Gov’) = 119 units Rural/ponds/embung = 1.978 units Ground Water Stations = 486 units Village Tunnels = 7 unitsThe water utilizations are mostly for irrigation and cleanwater for domestic consumptions, in some particularlocality, especially near the coastal areas, waterresources are also utilized for fisheries, life stocks.
  5. 5. Rainfall Maps of NTB Province WRD Regional Offc
  6. 6. MAP OF INTERCONNECTION SCHEME LOMBOK SELATAN Bendung Keru Bendung Jangkok Bendung Jurang Sate Sesaot Bendung Babak Bendung Sesaot MELOANG Sesaot Bendung Katon MambenHLD Jangkok - Babak Sidemen Kukusan Keru TempasanHLD Babak - Renggung Pringgasela Anjani Gde Bongoh Jurang Sate Hulu Temusik Datar Kerongkong Paok Dengkol Ijobalit Gebong Tain Petuk Baturiti Perako Muncan Denggen Iwan Reban Talat Jontak Renggung Jurang Sate Hilir Rutus Pungkang Gebong Parung Batujai Waduk Sakra Kondak Batujai Jurang Batu Swangi Katon Waduk Pengga Surabaya Mujur 2 Pandanduri Resv Mujur 1 Pelapak Tibunangka Kulem Pelambik Penendem under constr Tundak E.Pare Pengga Resv Batujai Resev Propose Mujur Resv
  7. 7. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM SKEMA JARINGAN INTERKONEKSI LOMBOK SELATAN S.Enda-Enda S.Renggung S.Keru S.Babak S.Lenek S S.Sri Gangga S.Rutus S.BENDUNG S.Gading S.Kermit S.Lenek U Bd. Jengguar S.Sade S Bangka Bd. Lantan Bendung Terara S.Bekanga Gde Bongoh BD. Babak Benjor BR SRI (Paok Dengkol) Otak Desa Temusik G.Joged Pelolat HLD BABAK-RENGGUNG-RUTUS HLD RUTUS S.Sesaot S.Kelambu Sungai Bangka S.Ganti Rutus Sidemen S.Dalem JKG/PKG S.Jangkok E. Sade Otak Desa S.Gambir PD. Duri Sesaot-GEB Simbe Jurang Sate Renggung Parung Keru Feder Lenek Pelapak JB-HLD Ses-Fed Sakra BJS.1 HLD JANGKOK- BABAK Bd. Keru Sal Jurang Sate BJS - 20 Sal Jurang Batu Swangi Tundak S.Sekot Jr. Batu TB. Nangka S.Ranget Grunung Katon S. Palung S.Remining Mujur - 1 Penendem Montang Mujur - 2 Kulem JSHLR S.Dodokan E. Surabaya Pelambik S.Midang Bun Topang Mata Maling S. Palung BT.Kantar S.Midang Montong S.Lajut Gamang Nyurbaya Surabaya Supl. Ses-Geb E. Pare Gebong Kuripan S Leneng S.Mangkung Bd. Bile remong Mencongah BT.Terang Batujai E. Batu Nampar Bertais Keterangan : Jalur Saluran Majeli Pengga Sungai Rep Pencor Bendung Divertion (Bang Bagi Utama) Pamotan Waduk GegutuIreng Daya Mataram KAB.LOMBOK BARAT KAB.LOMBOK TENGAH KAB.LOMBOK TIMUR
  8. 8. Kota Sumbawa Besar, 2006 Labuan Badas Kawasan Bandara Sumbawa
  9. 9. SKETSA PENAMPANG GERAKAN TANAH DUSUN CERORONG KAB. LOMBOK TENGAH O N 2 6 0 E Komplek Longsor Jalan Tanah SKETSA PENAMPANG Longsor Th. 93-84 Th.94-99 SDN Cerorong GERAKAN TANAH 35 m 50 m DUSUN CERORONG KAB. LOMBOK TENGAH v v v Retakan v v v v v v Rongga Akibat O Aliran AirtanahN 2 6 0 E Muka Airtanah Endapan Bahan Longsoran Komplek Arah Aliran Longsor Longsor Jalan Tanah Th. 93-84 Th.94-99 SDN Cerorong Lama 35 m 50 m v v v DAERAH KELOMPOK Retakan MATA AIR 2 v v v v v v N5 E 30 Rongga Akibat Aliran Airtanah Muka Airtanah Endapan Bahan Longsoran Lembah Longsoran 115 m Arah Aliran De hKlo pk ara e mo De hKlo pk ara e mo V . V . V Mtair1 aa Mtair3 aa Rtaa e kn Rtaa e kn V . V . V DAERAH KELOMPOK V . V . V MATA AIR 2 V . V . VN5 E 30 Endapan Bahan Longsoran Lembah Longsoran 115 m De hKlo pk ara e mo De hKlo pk ara e mo V . V . V Mtair1 aa Mtair3 aaRtaa e kn Rtaa e kn
  10. 10. CLIMATE CHANGESIndications/Impacts of Climate Change?
