Preliminary phytochemical and diuretic potential of methanolic extract of azima tetra cahntha lam leaf


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Preliminary phytochemical and diuretic potential of methanolic extract of azima tetra cahntha lam leaf

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Preliminary phytochemical and diuretic potential of methanolic extract of azima tetra cahntha lam leaf

  1. 1. 275 Original Article PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND DIURETIC POTENTIAL OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AZIMA TETRA CAHNTHA LAM, LEAF *1Kumarasamyraja D, 2Shankar M, 2Gowrishankar N L *1Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidhambaram, Tamil nadu – 608 001, India. 2Swami Vivekanandha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vangapally (V), Nalgonda (district), Andhra pradesh - 508286, India. Print 2231 – 3648ISSN Online 2231 – 3656 Abstract Azima tetracantha.L belongs to Salvadoraceae and known as Kundali in Ayurvedic medicine. It was traditionally used for its diuretic property. Various analytical parameters such as ash value, water soluble ash, and sulphated ash done for this study. Ethyl alcoholic extract of Azima tetracantha Lam leaf were investigated diuretic activity. Its root, root bark, and leaves are administered with food as a remedy for rheumatism, stimulant, expectorant, antispasmodic and analgesic effects. Phytochemical studies reveal the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and triterpens are also reported to be present in this plant. The diuretic activity of the extract was determined by Taylor and Topless. In this method 500mg/kg extract does not match with effect produced by the standard. But 750mg/kg body weight of the extract is almost equal to effect produced by the standard drug hydrochlorothiazide so the Azima tetracantha.L leaf extract posses the diuretic activity. Key words: Hydrochlorothiazide, Antispasmodic, Azima tetracantha.IntroductionPlant medicine is commonly used in the traditional There are many pharmacologically active crude drugtreatment of some renal diseases, and many plants are and chemical agents isolated from plant sources. Nowreported to possess significant diuretic activity. The a day’s physicians have turned their attention todiuretic activity of a number of plants used in ethno ayurvedic, siddha and unani system of treatment inmedicine as diuretic agents has been confirmed in western countries to avoid problematical effect ofexperimental animals. Medicinal plants can be synthetic drugs, though they are much more potentimportant source of unknown chemical substance with these implies that natural plants have comparitivepotential therapeutic effects. Besides the world health therapeutic value with fewer side effects. Nearly oneorganization has estimated that over 75% of the world tenth of the people in the world are suffering frompopulation still relies on plant derived medicine1. oedema due to sodium and water retention, anti diuretics as a result of therapeutic in complaines. It isThe utilization of plants for medicinal purpose in India necessary to reach for new drugs from natural sourceshas been documented long a back in ancient literature against these ailments.become they are essential to human survival2. In common a diuretic is any substance which increasesAuthor for Correspondence: urine and solute production. But to be therapeuticallyKumarasamyraja D, diuretics should increase the output of sodium, chlorideAnnamalai University, as well as water .most diuretics share the sameAnnamalai Nagar, Chidhambaram, mechanical action, blockade sodium and chlorideTamil nadu – 608 001, India. reabsorption, hydrochlorothiazide promotes urineEmail: production by blocking the reabsorption of sodium and chloride early segment of distal convoluted tubule3. Int. J. Pharm & Ind. Res Vol - 01 Issue - 04 Oct – Dec 2011
