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WELCOME 
FFUUNNGGAALL PPAATTHHOOGGEENNSS
FUNGAL 
PATHOGENS 
FUNGAL PATHOGENS 
SSNAIK 
M.Sc.Scholar 
TNAU,COIMBATORE
What is microbial control ?
MICROBIAL CONTROL 
“Microbial control refers to the exploitation of 
diseases causing organisms to reduce the 
population ...
INFECTIOUS 
AGENT 
DISEASES OR 
ILLNESS 
DEVIATION 
FROM NORMAL 
PHYSIOLOGICAL 
PROCESS
FUNGAL PATHOGEN –PLANT –HARMFUL 
R 
U 
S 
T 
P 
A 
T 
H 
O 
G 
E 
N
FUNGAL- PATHOGEN –INSECT –BENEFICIAL 
FUNGUS 
PARASITE 
INSECTS 
KILLS OR SERIOUSLY DISABLES
ENTOMOPATHOGEN-etymology 
GGrreeeekk WWoorrddss 
““mmiiccrroooorrggaanniissmmss wwhhiicchh aarriissee iinn iinnsseeccttss....
Is Entompathogen only belongs to fungi?
entomophili 
ENTOMOPATHOGENIC 
MICRORGANISMS
2.ENTOMO PATHOGENIC FUNGI 
.Entomon: an insect 
.Pathogen: which causes disease 
.Fungi: micro fungal organism
INTRODUCTION 
 FFIIRRSSTT ffoouunndd ppaatthhooggeennss 
 DDiisseeaassee -- MMYYCCOOSSEESS 
 775500/110000--ssppeecciie...
The place of biopesticides in 
agriculture
Current status of biopesticides 
I 
(Seema Wahab, 2010) 
II
Biopesticides 
VIRUS 
Bacteria I 
Fungi 
II 
III
CLASSIFICATION OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI 
1.ASCOMycetes –CORDYCEPS 
2.BASIDIOMYCETES-SEPTOBASIDIUM 
33..DDEEUUTTRROOMMYYCC...
S.n 
o. FUNGI TARGET PEST 
1 Beauveria bassiana Cottonbollworms,Coffeeberryborer 
(Coleoptera,Lepidoptera,Hemiptera and 
f...
S.N 
O. 
………….. 
YEAR SCIENTIST AND CONTRIBUTION 
01 2700BC CHINESE PEOPLE RECOGNISE DISEASES OF HONEY BEE AND 
SILKWORM 
...
4. MODE OF ACTION
MODE OF ACTION: 
Attachment 
Germination 
FAVOURABLE CONDITIONS 
HIGH HUMIDITY, 
LOW TEMPERATURE
Mode of action……………….. 
Penetration 
Proliferate 
Killing 
Favorable 
conditions 
New propagules (spores)
Mode of action…………………..
CLAMYDOSPORES 
2-12 DAYS
TOXINS: 
A substance which kills an organism 
1.Catobolic toxins: result from decomposition brought about by the 
activity...
ENTOMOPATHOGENIC TOXINS 
1.Metarhizium anisopliae Destruxin A , 
B,C,D,E,F 
2.Paecilomyces Beauvericin 
3.Beauveria bassia...
Beauveria bassiana 
Metarhizium anisopliae 
Verticillium lecanii 
1.yellow to brown spots on the integument 
2.swelling of...
MASS PRODUCTION
FOR SUCCESSFUL 
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND 
USE OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC 
FUNGI AS MYCOINSECTICIDES 
ARE:
Rapid growth 
1.FUNGAL ISOLATE High pathogenesis 
To target pests 
Sporulate profusely 
Cheap 
2.MEDIUM Easily available
3.The production procedure 
Easy 
Production cost 
low 
4.Formulation 
Long shelf life 
No loss of infectivity 
and va...
1.Beauveria bassiana
B.bessiana…………. 
CCllaassss:: DDeeuutteerroommyycceettee ((IImmppeerrffeecctt FFuunnggii)).. 
TThhee ssppeecciieess iiss...
MASS PRODUCTION 
200 g of grains in 250 g polypropalyne bags or bottles 
with 190 ml of water 
Sterilization at 120o C for...
