“ Emotions are literally, what move us to pursue our
goals; they fuel our motivations, and our motives in
turn drive our perceptions and shape our actions.
Great work starts with great feeling.”
Factors that motivate outstanding performers are:
ACHIEVEMENT DRIVEACHIEVEMENT DRIVE
People with this competence :People with this competence :
Are result orientedAre result oriented
Have high drive to work towards and meetHave high drive to work towards and meet
their objectives and standardstheir objectives and standards
Set challenging and action-oriented goalsSet challenging and action-oriented goals
Take calculated risks in achieving their goalsTake calculated risks in achieving their goals
Elicit and collect relevant information so as toElicit and collect relevant information so as to
reduce uncertainty and also to identify betterreduce uncertainty and also to identify better
ways to do their tasksways to do their tasks
Learn how to improve their performanceLearn how to improve their performance
People with commitment competence:
Willingly make sacrifices to meet larger
group / organizational goals
Try to identify and find a purpose in the
Use the group’s / organization’s core
values as the measuring tape while taking
decisions and making choices
Actively seek out opportunities to fulfill the
group’s/ organizational mission
People who have initiative :
Are always on the look out to seize
Pursue goals beyond what is required or
expected of them
Are flexible and willing to cut through
bureaucracy and bend the rules (but do
not break the law) when necessary to get
a job done
Motivate others through unusual and
The characteristics of an optimist are:
They persist in working towards their goals
in spite of obstacles and set-backs
Operate from hope of success rather than
from the fear of failure
View set-backs as due to changeable and
manageable circumstances rather than
Able to realistically assess a set-back
See the positive side of situations
Learn from their mistakes or failures
THE NATURE OF MOTIVATIONTHE NATURE OF MOTIVATION
The word motivation was derived from the Latin
word movere ( meaning to move ).This , however,
is inadequate to understand its meaning. A brief
selections of representative definitions are:
..how behaviour gets started, is energized, is
sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of
subjective reaction is present in the organisms
while all this is going on ( Jones, 1955 )
…a process governing choices made by persons or
lower organisms among alternative forms of
voluntary activity ( Vroom,1964 )
..the self propelling force within a man which keeps
prompting him to improve his performance, his
behaviour. It is his will and keenness to achieve not
what he is supposed to achieve but what he sets for
himself to achieve ( S L Dass )
PROCESS OF MOTIVATIONPROCESS OF MOTIVATION
Need, DesireNeed, Desire
APPROACHES TO MOTIVATIONAPPROACHES TO MOTIVATION
Traditional Model. ( F W Taylor – 1911 )
Taylor saw the problem primarily with the
management, not workers.
It was management’s responsibility to find suitable
people for a job and to train them.
Management’s next responsibility was to install a
wage incentive system for the trained workers.
In theory, scientific management represented a
joint venture of management and workers to the
mutual benefit of both.
Human Relation Model. Mayo & Dickson-1933-45)
Attention was shifted away from the study of
worker-machine relations toward a more thorough
understanding of interpersonal and group relations
Management felt it has a new responsibility to
make workers feel important.
Many organizations attempted to open up vertical
communication channels so employees would know
more about the organization and have greater
opportunity for their opinion to be heard.
Lastly, workers were increasingly allowed to make
routine decisions concerning their own jobs.
Human Resources Model.
Human resources model generally view humans as
being motivated by a complex set of inter related
First, it is assumed that people want to contribute
to the job.
Second, it is assumed that work does notSecond, it is assumed that work does not
necessarily have to be distasteful.necessarily have to be distasteful.
Third, it is argued that employees are quiteThird, it is argued that employees are quite
capable of making significant and rationalcapable of making significant and rational
decisions affecting their work and that allowingdecisions affecting their work and that allowing
greater latitude in employee decision making isgreater latitude in employee decision making is
actually in the best interests of the organization.actually in the best interests of the organization.
To summarize, it should be pointed out that theTo summarize, it should be pointed out that the
human resources approach to motivation has onlyhuman resources approach to motivation has only
lately begun to receive concentrated attention.lately begun to receive concentrated attention.
In recent years, in fact, the notion of a multipleIn recent years, in fact, the notion of a multiple
strategy – using all three approaches at one timestrategy – using all three approaches at one time
or another depending upon the nature of theor another depending upon the nature of the
organization, its technology, its people and itsorganization, its technology, its people and its
goals and priorities – has come to be labeled agoals and priorities – has come to be labeled a
“contingency approach”“contingency approach” to managementto management..