  2. 2. 276Ethyl Alcoholic extract of azima tetra cantha leaf were experiment .the animal were kept in clean and dryinvestigated diuretic activity. It is a unique folk plastic cages, at 26 ± 2°c and relative humidity 45-medicinal that belongs to the family Salvadoraceae .its 55% light and dark cycle of 12 and 12 h respectivelyroot, root bark and leaves are administrated with food for 1 week. Animals were fasted and deprived ofas a remedy for rheumatism4. Azima tetracantha water for 18 hrs.leaves possesses stimulant, expectorant , antispasmodicand analgesic effects preliminary phytochemical Qualitative Phytochemical Analysisscreening of the extracts showed the presence of Phytochemical tests were carried out to find out theAlkaloids ,Flavonoids Ttriterpens, Carbohydrates and presence of phyto constituents viz, alkaloids, steroids,Glycosides. The present study was to evaluate the carbohydrates, fixed oils, fats, tannins, phenolicdiuretic activity of the extracts of azima tetracantha compounds, amino acids etc, and the results shown inusing Wister albino rates.5, 6 Table 02. Diuretic ActivityMaterials and Methods The method of Taylor and Topless (1962) werePlant Material employed for assessment of diuretics activity on fourAbout 2kg of the leaves was collected from Viragalur male albino rates in each groups. Weighing 180-village of Trichy Dist, Tamilnadu, India. 230gm were to be selected. These were fasted and deprived of water for 18 hours. Prior to theDetermination of Ash Value experiment on the day of the experiment all theAsh values are helpful in determining the quality and animal were given normal saline 25ml/kg/bodypurity of the crude drugs in powder form procedure weight.9given in Ayurvedic pharmacopeia7. Procedure was Animal were grouped into 4, each have four rates.adopted to determine the different ash values such as Group I was taken as control which was given normaltotal ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, saline 25ml/kg.sulphated ash and result shown in table 01. Group II was administered hydrochlorthiazide 1mg/kg and normal saline (25ml/kg) and kept as standard. Group III was administered azima tetracantha.L extractPreparation Extracts 500mg and saline 25ml/kg.The leaves of Azima tetracantha lam were dried under Group IV was administered azima tetracantha.L extractshade; dried leaves were powdered to get a course 750mg and normal saline 25ml/kg.powdered. About 100gm of powdered leaves was Immediately after administration of the drug theevenly packed in a soxhelet apparatus and extracted animal were placed in metabolic cage speciallywith ethanol by continuous hot percolation method. It designed to separate urine and feces and kept atwas carried out for 72 hours. The ethanolic extract was room temperature at 25 ± 0.5°c, and the result shownconcentrated to dry mass. After complete dryness the in Table 03, 04, 05 & 06.extracted materials was weighed and the extractivevalue was calculated with reference to the air dried Result and Discussionpowdered drug.8 This dissertation submitted comprises of the study of pharmacognostical, preliminary phytochemical andDrug Used diuretic studies.Hydrochlorothiazide was used as reference standardfor the study of diuretic activity. Pharmacognostical Studies The dried coarsely powdered leaves were subjected toExperimental Animals hot continuous extraction with ethanol. The ethanolWister albino rates (male) obtained from Swamy extract was subjected to qualitative chemical analysisVivekananda College of Pharmacy, Elayampalayam, to detect the constituents, which shows the presence ofT.code, namakkal. 889/AE/05/CPCSEA-(Dt) 29th April carbohydrates, glycosides, phyto sterols, alkaloids &2011.weighing 180-230gm were used for the saponins. Int. J. Pharm & Ind. Res Vol - 01 Issue - 04 Oct – Dec 2011