FFIIEELLDD RREELLEEAASSEE 
 mmeetthhoodd:: SSpprraayyiinngg 
EEmmuullssiiffiieedd SSuussppeennssiioonn 
WWeettttaabbllee ...
AAGGAAIINNSSTT 
TTeerrmmiitteess 
TThhrriippss 
 WWhhiitteefflliieess 
AApphhiiddss 
GGrraasssshhooppppeerrss 
BBeee...
SILK WORM LARVA
GRASSHOPPER
Spodoptera litura
BEETLE CICADA
2.Metarhizium anisopliae
MASS PRODUCTION 
40 g of carrot bits in 250 ml of conical flask with 
65 ml of water 
Autoclave at 25psifor 30 minutes 
Co...
FFIIEELLDD RREELLEEAASSEE 
55xx11001111 ssppoorreess// mm33 ooff FFYYMM hhaavvee ttoo 
bbee iinnooccuullaatteedd ttoo aacc...
AGAINST 
GGrruubbss OOff CCooccoonnuutt RRhhiinnoocceerrooss BBeeeettllee 
GGrraasssshhooppppeerr 
RRiiccee BBPPHH 
SS...
RHINOCEROS BEETLE GRUB
GRASS HOPPER
RICE BPH
3.Verticillium lecanii
MASS PRODUCTION 
65 g of sorghum grains in 250 ml of 
conical flask with 25-30 ml of distilled 
water 
Autoclave at 25 psi...
AAGGAAIINNSSTT 
ccooffffeeee ggrreeeenn ssccaallee 
cceerrttaaiinn ootthheerr hhoommoopptteerraannss 
TTRRAADDEE NNAAMME...
GREEN SCALE
Paecilomyces ffuummoossoorroosseeuuss
PP.. ffuummoossoorroosseeuuss……………………………….. 
Most important natural enemies of whiteflies wwoorrllddwwiiddee,, 
ssiicckkn...
AGAINST 
 Lepidoptera -- SSppooddoopptteerraa lliittuurraa 
 CCoolleeoopptteerraa 
 TTrriicchhoopplluussiiaa nnii 
 H...
FFIIEELLDD RREELLEEAASSEE 
 PPaaeecciilloommyycceessffuummoossoorroosseeuuss 
aapppplliieedd aatt aa ddiilluuttiioonn oof...
Hirsutella thomsoni 
NOMENCLATURE: Approved name: Hirsutella thompsonii 
SOURCE: Originally isolated from an eriophyid mit...
AGAINST 
It is specific to the eriophid mites 
1.coconut mite 
2.Citrus rust mite 
EFFICACY: 
Field investigations conduct...
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND NON-TARGET 
TOXICITY: 
Hirsutella thompsonii is widespread in Nature 
It is not pathogenic to n...
CITRUS RUST MITE
Coconut mite infected with Hirsutella thomsonii
ADVANTAGES 
 Nontoxic 
 Nonpathogenic 
 Specific 
 No residual toxicity 
Can also applied at harvest stage
 No imDmeIdSiaAteD aVctiAonN TAGES 
 Only effective to a specific group of 
insects 
 Each application may control part...
CONTRIBUTION TO FARMING SOCIETY 
TNAU a biopesticide formulation based on 
fusarium sp isolated from the dead mite has 
be...
DIAGNOSIS OF FUNGI 
Need of diagnosis of fungi: 
Sometimes we may indistinguish between the two 
fungal pathogens there by...
DIAGNOSIS OF FUNG………………………………. 
The pioneering GERMAN microbiologist, 
ROBERT KOCH, identified a set of four 
conditions w...
1. The suspected pathogen must be found 
associated with the disease in all the diseased 
insects examined. 
2. The organi...
Koch's 
postulates……………. 
3. When a healthy insect of the same species is 
inoculated with this culture, it must produce t...
Who is father of insect pathology ?
REFERENCES 
BOOKS: 
*PRINCIPLES OF INSECT PATHOLOGY 
Dr. STEINHAUS 
1.APPLED ENTOMOLOGY –D.S.REDDY 
2.INTEGRATED PEST MANA...
