Definition: Bernard (1926) said
‘Any person who is more than ordinarily efficient in carrying successful
psychological stimuli to others and is thus effective in conditioning collective
responses may be called a leader’. There is no mention of the characteristics
of the group or situation here.
Definition: Knickbocker (1948) said
‘The functional relation in leadership exists when a leader is perceived by a
group, as controlling means for the satisfaction of their needs’. Conversely
speaking, according to this definition, the needs of the group members
exercise little Influence on the behavior of the leader.
Definition: Koontz and O’Donnell (1955) said
‘The activity of persuading people to co-operate in the achievement of a
Definition: Fiedler (1967) said
‘By leadership behavior we generally mean the particular acts in which a leader
engages in the course of directing and coordinating the work of his office group
members. This my involved such acts as structuring the work relations, praising
or criticizing the group members and showing consideration for their welfare
Definition: Hemphill (1954) said
‘To lead is to engage in an act that initiates a structure in the interaction as part
of the process of solving a mutual problem’. This definition of leadership was
taken forward by Henry Harris in his book, the group approach to leadership
testing when he wrote, ‘Leadership is a collective function: collective in the
sense that it is the integrated synergized expression of the group’s efforts: It is
not the sum individual sum dominances and contributions; it is their
relationship. In so far as a man contributes to the collective leadership
function…… he will realize that the ultimate authority and true sanction for
leadership and every point where it is exercised, resides not in the individual,
however dominates, strong of efficient he may be, but in the total situation and
in the demands of the situation.
Leadership as a Dynamic process.
LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT
Leadership has been practiced since time immemorial whereas the emergence of
the term management is relatively now. In fact, it is a post industrial revolution
phenomenon not only in the service but also in civil life. Management literature
considered leadership as integral part of management while some others believe
that they are different and advocate pre-eminence of leadership over
management. In fact the emphasis is perhaps turning a full circle as is evident
from the latest management literature, and from following quote of peter Drucker :
The problem with many organizations and especially the ones which are failing is
that they tend to be over managed and under led.
Dichotomy Between Leadership and Management
Those who advocate dichotomy between the two terms like to quote
McNamara as a good manager but a bad leader; General Patton as a
good leader but as bad manager and Montgomery as a combination of
It is suggested that the following attributes of the leader further highlight
the distinction between leadership and management:
Managers supervise people; if their people are not willing to accept
and follow the supervisory authority, the managers are not leaders.
Subordinates may comply with supervisory authority out of fear but
such compliance is not a response to leadership. Similarly, not all
leaders are managers. Some leaders may have followers but no
formal authority to manager, hence they are not managers. For
example, informal leaders in a work group are leaders but may not
Zalenik points out tile difference in our expectations of the behavior
of managers and leaders. Managers are expected to use their
analytical minds in establishing and achieving organizational goals,
problem solving and decision making whereas leaders are expected
to be charismatic people with great vision who can alter the mood of
their followers and raise their hopes and expectations.
Both managers and leaders are responsible for meeting the
organizational demand, as well as those of its members. However,
manages are more concerned with achieving organizational goals
and achieve these in an impersonal manner while leaders are
expected to be more deeply involved with their followers in doing so.
APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
Leadership has been studied from different view and for various purpose. It has
been studied for determining what qualities of head and heart make an effective
leader. It has been studied for finding out the relative importance of the situations
and characteristics of the group members in the successful functioning of a leader.
Tracing the historical perspective of leadership, therefore, become necessary for
us. So far the following approach to the understanding of leadership have been
progressively advanced by behavior scientist.
• Traits approach
• Behavioral approach
• Situational approach.
• Contingency or functional approach.
The Traits identified as the most important by Kalpatrick and Locke are
Drive, Honesty and integrity, Leadership motivation (desire to exercise
influence over others to reach shared goals), self confidence, cognitive
ability, knowledge, creativity and flexibility)
Behavioural Approach: Hemphill (1977) states ‘Leadership may be
defined as the behavior of an individual while he is involved in directing
The researchers, therefore, attempted to study the more important types of
leader behavior and thereafter analyzed the styles that they adopted in
various situations. The various types of behavior and the various theories /
models based on this approach are as follows:
Types of Behavior:
• Symbolic Behavior
• Decision-making Behavior
• Concern for men
• Concern for Task
Styles of Leadership:
• Authoritarian – Democratic – Laissezfaire Continuum Approach.
• Nurturant- Participative – Authoritarian styles
• Grid Approach
• Life Cycle Model
TYPES OF BEHAVIOUR
Symbolic Behavior is a given as well as an acquired aspect of a leader. He enjoys
a positional or legal authority conferred on him by the organization.
