SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 59
Download to read offline
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
The Web and the Mind
Srinath Srinivasa
Web Science Lab
IIIT Bangalore
http://cds.iiitb.ac.in/wsl
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Outline
A brief history of the WWW
Models of the Web
– Web as a Database/Repository
– Web as a Cognitive Extension of us
– Web as a socio-cognitive space
Social Machines
Web Science
Abstraction and Expression on the Web
Characterizing Online Collectives
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Some Recent News Topics
Re-emergence of the free-speech debate
Personal liberty, sedition, Sec 66A, annoyance, …
“The right to be forgotten”
Privacy, accountability, personal liberty, …
Net Neutrality
Bridging the digital divide, neo-colonialism, “data darwinism”, …
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Some Recent News Topics
Re-emergence of the free-speech debate
Personal liberty, sedition, Sec 66A, annoyance, …
“The right to be forgotten”
Privacy, accountability, personal liberty, …
Net Neutrality
Bridging the digital divide, neo-colonialism, “data darwinism”, …
W W WW W W
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
A brief history of the WWW
1989
CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee lays out a
proposal for information management
called “Mesh”
Original proposal available from
http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposa
l.html
1990
Berners-Lee changes name to “World Wide
Web” while writing code for the Mesh
Creates three fundamental building blocks:
HTML
URL (later called URI)
HTTP
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
A brief history of the WWW
1990
First web page appears on the Internet
1991
Web available for access to people
outside of CERN
1993
WWW code made available for free on
a royalty-free basis forever by CERN
1994
Berners-Lee joins MIT to found the
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
Original logo for the WWW
Image source: Wikipedia
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
A brief history of the WWW
Design principles for WWW adopted by the W3C:
Decentralization
(no one controls content on the web)
Non-discrimination
(net neutrality)
Bottom-up design
(Open source, participatory approach to maintaining web code)
Universality
(Agnostic to computing platforms or hardware)
Consensus
(Participatory approach to web standards)
Source: webfoundation.org
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
A brief history of the WWW
1993
Mark Andreessen from NCSA releases Mosaic – the first graphical browser
for the web
1994
Andreessen, with two colleagues form Mosaic Communications Corporation
and release the first commercial web browser: Netscape Navigator
First International WWW conference is organized at CERN in May 1994
1996—2000
Dot com boom (“Get large or get lost” mantra) and birth of several first
generation search engines and e-commerce sites (Yahoo, Excite, Lycos,
Altavista, Amazon, …)
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
A brief history of the WWW
2001—2002
Dot com bust. Major web and Internet companies go bankrupt
(Excite, Lycos, Nortel Networks, Worldcom,...)
2002–
Web 2.0. Web reinvents itself as a participatory social medium
bringing social science and psychology central to thinking about
the web.
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Models of the Web
The web is unlike any other technology developed so far
Unlike say cars or washing machines, there is only one web
Is the web a “technology” or a “tool” that we use or is it something else?
Notable paradigms of the Web considered by researchers:
Very large database
Digital library / Repository
A cognitive extension of ourselves
Participatory socio-cognitive space
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Web as a Database
Early approaches (mid '90s) to
model the Web
Focused on the “semi-
structured” nature of the Web
and as a special case of managing
structured (RDBMS) databases
Research objectives: structured
and rich query semantics
Examples include: [AMM 97],
[Eng 98], WebQL
An example WebQL query
Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WebQL
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Web as a Digital Library
Shift from:
Strict notions of “query” Looser notions of “retrieval” and
“relevance”
Strict notions of “schema” Looser notions of “ontology”
Emphasis still on retrieving information
Web still seen as a passive repository of information
Examples: [GR+ 97], [HMA 03]
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Web as a Cognitive Extension of Ourselves
Rooted in Vannevar Bush's interpretation
of hypertext reflecting the way
information is organized in human brains
Focus on interpreting hyperlinks, rather
than (just) data on web pages
Hyperlink as a(n):
– Relevance indicator
– Endorsement
– Attention pathway
Examples: PageRank [BP 98], HITS
[GKR 98]
Memex
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Web as a Socio-cognitive Space
Most contemporary paradigm for understanding the web
Web as an active, participatory, social space – people are no longer users, but participants
Shift of emphasis from retrieving information from the web to engaging users with the
web
The Web uses us as much as we use the Web!
Examples:
Crowdsourcing, Participatory authoring, Push notifications on social media, Click-baiting, etc.
The global mind and superintelligence
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
The Socio-cognitive Space
Image source:
https://www.pinterest.com/pin
/4433299610614823/
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Web Science
From www.webscience.org
“Nothing like the Web has ever happened in all of human history. The scale of its impact
and the rate of its adoption are unparalleled. This is a great opportunity as well as an
obligation. If we are to ensure the Web benefits the human race we must first do our best
to understand it.
The Web is the largest human information construct in history. The Web is transforming
society. In order to understand what the Web is, engineer its future and ensure its social
benefit we need a new interdisciplinary field that we call Web Science.”
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Social Machines
Represents a class of environments comprising of interplay between humans
and technology
Outputs of social machines a result of both human and algorithmic decisions
Building blocks of the global socio-cognitive space
“The Web is an engine to create abstract social machines”
– Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web [BH 09]
About Social Machines https://youtu.be/8Iz7ZqSOJGU
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Social Machines