Thanks a lot my course incharge 
Dr . DHANDAPANI and my 
friends 
Presented by 
S. Srinivas 
naik 
13-503
ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI
ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI
ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI
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ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

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HERE IAM DESCRIBING THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI AND THEIR CHARCTERISTICS -ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

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ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

  1. 1. WELCOME FFUUNNGGAALL PPAATTHHOOGGEENNSS
  2. 2. FUNGAL PATHOGENS FUNGAL PATHOGENS SSNAIK M.Sc.Scholar TNAU,COIMBATORE
  3. 3. What is microbial control ?
  4. 4. MICROBIAL CONTROL “Microbial control refers to the exploitation of diseases causing organisms to reduce the population of insect pests below the economic injury level ” Microorganisms
  5. 5. INFECTIOUS AGENT DISEASES OR ILLNESS DEVIATION FROM NORMAL PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
  6. 6. FUNGAL PATHOGEN –PLANT –HARMFUL R U S T P A T H O G E N
  7. 7. FUNGAL- PATHOGEN –INSECT –BENEFICIAL FUNGUS PARASITE INSECTS KILLS OR SERIOUSLY DISABLES
  8. 8. ENTOMOPATHOGEN-etymology GGrreeeekk WWoorrddss ““mmiiccrroooorrggaanniissmmss wwhhiicchh aarriissee iinn iinnsseeccttss..””
  9. 9. Is Entompathogen only belongs to fungi?
  10. 10. entomophili ENTOMOPATHOGENIC MICRORGANISMS
  11. 11. 2.ENTOMO PATHOGENIC FUNGI .Entomon: an insect .Pathogen: which causes disease .Fungi: micro fungal organism
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION  FFIIRRSSTT ffoouunndd ppaatthhooggeennss  DDiisseeaassee -- MMYYCCOOSSEESS  775500/110000--ssppeecciieess  AAttttrraaccttiivvee aalltteerrnnaattiivvee--cchheemmiiccaall ppeessttiicciiddeess.. LLeessss ddaammaaggee ttoo tthhee eennvviirroonnmmeenntt..
  13. 13. The place of biopesticides in agriculture
  14. 14. Current status of biopesticides I (Seema Wahab, 2010) II
  15. 15. Biopesticides VIRUS Bacteria I Fungi II III
  16. 16. CLASSIFICATION OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI 1.ASCOMycetes –CORDYCEPS 2.BASIDIOMYCETES-SEPTOBASIDIUM 33..DDEEUUTTRROOMMYYCCeetteess -- AAsscchheerroossoonniiaa BBeeaauuvveerriiaa CCuulliinnoommyycceess HHiirrssuutteellllaa tthhoommppssoonniiii HH.. lloonnggiiccoollllaa MMeettaarrhhiizziiuumm NNoommuurraaeeaa PPaaeecciilloommyycceess VVeerrttiicciilllliiuumm 44..PPHHYYCCOOMMYYCCEETTEESS-- CCooeelloommoommyycceess • EEnnttoommoopphhtthhoorraa
  17. 17. S.n o. FUNGI TARGET PEST 1 Beauveria bassiana Cottonbollworms,Coffeeberryborer (Coleoptera,Lepidoptera,Hemiptera and few in Diptera ,Hymenoptera) 2 Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Lepidoptera,thysanoptera 3 Metarrhizium ansipoliae Sugarcanepyrilla,rhinocerosbeetle (Coleoptera,Lepidoptera,Hemiptera,Dipter a and Hymenoptera) 4 Verticillium lecanii Whiteflies,aphids and scales 5 Nomouraea rileyi H.armigera,Achaea janata,S.litura (Lepidoptera) 6 Aschersonia aleuroides White fly(Homoptera) 7 Hirsutella thompsoni Phytophagous mites(Eriophid mites) 8 Pandora delphacis BPH,GLh of rice
  18. 18. S.N O. ………….. YEAR SCIENTIST AND CONTRIBUTION 01 2700BC CHINESE PEOPLE RECOGNISE DISEASES OF HONEY BEE AND SILKWORM 02 ANCIENT TIME INDIAN LITERATURE REFERS THE DISEASES OF SAME INSECTS 03 SAME TIME IN EUROPE ARISTOTLE WAS THE FIRST PERSON MENTION ABOUT THE DISEASES OF HONEY BEES 04 1835 AGOSTINO BESSI EXPERIMENT ON SILK WORM DISEASE 05 1879 E.METSCHINIKOFF(1879) EXPERIMENT CONTROL OF WHEAT COCKCHAFER(ANISOPLIA AUSTRIACEA) ,SUGARBEET WEEIL( CLEOMUS PUNCTIVENTRIS)
  19. 19. 4. MODE OF ACTION
  20. 20. MODE OF ACTION: Attachment Germination FAVOURABLE CONDITIONS HIGH HUMIDITY, LOW TEMPERATURE
  21. 21. Mode of action……………….. Penetration Proliferate Killing Favorable conditions New propagules (spores)
  22. 22. Mode of action…………………..