  3. 3. 277Table 01: Data Showing the Different Ash Value of Table 05: Diuretic Activity of Extract Treated in Leaves of Azima tetracantha Lam. Animal 500mg/kg. S.No Type of ash Ash value in % w/w Urine Mean ± S. No Treatment Dose volume 1. Total ash 7.32 SD (ml) 2. Acid insoluble ash 1.02 Normal saline 25ml/kg 1. 2.7 + Extract +500mg/kg 3. Water soluble ash 6.98 Normal saline 25ml/kg 4. Sulphated ash 14.40 2. 2.8 2.7 ± + Extract +500mg/kg 0.04082 Normal saline 25ml/kg 3. 2.6 + Extract +500mg/kg Table 02: Qualitative Chemical Tests for Normal saline 25ml/kg 4. 2.7 + Extract +500mg/kg Phytoconstituents in Azima tetracantha Lam. p>0.05 when compare with control (significant) S.No Test Ethyl alcoholic extract 1. Alkaloids + Table 06: Diuretic Activity of Extract Treated in 2. Carbohydrates + Animal 750mg/kg. 3. Triterpenoids + Urine Mean ± 4. Flavonoids + S. No Treatment Dose volume SD (ml) 5. Proteins - Normal saline 25ml/kg 1 3.2 6. Resins - + Extract +750mg/kg Normal saline 25ml/kg 3.3 ± 7. Tannins + 2. 3.4 + Extract +750mg/kg 0.04082 8. Gums &mucilage - Normal saline 25ml/kg 3. 3.3 + Extract +750mg/kg 9. Volatile oils - Normal saline 25ml/kg 4. 3.3 + Extract +750mg/kg P<0.001 when compare with control (significant), Table 03: Diuretic Activity of Controlled Group. p>0.05 when compare with control (non-significant). UrineS.No Treatment Dose Mean ± SD volume (ml) 1. Normal 25ml/kg 2.2 Pharmacological Studies saline The diuretic activity of the extract was determined by Normal 2.475 ± 2. 25ml/kg 2.5 Taylor and Topless. In this method the 500mg/kg saline 0.1031 Normal extracted dose not match with effect produced by the 3. 25ml/kg 2.7 saline standard10. But 750mg/kg body weight of the extract Normal is almost equal to effect produced by the standard 4. 25ml/kg 2.5 saline drug hydrochlorthiazide so the azima tetracantha extract posses the diuretic effect shown in Table 03, 04, 05 & 06.Table 04: Diuretic Activity of Hydrocholor thiazide Treated Animal 1mg/kg. Conclusion Urine Mean ± The plant Azima tetracantha.L belongs to theS. No Treatment Dose volume SD salvadoraceae family was taken up for present study. (ml) 1. Normal saline + 25ml/kg 3.8 The macroscopical character, ash value was Hydrochlor thiazide +1mg/kg determined for the leaf powder of azima tetracantha.L. Normal saline + 25ml/kg 3.6 ± 2. 3.5 The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the leaf Hydrochlor thiazide +1mg/kg 0.09129 Normal saline + 25ml/kg extract shows the presence of carbohydrates, 3. 3.4 Hydrochlor thiazide +1mg/kg glycosides, alkaloids, saponins. The pharmacological Normal saline + 25ml/kg screening of ethanolic extract of azima tetracantha.L. 4. 3.7 Hydrochlor thiazide +1mg/kg Leaf shows the significant diuretic activity. P<0.001 when compare with control (significant) Int. J. Pharm & Ind. Res Vol - 01 Issue - 04 Oct – Dec 2011
  4. 4. 278References Glucosinolates, Flavonoids, Alkaloids, and Other1. Farnsworth NR, Akerela O, Bingel AS, Soejarto DD, Secondary Metabolites in Tissues of Azima Guo ZG , medicinal plants in theraphy. Bull. World tetracantha L. (Salvadoraceae), J. Agric. Food health org.63, 1985, 83-97. Chem., 52 (19), 2004, 5856–5862.2. Sastri k , Chaturvedi GN, Chark Dr. Dhbala : The 6. Indian pharmacopoeia, 1996, A-47 & 54. charak samhita. Chukhmba bharti academy, 7. Kokate C.K. practical Parma cognosy, nirali Vidyotini; 1998, 1–10. prakashan, pune, 1991, 107-111 & 123-125.3. Tripati, S.K, Traditional knowledge its significance 8. Harbone J.B, phytochemical methods, published by and implication. Indian journal of traditional Chapman & Hall, London. 1973. knowledge. 2, 2003, 99-106. 9. Goodman & Gilman’s: The pharmacological basis4. Ismail TS, Gopalakrishnan S, Begum VH, Elango V. of Therapeutics, 10th ed, New York, NY: McGraw- Anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga Wall. & Azima tetracantha Lam. J Ethnopharmacol. Hill Book Co, 2001. 56(2), 1997, 145-152. 10. Gosh M.N, Fundamentals of experimental5. Richard N. Bennett, Fred A. Mellon, Eduardo A. S. pharmacology, 39 (4), 2007, 216. Rosa, Lionel Perkins, and Paul A. Kroon; Profiling Int. J. Pharm & Ind. Res Vol - 01 Issue - 04 Oct – Dec 2011