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Safety Practices for City Gas Distribution
(CGD)
By
S. P. Garg
General Manager (HSE)
Corporate HSE Department
GAIL (India) Limited
Email: sp.garg@gail.co.in
2
Natural Gas
 Natural gas is a naturally occurring
hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting
primarily of methane, but commonly
includes varying amounts of other higher
hydrocarbons and a lesser percentage of
carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen
sulphide.
 It is colourless, shapeless and odourless.
 Natural gas is an energy source often used
as a fuel for heating, cooking, and electricity
generation.
 It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a
chemical feedstock in the manufacture of
plastics and other commercially important
organic chemicals.
3
Natural Gas – Production, Transmission & Distribution
Source: Internet
4
Framework – Safety in Natural Gas Pipeline in India
Construction, Operation & Maintenance of Natural Gas
Pipeline System
PNGRB
(Technical & Safety
Standard of CGD Natural
Gas Pipelines)
OISD
(Standard 226 – Natural
Gas Transmission Pipeline
and City Gas Distribution
Network)
ASME 31.8
(Gas Transmission and
Distribution Piping
Systems)
5
Others Statutory Acts and Regulations
• Guidelines for Environmental Clearance– 1981
• The Environment (Protection ) Act -1986
• Water ( Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act 1974
• Air ( Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act 1981
• The Petroleum and Mineral Pipelines (Acquisition of Right of Users in Land)
Amended Act, 2011
• Manufacture ,Storage & Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules-1989
• National Highway Act, 1956
• Railway Act , 1989
• The Factories Act, 1948
• Indian Electricity Act, 1910 / CEA Regulations, 2010
6
Typical PNG Distribution System
7
Typical City Gate Station (CGS)
8
Natural Gas Transmission – Failure Categorization
Characteristics of the Pipeline Failure:
 Pinhole/Crack: the diameter of the hole is smaller that or equal to 2 cm.
 Hole: the diameter of the hole is larger than 2 cm and smaller than or equal to the
diameter of the pipe.
 Rupture: the diameter of the hole is larger than the pipeline diameter.
The Initial Causes of Incident:
 External Interference
 Corrosion
 Construction Defect/Material Failure
 Hot Tap made by Error
 Ground Movement
 Other and unknown
Source: EGIG Report
9
Natural Gas Transmission – Primary Failure Reason
Source: EGIG Report
External
Interference
Digging, Piling, ground
works etc.
Achor, bulldozwer,
excavator etc.
Casing, sleeves etc.
Corrosion
External
Internal
Others
Construction
Defect
Construction or
material
Welding defects etc.
Failure of component
Other
Lightning
Maintenance etc.
10
Source: EGIG Report
Statistics of Gas Transmission Pipeline Incident - EGIG
0.17
0.057 0.059
0.017 0.026
0.057
0.04 0.031
0.011 0.015
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
Primary Failure Frequency (1970-2011) per 1000 KM/Yr.
Primary Failure Frequency of 5 Year Moving Average per 1000 KM/Yr.