Decision Making Behavior:
Decision making is the key function of a leader. It is the most important aspect of
his behavior. It is his prerogative as well as his responsibility. Psychologically
speaking, decision making ability of a leader is deeply rooted in his:
• Self-concept. His estimation of himself in his own eyes.
• Risk-taking Ability. The ability to stick out his neck when faced with a
• Tolerance for ambiguity. The ability to keep calm and deliberate about
different aspects of a problem inspite of uncertainties and pressures.
• Internal vs External Control. The ability to have more faith in ones’ own
abilities and efforts to solve a problem than to believe in the factors of
chance and fate.
Concern for Men
It given birth to a ‘corporate soul’ which in the Services language is called esprit-
de-corps. For developing this corporate soul, however, the leader has to keep
close and frequent touch with his men. He has to look after their daily needs as
well as help them in solving their personal problems. In doing so he has to ensure
that his official position does not get compromised.
Probably today there is a need for our officers to operate through empathy rather
than sympathy in relating themselves to their men. They should ensure that the
needy member of the group receives the required help but there is no need for
him to feel obliged to any person as such for receiving that help. This would
reinforce the ‘corporate soul’ and the leader would also rise in the estimation of
the one who receives the help. Modest behavior has a very strong appeal for the
Concern for Task
Each organization has an objective and for the achievement of that objective,
groups are formed in the organization . Each group is assigned a task and more
often than not a group leader is also appointed to ensure the completion of task.
Thus we see that leadership is sine quo non of task performances. The primary
duty of the commander is the accomplishment of his assigned mission. Other are
STYLES OF LEADERSHIP
The styles of leadership are discussed under the following heads:
• Continuum of Leader Styles.
• Nurturant – Participative – Authoritarian styles.
• Grid Approach to Leadership.
• Life Cycle Model.
Authoritarian Leader: He is the replica of our Zamindar in the village.
He determines all policies and formulates all strategies of goal
achievement for his group. He forms work teams and assigns tasks and
duties to each member of the group. He is personal in praising and
criticizing group member, and is not always objective in doing so. He
maintains a respectable distance from a group and often functions
through ‘proper channels’.
It has been found that an authoritarian leader is very much required to
tackle an emergent or crises ridden situation. He is the best man to
deliver the goods when vital interest of the organization and are stake.
He gets things moving fast and is very efficient in achieving short
A Democratic Leader is the one who is group minded. He involves all group
members in making policy decisions. He consults the experts and technician,
members of his group and listen to the suggestions made by others attentively. He
allows the members to choose their own companions in the formation of task-
teams. He encourages the development of those with marginal performance but is
not harsh on those who achieve low results. He is objective in praising and
criticizing his group members. He keeps little formal distance from them and joins
in their activities as often as possible..
A democratic leader runs a happy and satisfied team though not necessarily a very
productive one. The members of his group take more time in producing results
especially at the planning stage of the tasks. However, he generates a self
propelling process in his group members which, continues even when he himself is
not physically present among them. Morale of them members of a group led by
democratic leader is high and personnel turn over in his group is low. A democratic
leader is very good in achieving long term results.
NURTURANT TASK (NT) LEADERSHIP
Not respected by
The traits approach to leadership laid emphasis on the inborn qualities of a leader
and the behavioral approach gave importance to his behavior. The situational
approach to leadership, however, given overriding importance to the situation. It
maintains that it is always the situation which determines who will emerge as the
There are three main aspects of a leader which help him in solving problems. These
• Position of the leader (job title, badges of rank, appointment etc,.)
• Personality of the leader (the natural qualities of influencing behavior)
• Knowledge (technical, Professional).
These three aspects are interrelated and make the integrated whole known as the
leader's personality. Among these Knowledge is most amenable to improvement. It
is also entirely within the control of the leader. An in-depth knowledge about ones
owns strength and weaknesses, about the needs and values of the group members,
the situation, can definitely help a leader in rising to the occasion and solving the
EFFECTIVENESS OF THIRD DIMENSIONS
Basic Effective Inneffective
Integrated Executive Compromiser
Related Developer Missionary
Separated Bureaucrat Deserter
DISCUSSIONS OF STYLES OF LEADERSHIP
Dedicated leader: It is the basic style related to high task and low welfare
orientation of a leader. The leader belonging to this quadrant tends to dominate
others. He gives many verbal directions to his group members. His time
perspective is immediate and he prefers to do everything now. He identifies
himself with his superiors and with the technical system of his organization. He
judges superiors on the basis of their skill in using power and group members on
the basis of results produced by them. He plays a very active part in
committees. He is well suited for jobs involving directing others efforts.