  23. 23. CLAMYDOSPORES 2-12 DAYS
  24. 24. TOXINS: A substance which kills an organism 1.Catobolic toxins: result from decomposition brought about by the activity of the pathogen eg:breakdpwn of the proteins ,carbohydrates etc. 2.Anabolic toxins:substances synthesized by the pathogen 3.Endo toxins : toxins that are produced by the pathogen and are confined to the cell and are liberated when the pathogen dies or disintegrates eg; bt endo toxins 4.Ectotoxins:they are excreted or passed out of the cell of the pathogen eg; some bacteria and fungi produce exo or ecto toxins
  25. 25. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC TOXINS 1.Metarhizium anisopliae Destruxin A , B,C,D,E,F 2.Paecilomyces Beauvericin 3.Beauveria bassiana Beauvericin Beauverolides Bassinolide 4.Verticilium lecanii Bassinolide ECTOTOXINS
  26. 26. Beauveria bassiana Metarhizium anisopliae Verticillium lecanii 1.yellow to brown spots on the integument 2.swelling of posterior abdominal segments 3.covered with pale green spores SYMPTOMS Nomouraea rileyi
  27. 27. MASS PRODUCTION
  28. 28. FOR SUCCESSFUL COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND USE OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI AS MYCOINSECTICIDES ARE:
  29. 29. Rapid growth 1.FUNGAL ISOLATE High pathogenesis To target pests Sporulate profusely Cheap 2.MEDIUM Easily available
  30. 30. 3.The production procedure Easy Production cost low 4.Formulation Long shelf life No loss of infectivity and variability-12-18 months
  31. 31. 1.Beauveria bassiana
  32. 32. B.bessiana…………. CCllaassss:: DDeeuutteerroommyycceettee ((IImmppeerrffeecctt FFuunnggii)).. TThhee ssppeecciieess iiss nnaammeedd aafftteerr tthhee IIttaalliiaann eennttoommoollooggiisstt AAggoossttiinnoo BBaassssii DDiissccoovveerryy:: iinn 11883355 aass ccaauussee ooff tthhee MMuussccaarrddiinnee DDiisseeaassee OOff DDoommeessttiiccaatteedd SSiillkkwwoorrmmss .. IItt ccaauussiinngg wwhhiittee mmuussccaarrddiinnee ddiisseeaassee TTooxxiinn PPrroodduucceedd –– BBeeaauuvveerriicciinn,,BBaassssiiaannoolliiddee,, IIssaarroolliiddeess,, aanndd BBeeaauuvveerroolliiddeess nnaattuurraallllyy iinn ssooiillss aaccttss aass aa ppaarraassiittee oonn vvaarriioouuss aarrtthhrrooppooddss
  33. 33. MASS PRODUCTION 200 g of grains in 250 g polypropalyne bags or bottles with 190 ml of water Sterilization at 120o C for 45 minutes Cool and inoculate with the 5 ml fungus spore suspention bags incubate at 25o C for 25 days Air dried under laminar air flow 3 days at 40o C ground to fine mixture
  34. 34. FFIIEELLDD RREELLEEAASSEE  mmeetthhoodd:: SSpprraayyiinngg EEmmuullssiiffiieedd SSuussppeennssiioonn WWeettttaabbllee PPoowwddeerr.. DDoossaaggee:: 11..SSppoorreess aatt 11..55kkgg//hhaa ((3300xx110099 ccoonniiddiiaa//gg)) ++ 22.. CChhlloorroopphhooss @@ LLooww ddoossee iiss ffoouunnddeedd ggoooodd ffoorr rreedduucciinngg tthhee ppeesstt TTrraaddee nnaammeess BBoottaanniiggaarrdd®EESS  BBoottaanniiggaarrdd®2222WWPP NNaattuurraalliiss MMyyccoottrrooll
  35. 35. AAGGAAIINNSSTT TTeerrmmiitteess TThhrriippss  WWhhiitteefflliieess AApphhiiddss GGrraasssshhooppppeerrss BBeeeettlleess CCaatteerrppiillllaarrss SSiillkkwwoorrmmss IIttss uussee iinn tthhee CCoonnttrrooll OOff MMaallaarriiaa -- TTrraannssmmiittttiinngg MMoossqquuiittooss iiss uunnddeerr iinnvveessttiiggaattiioonn..