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Web Observatory and Telescope
Image source: http://www.iconsmind.com/
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Perspectives towards the Web
The Web is an
Opportunity
The Web is a Threat
The Web is.
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Global
Socio-cognitive
Space
Aggregators
Twitter diplomacy
MOOC
Cognition
Attention
Emotions
Mental models
Macro
Effects
MicroEffects
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
The Web and the Mind
On the micro effects of the global socio-cognitive space
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
A (highly) Simplified Model of Cognition
Declarative memory
Semantic
Episodic
Procedural memory
Reflexes
Motor control
Active mental model
Emotion and limbic
subsystem
Long-term
memory
Working memory
Frontal lobe
Amygdala
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
The psychological dimension of the
online free-speech debates
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
The Free Speech Conundrum
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
The Free Speech Conundrum
The holy grail of democratic societies – freedom of
speech (and expression) – is suddenly at the center
of a new found controversy
At the core of this debate is a call to distinguish
between “free speech” and “bad speech”
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Free Speech and Bad Speech
The line is not always clear:
Disagreeing with popular opinion (free speech)
Supporting/opposing a political party (free speech)
Racial slur (bad speech)
Inciting mob violence publicly (bad speech)
Scholarly writing criticizing government or specific religions
(free speech considered bad speech in some places)
Artistic depiction that offends religious sentiments (let's not
even go there!)
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Characterizing Speech
Claim:
The free speech versus bad speech debate presents a
false dilemma, which can never be completely resolved
Need:
Semantic characterization of speech and conversations
and creating awareness and tool-support for online
conversations based on this characterization
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Abstraction and Expression
Articulation of our
objective understanding of
something
Communicates an idea
Articulation of our
subjective feeling about
something
Communicates an emotion
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Abstraction and Expression
Reporting: mostly abstraction
Opinion: mix of abstraction and expression
Emotional reaction: mostly expression
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Abstraction
● Semantic meta-construct used
to build our world view
● Processing is resource
intensive (“System 2” in
Prospect Theory [KT79]
terminology)
● Subject to innate cognitive
resistance in assimilation due to
factors like bounded
rationality and conformance
pressures
Images source: Wikipedia
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Abstraction and Conformance
Asch Conformity Experiments
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Conformance and Diffusion of Ideas
Information diffusion is faster in sparsely connected parts of a network, rather
than densely connected (entrenched) parts due to conformance effects.
Node d in the above figure does not switch to the new idea because of
conformance pressures from nodes e, f and g
Image Source: [Sri 06]
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Models for Diffusion of Ideas
Typically based on an element of “criticality”
balancing: ability to communicate new idea, and
pressure to conform to existing ideas
Example models [EK 10]
Percolating clusters
Ising model
Cluster density based diffusion
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Expression
● Semantic construct encapsulating
our emotional state for
communication
● Subconsciously affects receiver's
emotional state by means of
emotional contagion
● Emotional contagion also spreads
through the web (Ex: Facebook
Experiment [KGH 14])
● Characteristically different from
spread of ideas, which have a
natural resistance to assimilation
Images source: Wikipedia
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Spread of Emotions
Models based on spread of epidemics, useful in modeling spread of
emotions
Emotions are psychosomatic phenomena causing both cognitive and
physical affect
Intense emotional states induce a state of trauma that have long range
repercussions like PTSD
Example epidemic models [EK 10]
– SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered/Resistant) useful for modeling
spread of intense emotions in a population
– SIS (Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible) useful for modeling spread of
mild emotions in a population
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Abstraction versus Expression
Objective belief
Asserts an idea
Humans have innate resistance
towards ideas thrown at them
We need to have an “open
mind” to entertain new
abstractions
Subjective emotion
Communicates a feeling
Humans have innate “anti-
resistance” towards emotions
thrown at them
We need to be “mindful” of our
emotional state to be
unaffected by an incoming
emotion
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Mental Model
Axiomatic framework within which we perform reasoning.
Encapsulates underlying assumptions, ground truths and inference rules
Active mental model
Reasoning and deduction carried out within the framework of the
currently active mental model
Any input that challenges the currently held mental model usually elicits an emotional
reaction (laughter, terror, etc.)
Linking Abstractions and Expressions
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Characterizing Online Communication
Mental model 1 Mental model 2
Mental model 1 Mental model 2
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Characterizing Online Communication
Mental model 1 Mental model 2
Mental model 1 Mental model 2
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Characterizing Online Communication
Mental model 1 Mental model 2
End Result?
Mental model 1 Mental model 2
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
The Intense Online World
Online communication tend to be more intense and
overwhelming due to following factors:
– Lack of coherence between mental models (due to
anonymity, asynchrony, solipsism, etc.)
– Interplay between abstractive and expressive content in
conversation
Emotions spread faster than ideas due to anti-resistance
Spread of emotions greatly complicates the spread of
ideas
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Online Collectives
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Wisdom of Crowds?
Not all groups of people form
“wise” crowds!
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Coagulation
