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Univariate & bivariate analysis

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UNIVARIATE & BIVARIATE ANALYSIS
UNIVARIATE BIVARIATE & MULTIVARIATE
UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS
-One variable analysed at a time

BIVARIATE ANALYSIS
-Two variable analysed at a time

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
-More than two variables analysed at a time

TYPES OF ANALYSIS

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

Transformation of raw data

Facilitate easy understanding and interpretation

Deals with summary measures relating to sample data

Eg-what is the average age of the sample?

INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS
Carried out after descriptive analysis

Inferences drawn on population parameters based on sample results

Generalizes results to the population based on sample results

Eg-is the average age of population different from 35?

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF UNIVARIATE DATA
1. Prepare frequency distribution of each variable
Missing Data
Situation where certain questions are left unanswered

Analysis of multiple responses
Measures of central tendency
3 measures of central tendency

1.Mean

2.Median

3.Mode

MEAN
Arithmetic average of a variable

Appropriate for interval and ratio scale data

x
MEDIAN
Calculates the middle value of the data

Computed for ratio, interval or ordinal scale.

Data needs to be arranged in ascending or descending order

MODE
Point of maximum frequency

Should not be computed for ordinal or interval data unless grouped.

Widely used in business

MEASURE OF DISPERSION
Measures of central tendency do not explain distribution of variables

4 measures of dispersion
1.Range
2.Variance and standard deviation
3.Coefficient of variation
4.Relative and absolute frequencies

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF BIVARIATE DATA
There are three types of measure used.

1.Cross tabulation

2.Spearmans rank correlation coefficient

3.Pearsons linear correlation coefficient
Cross Tabulation
Responses of two questions are combined
Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient.
Used in case of ordinal data

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Univariate & bivariate analysis

1. 1. UNIVARIATE & BIVARIATE ANALYSIS
2. 2. UNIVARIATE BIVARIATE & MULTIVARIATE UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS -One variable analysed at a time BIVARIATE ANALYSIS -Two variable analysed at a time MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS -More than two variables analysed at a time
3. 3. TYPES OF ANALYSIS •DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS •INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS
4. 4. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS Transformation of raw data Facilitate easy understanding and interpretation Deals with summary measures relating to sample data Eg-what is the average age of the sample?
5. 5. INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Carried out after descriptive analysis Inferences drawn on population parameters based on sample results Generalizes results to the population based on sample results Eg-is the average age of population different from 35?
6. 6. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF UNIVARIATE DATA 1. Prepare frequency distribution of each variable
7. 7. Missing Data Situation where certain questions are left unanswered
8. 8. Analysis of multiple responses
9. 9. Measures of central tendency 3 measures of central tendency 1.Mean 2.Median 3.Mode
10. 10. MEAN Arithmetic average of a variable Appropriate for interval and ratio scale data x
11. 11. MEDIAN Calculates the middle value of the data Computed for ratio, interval or ordinal scale. Data needs to be arranged in ascending or descending order
12. 12. MODE Point of maximum frequency Should not be computed for ordinal or interval data unless grouped. Widely used in business
13. 13. MEASURE OF DISPERSION Measures of central tendency do not explain distribution of variables 4 measures of dispersion 1.Range 2.Variance and standard deviation 3.Coefficient of variation 4.Relative and absolute frequencies
14. 14. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF BIVARIATE DATA There are three types of measure used. 1.Cross tabulation 2.Spearmans rank correlation coefficient 3.Pearsons linear correlation coefficient
15. 15. Cross Tabulation Responses of two questions are combined
16. 16. Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient. Used in case of ordinal data