  36. 36. SILK WORM LARVA
  37. 37. GRASSHOPPER
  38. 38. Spodoptera litura
  39. 39. BEETLE CICADA
  40. 40. 2.Metarhizium anisopliae
  41. 41. MASS PRODUCTION 40 g of carrot bits in 250 ml of conical flask with 65 ml of water Autoclave at 25psifor 30 minutes Cool and inoculate with the fungus Fungal can be applied to manure pit after a fortnight
  42. 42. FFIIEELLDD RREELLEEAASSEE 55xx11001111 ssppoorreess// mm33 ooff FFYYMM hhaavvee ttoo bbee iinnooccuullaatteedd ttoo aacchhiieevvee 110000%% mmoorrttaalliittyy..
  43. 43. AGAINST GGrruubbss OOff CCooccoonnuutt RRhhiinnoocceerrooss BBeeeettllee GGrraasssshhooppppeerr RRiiccee BBPPHH SSuuggaarrccaannee PPyyrriillllaa BBoollllwwoorrmm
  44. 44. RHINOCEROS BEETLE GRUB
  45. 45. GRASS HOPPER
  46. 46. RICE BPH
  47. 47. 3.Verticillium lecanii
  48. 48. MASS PRODUCTION 65 g of sorghum grains in 250 ml of conical flask with 25-30 ml of distilled water Autoclave at 25 psi for 30 minutes Cool and inoculate with the fungus Fungal culture can be used after 3 weeks of growth
  49. 49. AAGGAAIINNSSTT ccooffffeeee ggrreeeenn ssccaallee cceerrttaaiinn ootthheerr hhoommoopptteerraannss TTRRAADDEE NNAAMMEESS VVeerrttiilleecc MMyyccoottooll VVeerrttiisswweeeepp
  50. 50. GREEN SCALE
  51. 51. Paecilomyces ffuummoossoorroosseeuuss
  52. 52. PP.. ffuummoossoorroosseeuuss……………………………….. Most important natural enemies of whiteflies wwoorrllddwwiiddee,, ssiicckknneessss :: ““YYeellllooww MMuussccaarrddiinnee”” .. SSttrroonngg eeppiizzoooottiicc ppootteennttiiaall aaggaaiinnsstt BBeemmiissiiaa aanndd TTrriiaalleeuurrooddeess sspppp.. iinn bbootthh ggrreeeennhhoouussee aanndd ooppeenn ffiieelldd eennvviirroonnmmeennttss hhaass bbeeeenn rreeppoorrtteedd.. SSyymmppttoomm:: rroossyy--ttaann ttoo ssmmookkyy--ppiinnkk ((oorr ggrraayy)) ffuunnggaall mmaassss PPaaeecciilloommyycceess lliillaacciinnuuss pprriinncciippaallllyy iinnffeeccttss aanndd aassssiimmiillaatteess eeggggss ooff rroooott--kknnoott aanndd ccyysstt nneemmaattooddeess
  53. 53. AGAINST  Lepidoptera -- SSppooddoopptteerraa lliittuurraa  CCoolleeoopptteerraa  TTrriicchhoopplluussiiaa nnii  HHeelliiootthhiiss zzeeaa  PPllaatthhyyppeennaa ssccaabbrraa  BBoommbbyyxx mmoorrii  AAnnttiiccaarrssiiaa ggeemmmmaattaalliiss..
  54. 54. FFIIEELLDD RREELLEEAASSEE  PPaaeecciilloommyycceessffuummoossoorroosseeuuss aapppplliieedd aatt aa ddiilluuttiioonn ooff 11xx110088 ssppoorreess//mmll wweerree rreeqquuiirreedd ttoo ccaauussee ssiiggnniiffiiccaanntt rreedduuccttiioonn iinn tthhee ppeesstt ppooppuullaattiioonn..