48.4
16.1
16.7
4.8
7.4
6.6
0 20 40 60
External Interference
Corrosion
Construction…
Hap tap made by error
Ground Movement
Other and Unknown
Primary Failure Cause Disribution (%)
External Interference
Corrosion
Construction
Defect/Material Failure
Hap tap made by error
Ground Movement
83%
13%
4%
Corrosion Distribution (%)
External
Internal
Unknown
41.3
16.5
15.6
7.5
1.6
17.5
Incident Distribution on Detection
Public/Land Owner
Patrol
Contractor
Company Staff
Online Inspection
Others
11
Radiation Hazards of Natural Gas
Radiation Level
(kW/m2)
Observed Effect
37.5 Sufficient to cause damage to process equipment
25
Minimum energy required to ignite wood at indefinitely long exposures (non-
piloted)
12.5
Minimum energy required for piloted ignition of wood, melting of plastic
tubing
9.5 Pain threshold reached after 8s; second degree burns after 20s
4
Sufficient to cause pain to personnel if unable to reach cover within 20s;
however blistering of the skin (second degree burns) is likely; 0: lethality
1.6 Will cause no discomfort for long exposure
12
Requirement of Safety - CGD NG Pipeline
Requirement
of Safety
Hazardous
Property of
Natural Gas
Pipelines
passing
through thickly
populated area
Lack of
community
awareness
Limited
resources for
controlling
emergency
Extensive
construction
activities
13
HSE Management- CGD NG Pipeline
HSE
Management
System
Hazop/Risk
Analysis
ERDMP/Fire
Defense System
Safety Audit &
Inspection
Behaviour
Based Safety &
Trainings
HSE Policy
Implementation
of Control and
Monitoring
Activities
14
Safety in CGD NG Pipeline
Other
Important
Aspects
PNG Odourisation by Ethyl Mercaptane
(Maximum to 12.05 ppm)
GIS Based System
Operating and Maintenance Plan
Isolation Valve
(3 KM for steel Pipelines/1KM for PE Pipelines of
diameter 63 mm and above)
Training
Markers (50 M), Patrolling and Leakage Survey
Cathodic Protection
Integrity Management System
15
Integrity Management System
• A comprehensive and structured framework for
assessment of :
• CGD Network Condition
• Likely threats
• Risk assessment
• Mitigation actions
16
Integrity Management System
• 1. Integrity Management Plan
• 2. Performance Evaluation of IMP
• 3. Communication Plan
• 4. Management of Change
• 5. Quality Control
17
Integrity Management System
• Risk Assessment :
• C P System and C P Adequacy Survey
• Periodic analysis to determine the level of risks to
assets
• Risk analysis and assessment for all asset related
incidents and findings
• A Risk register of known risks and their risk rating
18
Thrust Area – CGD Network
Establishing and Maintaining
Best Practices of :
Inbuilt Safety Measures , GIS based
system, Operational Safety,
Physical Safety, Regular Patrolling,
Risk Analysis & mitigation
measures, Community Awareness,
Structured Safety Management
System etc.
Possibility of
Failures will
be decreased
Non Structured Safety
Management System,
Lack of Operational
Safety and Inbuilt Safety
measures, lack of Risk
assessment and
mitigation plans etc.
Possibility of Failures will
be drastically increased
19
The integrity of Natural Gas Pipeline System is achieved through
continuous efforts at all stages to ensure that pipeline is
designed, commissioned, operated and maintained as per
stipulated guidelines and best practices, besides following codes.
Thanks

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Safety Practices for City Gas Distribution (CGD) Natural Gas Pipelines

  • 1. 1 Safety Practices for City Gas Distribution (CGD) By S. P. Garg General Manager (HSE) Corporate HSE Department GAIL (India) Limited Email: sp.garg@gail.co.in
  • 2. 2 Natural Gas  Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher hydrocarbons and a lesser percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulphide.  It is colourless, shapeless and odourless.  Natural gas is an energy source often used as a fuel for heating, cooking, and electricity generation.  It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals.
  • 3. 3 Natural Gas – Production, Transmission & Distribution Source: Internet
  • 4. 4 Framework – Safety in Natural Gas Pipeline in India Construction, Operation & Maintenance of Natural Gas Pipeline System PNGRB (Technical & Safety Standard of CGD Natural Gas Pipelines) OISD (Standard 226 – Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline and City Gas Distribution Network) ASME 31.8 (Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems)
  • 5. 5 Others Statutory Acts and Regulations • Guidelines for Environmental Clearance– 1981 • The Environment (Protection ) Act -1986 • Water ( Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act 1974 • Air ( Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act 1981 • The Petroleum and Mineral Pipelines (Acquisition of Right of Users in Land) Amended Act, 2011 • Manufacture ,Storage & Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules-1989 • National Highway Act, 1956 • Railway Act , 1989 • The Factories Act, 1948 • Indian Electricity Act, 1910 / CEA Regulations, 2010
  • 7. 7 Typical City Gate Station (CGS)
  • 8. 8 Natural Gas Transmission – Failure Categorization Characteristics of the Pipeline Failure:  Pinhole/Crack: the diameter of the hole is smaller that or equal to 2 cm.  Hole: the diameter of the hole is larger than 2 cm and smaller than or equal to the diameter of the pipe.  Rupture: the diameter of the hole is larger than the pipeline diameter. The Initial Causes of Incident:  External Interference  Corrosion  Construction Defect/Material Failure  Hot Tap made by Error  Ground Movement  Other and unknown Source: EGIG Report
  • 9. 9 Natural Gas Transmission – Primary Failure Reason Source: EGIG Report External Interference Digging, Piling, ground works etc. Achor, bulldozwer, excavator etc. Casing, sleeves etc. Corrosion External Internal Others Construction Defect Construction or material Welding defects etc. Failure of component Other Lightning Maintenance etc.