Abstraction and Expression can affect group behaviour in
different ways
A given abstraction or expression can “coagulate” over a
group of people (most people in the group think the same
way / most people in the group feel the same way)
Coagulation in abstraction and expression can explain
some failures of crowdsourcing efforts
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Classification of Groups [SS 15]
Some coherence in
abstractions
(Ex: NPOV, NOR,V
for Wikipedia)
High coagulation
Low coagulation
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Classification of Groups
Crowds
Group of people having shared attention but no shared abstraction or shared
expression
Rich in insights due to diverse opinions
No major emotional contagion
Members act as individuals
Pose high cognitive load on members
Unstable
Wise Crowds
Share some common abstraction in the form of “ground rules” to facilitate
management of diverse opinions without degenerating
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Classification of Groups
Herds
Group sharing a common abstraction
“Herd mentality” pertains to every member of the
group thinking in the same way
High in persuasive power
Low on collective insight
Manipulable by external forces if the characteristics of
the herd are known
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Classification of Groups
Mobs
Groups sharing a common emotional state
Common emotional state could be either positive
emotion (jubilant football fans) or negative emotion
(lynch mobs)
Need not have common abstraction (members of an
angry mob may each be venting personal frustrations
through the mob)
Highly unpredictable behaviour
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Classification of Groups
Gangs
Groups sharing both a common abstraction and common
emotion
All members of the group think and feel the same way about
something
Passionate and highly persuasive
Common emotion could be positive (The researcher “gang of
four” on design patterns) or negative (bandits and other
organized criminals)
Powerful and highly impactful collective actions
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
A Computational Model
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
A Computational Model
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
A Computational Model
User Evaluation
Dataset comprising of tweets pertaining to #DelhiPolls,
#DelhiElections
35 evaluators given a set of 20 randomly picked tweets
Evaluators were asked a set of indirect questions
seeking their opinion about coagulation levels of
abstractions and expressions
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
A Computational Model
Evaluation Results
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
Free Speech Revisited
What appears as the online free speech conundrum is actually a complex phenomenon
caused by abstraction, expression, dissonance across mental models and group
coherence of abstractions and expressions and amplified by the scale of the Web
The issue is not (just) a question of what is or should be legal provisions around online
speech
We need better models to understand cognitive and emotional aspects of human
communication and their impacts on a global scale
Linearly extrapolating existing models from social psychology bound to fail because,
never before in human history was there a global socio-cognitive conversational space
like the Web
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
The Web and the Mind
The web is affecting what we think and feel – thus molding us at
a very fundamental level, offering both opportunities and
challenges
Our understanding of web-scale cognitive phenomena too
premature to advocate any form of social or regulatory
solutions
Web Science: A rich area of research for enthusiastic and
curious minds!
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
May you be born in interesting times...
-- an ancient Chinese curse
Thank You!
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
References
[AMM 97] G.O. Arocena, A.O. Meldelzon and G.A. Mihaila, Applications of a Web query language, in: Proc. of the 6th
International World Wide Web Conference, April 7–11, 1997, Santa Clara, California, USA,
http://www6.nttlabs.com/HyperNews/get/PAPER267.html
[GR+ 97] Gudivada, V.N.; Raghavan, V.V.; Grosky, William I; Kasanagottu, R., "Information retrieval on the World Wide
Web," Internet Computing, IEEE , vol.1, no.5, pp.58,68, Sep/Oct 1997
[BP 98] Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page. 1998. The anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual Web search engine. In
Proceedings of the seventh international conference on World Wide Web 7 (WWW7), Philip H. Enslow, Jr. and Allen Ellis
(Eds.). Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, The Netherlands, 107-117.
[Eng 98] Carlos F. Enguix. 1998. Database querying on the World Wide Web: UniGuide, an object-relational search engine
for Australian universities. Comput. Netw. ISDN Syst. 30, 1-7 (April 1998), 567-572. DOI=10.1016/S0169-7552(98)00080-4
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7552(98)00080-4
[GKR 98] David Gibson, Jon Kleinberg, and Prabhakar Raghavan. 1998. Inferring Web communities from link topology. In
Proceedings of the ninth ACM conference on Hypertext and hypermedia : links, objects, time and space---structure in
hypermedia systems: links, objects, time and space---structure in hypermedia systems (HYPERTEXT '98). ACM, New York,
NY, USA, 225-234.
[HMA 03] Ian Horrocks, Deborah L. McGuinness, and Christopher A. Welty. 2003. Digital libraries and web-based
information systems. In The description logic handbook, Franz Baader, Diego Calvanese, Deborah L. McGuinness, Daniele
Nardi, and Peter F. Patel-Schneider (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA 427-449.
Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016
References
[BH 09] Berners-Lee, Tim; J. Hendler (2009). "From the Semantic Web to social
machines: A research challenge for AI on the World WideWeb" (PDF). Artificial
Intelligence. doi:10.1016/j.artint.2009.11.010.
[EK 10] David Easley, Jon Kleinberg. Networks, Crowds and Markets: Reasoning about
a Highly Connected World. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
[KA 79] Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. "Prospect theory: An analysis of
decision under risk." Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society (1979): 263-
291.
[KGH 14] Kramer, Adam DI, Jamie E. Guillory, and Jeffrey T. Hancock. "Experimental
evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks."
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.24 (2014): 8788-8790.
[SS 15] Nirmal Kumar Sivaraman, Srinath Srinivasa. Abstractions, Expressions and
Online Collectives. Proceedings of ACM WebSci 2015, Oxford, UK, June 2015.