Benvolent Autocrat: He is the leader who is highly task oriented but whose
style of functioning is in consonance with the characteristics of the group and
nature of the situation. He is like the captain of a sports team – energetic,
industrious and committed to the completion of the task assigned to him.
Autocrat: He is the one who is highly task oriented but his style of leadership
does not fit the characteristics of the group and the situation. The main stance
of his functioning is based on threats and punishment.
Integrated leader: It is the basic style with high task and high welfare
orientation. The leader belonging to this style likes to become ‘ apart of things’.
He is essentially a joiner and takes great pains in getting appropriate involved
with individuals and group settings. He organizes meetings frequently. His
orientation is always to the future. He judges subordinates on the basis of their
willingness to join the team.
The two dimensions of this style are:
• Executive: He is the one who combines both high task and high welfare
orientation in his behavior; this style suits the group and situation also. He
uses participative management as the basis of his functioning. He involves
the members of his group in the process of decision making and this
commits them to achieve the goals which they set through mutual
• Compromiser: Through this person has high task orientation as well as
high welfare orientation, yet he is considered by the group members as a
weak-kneed compromiser who is incapable of meeting the needs of the
situation. He tends to under-rate the importance of immediate problems
and has no heart for developing long term plans.
Related Leader: He is the leader with high welfare orientation. He accepts
others as he finds them. He enjoys long conversations as a way of getting
to know others better. He is not too concerned with time. He sees
organisations primarily as social systems and judges his group members on
how well they understand each other. He judges superiors on the basis of
warmth they show to differences, and coaxes group members to give out
their best. He is particularly suited for training and development activities,
managing professional workers, and providing coordination. The extreme
dimensions of this style are:
Developer: He is the one whose concern for welfare of his group members
is very high and this style of leadership also finds favour with the group and
the situation. He is of the conviction that work is as natural to people as play
or rest. He knows that in the beginning most people have reservations
about their potentials. These, however, can be transformed into talents if an
informal and enabling atmosphere is provided to them for development.
His genuine interest in the development of group members and creating a
somewhat permissive work atomosphere, often stimulates them to work in a
creative and innovative manner.
Missionary: He is a man with high welfare orientation working in a group and
operating in a situation which demands a different style of leadership. In fact, his
main desire is to get accepted by others. His work commitment is low. He has
an inherent dislike for all types of conflicts. He hardly exercises any control over
his group members to make them produce the results they are supposed to. He
is, therefore least suited to take hard decisions and achieve time-bound results.
Separated Leader: He is the leader whose task orientation and welfare
orientation are both low. He is very much concerned about correcting deviations.
He tends to write, rather than talk. Partly because of this, he has little personal
communication in any direction. His time perspective often relates to the past –
‘how did we do it last time?’ He identifies with the organisation as a whole rather
than with its individual members. He takes great interest in the rules and
procedures and judges others on how well they adhere to these. He values
intellect in his superior but not necessarily on others. He is obviously well suited
to work in administration, accounting, statistics or engineering design. When
things go wrong his usual reaction is to propose more controls.
Bureaucrat: He is the one whose task orientation and welfare orientation are
both low. Yet in our large organisations he too can perform usefully under certain
circumstances. He is impersonal in his behavior. He likes to work in a slow but
methodical manner. He is wedded to rules and regulations, systems and
procedures and that is the type of staff work which lends consistency to the
functioning of an organisation. He ensures that everyone receives his due
according to the rules. The group members therefore, can rely upon him for fair
and just behavior. However, his main strength lies in maintaining an on-going
system; he is not of much value for innovating and creating new systems.
Deserter: He is the person who has low task orientation and low welfare
orientation . To top it all, he is in the wrong type of company and in the wrong
spot. In fact , he is the man who goes about in life with a feeling as if he has
been hurt and has never got over it . He avoids jobs involving responsibility ; has
a narrow vision of life and is allergic to all types of change. Faced with difficulties
he gives up easily. In his relations with others, he is mostly uncommunicative; he
may even prove a hindrance in the way of others doing their jobs.
This aspect of leadership has been explained with the help of a formula as
Leff = f (1, g, s)Leff = f (1, g, s) , wherein
Leff = Leadership effectiveness
F = function of
I = leader
G = group
S = situation
Some of the important characteristics of the leader, the group
and the situation, and their interrelations are shown in figure
Social OrientationMental ability
Job Interest and