  • 10. 10 Source: EGIG Report Statistics of Gas Transmission Pipeline Incident - EGIG 0.17 0.057 0.059 0.017 0.026 0.057 0.04 0.031 0.011 0.015 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 Primary Failure Frequency (1970-2011) per 1000 KM/Yr. Primary Failure Frequency of 5 Year Moving Average per 1000 KM/Yr. 48.4 16.1 16.7 4.8 7.4 6.6 0 20 40 60 External Interference Corrosion Construction… Hap tap made by error Ground Movement Other and Unknown Primary Failure Cause Disribution (%) External Interference Corrosion Construction Defect/Material Failure Hap tap made by error Ground Movement 83% 13% 4% Corrosion Distribution (%) External Internal Unknown 41.3 16.5 15.6 7.5 1.6 17.5 Incident Distribution on Detection Public/Land Owner Patrol Contractor Company Staff Online Inspection Others
  • 11. 11 Radiation Hazards of Natural Gas Radiation Level (kW/m2) Observed Effect 37.5 Sufficient to cause damage to process equipment 25 Minimum energy required to ignite wood at indefinitely long exposures (non- piloted) 12.5 Minimum energy required for piloted ignition of wood, melting of plastic tubing 9.5 Pain threshold reached after 8s; second degree burns after 20s 4 Sufficient to cause pain to personnel if unable to reach cover within 20s; however blistering of the skin (second degree burns) is likely; 0: lethality 1.6 Will cause no discomfort for long exposure
  • 12. 12 Requirement of Safety - CGD NG Pipeline Requirement of Safety Hazardous Property of Natural Gas Pipelines passing through thickly populated area Lack of community awareness Limited resources for controlling emergency Extensive construction activities
  • 13. 13 HSE Management- CGD NG Pipeline HSE Management System Hazop/Risk Analysis ERDMP/Fire Defense System Safety Audit & Inspection Behaviour Based Safety & Trainings HSE Policy Implementation of Control and Monitoring Activities
  • 14. 14 Safety in CGD NG Pipeline Other Important Aspects PNG Odourisation by Ethyl Mercaptane (Maximum to 12.05 ppm) GIS Based System Operating and Maintenance Plan Isolation Valve (3 KM for steel Pipelines/1KM for PE Pipelines of diameter 63 mm and above) Training Markers (50 M), Patrolling and Leakage Survey Cathodic Protection Integrity Management System
  • 15. 15 Integrity Management System • A comprehensive and structured framework for assessment of : • CGD Network Condition • Likely threats • Risk assessment • Mitigation actions
  • 16. 16 Integrity Management System • 1. Integrity Management Plan • 2. Performance Evaluation of IMP • 3. Communication Plan • 4. Management of Change • 5. Quality Control
  • 17. 17 Integrity Management System • Risk Assessment : • C P System and C P Adequacy Survey • Periodic analysis to determine the level of risks to assets • Risk analysis and assessment for all asset related incidents and findings • A Risk register of known risks and their risk rating
  • 18. 18 Thrust Area – CGD Network Establishing and Maintaining Best Practices of : Inbuilt Safety Measures , GIS based system, Operational Safety, Physical Safety, Regular Patrolling, Risk Analysis & mitigation measures, Community Awareness, Structured Safety Management System etc. Possibility of Failures will be decreased Non Structured Safety Management System, Lack of Operational Safety and Inbuilt Safety measures, lack of Risk assessment and mitigation plans etc. Possibility of Failures will be drastically increased
  • 19. 19 The integrity of Natural Gas Pipeline System is achieved through continuous efforts at all stages to ensure that pipeline is designed, commissioned, operated and maintained as per stipulated guidelines and best practices, besides following codes. Thanks