  11. 11. Fact: CC in NTB is REAL The cases of Malaria and Degues (DBD) epidemics are icreasing continuesly, The rainfall patterns are becoming irregular (start/end of rainy season can not be accurately predicted as before - uncertain). The occurency of floodings during rainny season, drought during dry season, tropical storms, and landslides are significantly encreased, Around 750 springs in 1980, but some 300 are remains in 2006, High Sedimentation rate in embungs and cannals
  12. 12.  The average temperatures periode January 1971 upto Desember 2006, has been increased 0,5C. Maximum 27,6 C and minimum 24,4 C The maximum Temperature has increased 0,7C, whilst the minimum temperature has increased 1,2C Maximum Rainfall has shifted (from the periode of January-March during 1971- 2000  periode Oktober-Desember in 2006;) Rainy season has been shifted (see graph) Sources: BMG Selaparang, 2007 Regional Health Services WRD Office
  13. 13. Climate Changes Parameters (30 years analisys) Climate pattern Rain fall Temperatures (avrg, min, max) Wind Speed (avg) Sunsine record Humidity Sources: BMKG Selaparang Mataram
  14. 14. 1. Shifting in pattern Remark upto 1980 UPTO 1990 upto 2000 upto 2010 Start of dry season April May May March START OF WET SEASON November November October November length OF WET SEASON (mth) 5 6 7 4 Length of dry season (MTH) 7 6 5 8 Peak of wet SEASON January January February November Peaks of dry SEASON July Agustus Agust Agust : significant changes
  15. 15. Okt-Des :2. RAINFALL ANALYSIS Trend naik pada dekade terakhir (26 Graphical view of rainfall averages, NTB Grafik Rata-Rata Curah Hujan NTB Jan-Mar : mm) (1971 – 2010) Periode Tahun 1971-2010 Trend turun 300 pada 250 dekade Apr-Jun(50 terakhir : 200 milimeter mm) naik Trend 150 pada 100 dekade terakhir (7 50 mm) 0 s/d 1980 s/d 1990 s/d 2000 s/d 2010 Jul-Sep : Januari-Maret April-Juni Juli-September Oktober-Desember Trend naik pada dekade Shifting in Peak of Rainfall’season terakhir (17 mm)
  16. 16. 2. RAINFALL (MATARAM St 3000 Variabilitas Curah Hujan Tahunan Kota Mataram 1750 2500 Trend of decreaasing 1700 1697 Temperatures during 1709 20001650 30 years periods milimeter Significant 15001600 decrease during 1550 recent decades 1000 (180 mm) 1517 1500 5001450 01400 s.d 1989 s.d 1999 s.d 2009 Periods/ Years
  17. 17. 3. TEMPERATURES3.1 AVERAGES AVERAGES (Mataram St) 26.60 26.50 26.47 26.40 26.30 0Celcius 26.20 26.15 26.10 26.00 26.02 25.90 25.80 25.70 s.d 1989 s.d 1999 s.d 2009 Periods/Years YEAR NORMAL 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 INCREASING TEMP’S TEMP’S 1971-2000 26.5 26.5 26.4 26.6 26.8 26.5 26.5 26.4 26.7 27.1 2001-2010 26.1 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.6 1.0 0.5
  18. 18. 3.2 Maximum Temperatures Variability of Maximum Temp (Mataram St) 31.60 31.51 31.40 31.20 0 Celcius 31.00 31.06 30.80 30.78 30.60 30.40 s.d 1989 s.d 1999 s.d 2009 Periods/ Years YearNORMAL 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 INCREASINGTEMP’S TEMP’S1971-2000 31.5 31.3 31.6 31.8 32.1 31.4 31.6 31.5 31.7 31.9 2001-2010 30.9 0.6 0.4 0.7 1.0 1.2 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.8 1.1 0.8
  19. 19. 3.3 Minimum Temperature Variability of Minimum Temp (Mataram St) 23.3 23.2 23.22 derajat Celcius 23.1 23 22.9 22.85 22.8 22.7 22.72 22.6 s.d 1989 s.d 1999 s.d 2009 Periode Tahun Years of Recorded NORMAL 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Increasing TEMP Temp’s 1971-2000 23.1 23.1 23.2 23.1 23.4 23.0 23.2 23.2 23.1 23.9 2001-2010 22.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.6 1.4 0.7