  55. 55. Hirsutella thomsoni NOMENCLATURE: Approved name: Hirsutella thompsonii SOURCE: Originally isolated from an eriophyid mite in TamilNadu. TARGET :PESTS: Eriophyid mites, particularly the coconut mite (Aceria guerreronis Keifer). TARGET :CROPS: Major crop use is in coconut plantations, but can be used in palmyrah palm and in arecanut.
  56. 56. AGAINST It is specific to the eriophid mites 1.coconut mite 2.Citrus rust mite EFFICACY: Field investigations conducted in more than 15 locations to evaluate the performance of ' Mycohit' showed that by the 70th day of the experiment greater than 90% mortality of the mites was observed in coconuts sprayed twice (at 2-week intervals).
  57. 57. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND NON-TARGET TOXICITY: Hirsutella thompsonii is widespread in Nature It is not pathogenic to non-target species.  It not shown adverse effects on the environment Sold as a talc-based formulation coded Formulation-moisture content of about 12%. Tradenames: ' Mycohit' .
  58. 58. CITRUS RUST MITE
  59. 59. Coconut mite infected with Hirsutella thomsonii
  60. 60. ADVANTAGES  Nontoxic  Nonpathogenic  Specific  No residual toxicity Can also applied at harvest stage
  61. 61.  No imDmeIdSiaAteD aVctiAonN TAGES  Only effective to a specific group of insects  Each application may control part of the insect pests  If the other species may present they may continue to cause damage
  62. 62. CONTRIBUTION TO FARMING SOCIETY TNAU a biopesticide formulation based on fusarium sp isolated from the dead mite has been released by TNAU under the brand name TNAU-AGROBIOCIDE to control mite Menace in coconut
  63. 63. DIAGNOSIS OF FUNGI Need of diagnosis of fungi: Sometimes we may indistinguish between the two fungal pathogens there by we canot diagnosis the correct entomopathogenic fungi for the responsible disease in insect The actual cause of many diseases is difficult to determine. Although many organisms can be isolated from a diseased organisms tissue, their presence does not prove that any or all of them caused the disease due to the fact that the isolated microbe may be part of the normal flora or transient flora of that area or a secondary
  64. 64. DIAGNOSIS OF FUNG………………………………. The pioneering GERMAN microbiologist, ROBERT KOCH, identified a set of four conditions which has to be satisfied to establish that a particular organism is the causative agent of a particular disease. These conditions known as Koch's postulates are:
  65. 65. 1. The suspected pathogen must be found associated with the disease in all the diseased insects examined. 2. The organism must be isolated from the diseased insect tissue and grown in pure culture on nutrient media and its characteristics described obligate or non obligate , and its appearance and effects recorded. . Koch's postulates
  66. 66. Koch's postulates……………. 3. When a healthy insect of the same species is inoculated with this culture, it must produce the disease and show the characteristic symptoms 4.The organism must be re-isolated from the inoculated plants and must be known to be the same pathogen as the original. If all the above steps have been followed and proved true, then the isolated pathogen is identified as the organism responsible for the disease 3. When a healthy insect of the same species is inoculated with this culture, it must produce the disease and show the characteristic symptoms.
  67. 67. Who is father of insect pathology ?
  68. 68. REFERENCES BOOKS: *PRINCIPLES OF INSECT PATHOLOGY Dr. STEINHAUS 1.APPLED ENTOMOLOGY –D.S.REDDY 2.INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT –G.S.DHALIWAL ,R.ARORA 3.PRINCIPLES OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY-K.N.RAGUMOORTHI, M.R.SRINIVASAN, V. BALASUBRAMANI, N. NATARAJAN 4.ELEMENTS OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLGY-B. VASANTHARAJ DAVID V.V.RAMANAMURTHY INTERNET: WWW.WIKIPEDIA.IN WWW.Dr.REDDYS LABORATORIES.com WWW.NBAII.IN.
  69. 69. Thanks a lot my course incharge Dr . DHANDAPANI and my friends Presented by S. Srinivas naik 13-503

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