GENERAL PATTERNS OF MANAGERIALGENERAL PATTERNS OF MANAGERIAL
APPROACHES TO MOTIVATIONAPPROACHES TO MOTIVATION
What they do is
than what they
HUMAN RELATIONHUMAN RELATION
People want to
feel useful and
People desire to
belong and to be
HUMAN RESOURCEHUMAN RESOURCE
Work is not
want to contribute
goals which they
have helped to
Most people can
be far more
directed and self-
their present jobs
Few want and can
handle work which
self- direction or
basic task is to
He or she must
break tasks down
These needs are
than money in
basic task is to
make each feel
He or she should
listen to their
objections to his
or her plans.
Manager’s basicManager’s basic
task is to maketask is to make
use of untappeduse of untapped
human resources.human resources.
He or she mustHe or she must
create ancreate an
environment inenvironment in
which all memberswhich all members
may contribute tomay contribute to
the limits of theirthe limits of their
tolerate work if the
pay is descent and
the boss is fair.
If tasks are
simple enough &
people are closely
controlled, they will
produce to desired
involving them in
will satisfy their
basic needs to
belong & to feel
needs will improve
morale & reduce
influence, self-influence, self-
direction, & self-direction, & self-
control will lead tocontrol will lead to
improvements inimprovements in
Work satisfactionWork satisfaction
may improve as amay improve as a
by product ofby product of
making full use ofmaking full use of
their resources.their resources.
CLASSIFICATION OF THEORIESCLASSIFICATION OF THEORIES
Based on the above conceptual frame work, each of
the theories of motivation are discussed under the
following two categories:
Individual or People centered approaches, and
Work centered approaches.
An overview of the theories is depicted in the
model as shown in the figure: Next slide
AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE ON WORK
CULTURE AND MOTIVATION
Work and WorkerWork and Worker
Work & Worker are inseparable.Work & Worker are inseparable.
Work is both physical and mental; knowledge andWork is both physical and mental; knowledge and
skill based.skill based.
It is also related to certain attitudes & values.It is also related to certain attitudes & values.
Behaviour of the worker depends upon hisBehaviour of the worker depends upon his
attitudes. Attitudes in turn are dependent uponattitudes. Attitudes in turn are dependent upon
values. So proper values are important for avalues. So proper values are important for a
healthy work environment.healthy work environment.
In our country there is a deep ingrained valueIn our country there is a deep ingrained value
system, but unless the individual adopts it &system, but unless the individual adopts it &
internalises it, there would be no real changeinternalises it, there would be no real change..
Work Culture and Organization
In the context of an organization the entire thrust
of HRM is to build, strengthen and sustain a
After all organization is people.
Organization exists for work.
The base of the organization is people.
WORK CULTURE AND BHAGAVAD GITAWORK CULTURE AND BHAGAVAD GITA
It create & develop proper work culture where
both people & organization benefit & better
quality work is turned out is given in our
Bhagwad Gita deals with & elaborates on work,
worker & work culture.
It is unique in its stress on work ethics.
The philosophy of work as propounded by Lord
Krishna is both secular & spiritual.
There cannot be healthy secular development &
progress without spiritual foundation.
Similarly spiritual progress is not possible without
satisfaction of secular needs.
The work culture elaborated in Gita takes an
integrated view of life and living.
THEORY OF NISHKAM KARMA
Man works with various motives. The motives may
vary from man to man; fame, money, power etc.
This is the basis of all motivational theories in the
West. But this way of work is selfish and greed
driven and Indian philosophy terms it as “Sakam
On the other hand, work for work’s sake or
“Nishkam Karma” (unattached involvement or
desire less work ), is totally energy conserving,
as the approach is devoid of qualities of loss &
gain, success & failure, richness & poverty etc.
The individual is inspired to work without any
ambition what so over for the fruit of labour.
The main components of “Nishkam Kam” theory
can be analyzed as under:
A person (whether he is owner, manager, worker) has
authority to do work only.
He should not have attachments for its rewards. At the
same time it is not said that there is no authority for
rewards. This fine distinction must be understood.
What is of first importance is not the religious or non-
religious character of the work done, but the inner
attitude in which it is done.
It is the spirit or consciousness in which the work is
done that matters most.
Action without desire is possible, action without
attachment is possible, action without ego is possible.
The joy of service and the joy of inner growth through
work is the sufficient recompense of the self-less
Reaction less action.
Perfection is the aim.
Being in the world not of it.
Excellence through work as
worship of the divine.
SAKAM KARMASAKAM KARMA
Psychological burn out.
Success is the aim.
Dependence on externals.
Being in the world & of it.
Excellence through work as a
worship of the ego.
Happiness is a state of mind andHappiness is a state of mind and
comes from within a person, andcomes from within a person, and
seems to relatively little to do withseems to relatively little to do with
wealth or material possessions.wealth or material possessions.
Perception and ability to set realisticPerception and ability to set realistic
goals and achieving them also leadsgoals and achieving them also leads
to happinessto happiness..
Theory X / Y
Self Actualization Needs
NEEDS THEORIES – A COMPARISON
Marslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Alderfer’s ERG Theory