  20. 20. 4. WIND SPEED Variability of Windspeed (Mataram St) 7.0 6.3 6.0 5.0 5.1 4.0 4.7knots 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 s.d 1989 s.d 1999 s.d 2009 Year (periods)
  21. 21. 5. LENGTH OF SUNSHINE Variability of Sunshine Length (Mataram St) 72.0 71.8 71.6 71.8 71.6Percentage % 71.4 71.2 71.0 70.8 70.8 70.6 70.4 70.2 s.d 1989 s.d 1999 s.d 2009 Period / Years
  22. 22. 6. HUMIDITY Variability of Humidity (Mataram St) 81.5 81.0 80.9 81.0 80.5Persent % 80.0 79.5 79.6 79.0 78.5 s.d 1989 s.d 1999 s.d 2009 Periods/ Years
  23. 23. Shifting in Rainfall Patterns (Bali, Nusa Tenggara) IncreasingIn Bali-Nusra, one flood riskmonth delays in rainyseason  decreasedrice production by 7-18% (Naylor et al, 2006) Drought risk increasedAugt Dec May
  24. 24. DROUGHT OCCURRENCE NTB’PROVINCE  2005 Agric Area Drought - ExistingNr. District/Town (%) (ha) potency (ha) drought (ha) 1 Lombok Barat 22.594,00 2.784,00 0,00 0,00 2 Lombok Tengah 51.045,00 10.678,00 392,00 3,67 3 Lombok Timur 45.870,14 2.019,00 0,00 0,00 4 Sumbawa Barat 8.997,00 903,00 0,00 0,00 5 Sumbawa 42.500,00 1.785,00 108,00 6,05 6 Dompu 17.761,00 3.357,00 1.088,00 32,41 7 Bima 28.570,00 8.775,00 7.020,00 80,00 8 Kota Mataram 1.741,34 0,00 0,00 0,00 9 Kota Bima 1.901,00 118,00 115,00 97,46 Total 220.979,48 30.419,00 8.723,00 28,68
  25. 25. Floods Drought Land Slides
  26. 26. Building Scientific Capacity
  27. 27. CCF Who Doing What In What extent Order of priority Immediate or long term ACTION PLAN
  28. 28. WHY HAPPENED ? CONSTRAIN ?SOME EVIDENCES Lack of Understanding how to deal with climate variability and climate changes (both official and/or farmers) Lack of attention to the natural/ecological Phenomena and environmental decay; Coordination . . .
  29. 29. LIST OF MEASURES Built linkage among agencies and departments for learning possible strategies to deliver the output of the research into practice by users. Severe water shortages in Lombok, need to make better use of existing supplies (ACIAR projects, SRI practice and combination) In Lombok, evidence suggests that dry-season river flows have fallen substantially due to damage in the upper catchment areas  need upper catchment tretment and remedial.
  30. 30. LIST OF MEASURES cont Need to launch process for establishing and strengthening WUA and the Local Water Board (also train the local leader/champion/spiritual leader about the aspec of climate change matters (impact , adaptaion, mitigation, in a simple format) and strategic farming methods  FFS
  31. 31.  Need For Flexible Measures Implementation:  WR situation in Lombok very complex  Many projects ongoing or under preparation  Sharing activities (fund etc) will need to be adjusted based on performance / degree of importanceImplementing the Strategic Action Plan dealing with the impact of CC Variability (ie. Local Government, 2007):  Listed of action plan within each institution in provincial level
  32. 32. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION
  33. 33. Embung
  34. 34. HYSTORY OF RICE CULTIVATION• PRIMITIVE / TRADITIONAL CULTIVATION (Shifting cultivation for rice and bean)• UPLAND RICE (PADI LAHAN TEGALAN/GOGO)• TRANSPLANTED RICE called “sistem sawah” or “rancah” (Seedling, buffallo tilth, flooding)• GOGO RANCAH (Dry direct seeding and flooding at vegetative and/or reproductive stages) • INTRODUCING ACM (Cultivation on Vertisol) • Applying SCF (aciar project using IQQM softwares) • RAISED BED METHOD (introduction stage) • SRI (System Rice Intensification)  high priority • Local wisdom aplication ? • what else . . . . .
  35. 35. THANK YOU

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