More Related Content

Viewers also liked

媽媽中級 0522
媽媽中級 0522媽媽中級 0522
媽媽中級 0522芊如 賴
 
Prueba decima seguna Promocion
Prueba decima seguna PromocionPrueba decima seguna Promocion
Prueba decima seguna PromocionNancy Ponce
 
Certificate Introduction of Enterprise Architecture TOGAF
Certificate Introduction of Enterprise Architecture TOGAFCertificate Introduction of Enterprise Architecture TOGAF
Certificate Introduction of Enterprise Architecture TOGAFMichael Loanjoe
 
resume-WANDA_EWING (1)
resume-WANDA_EWING (1)resume-WANDA_EWING (1)
resume-WANDA_EWING (1)Wanda Ewing
 
スプリングセミナー2016"クラウドのための仮想ネットワークプログラミング"
スプリングセミナー2016"クラウドのための仮想ネットワークプログラミング"スプリングセミナー2016"クラウドのための仮想ネットワークプログラミング"
スプリングセミナー2016"クラウドのための仮想ネットワークプログラミング"奈良先端大 情報科学研究科
 
CSH_Chinese 5-2_9-28 greeting n classroom lg
CSH_Chinese 5-2_9-28  greeting n classroom lgCSH_Chinese 5-2_9-28  greeting n classroom lg
CSH_Chinese 5-2_9-28 greeting n classroom lgkanlaoshi
 
HTML5 for SEO and accessibility in 2016
HTML5 for SEO and accessibility in 2016HTML5 for SEO and accessibility in 2016
HTML5 for SEO and accessibility in 2016Myriam Jessier
 
BioStorage Technologies Case Study: How to build an informatics platform usin...
BioStorage Technologies Case Study: How to build an informatics platform usin...BioStorage Technologies Case Study: How to build an informatics platform usin...
BioStorage Technologies Case Study: How to build an informatics platform usin...Denodo
 
Chinese Link Textbook Lesson 16 sentence pattern
Chinese Link Textbook Lesson 16 sentence pattern Chinese Link Textbook Lesson 16 sentence pattern
Chinese Link Textbook Lesson 16 sentence pattern Joanne Chen
 
Tema 6. Los medios naturales de España
Tema 6. Los medios naturales de EspañaTema 6. Los medios naturales de España
Tema 6. Los medios naturales de Españacopybird
 

Viewers also liked (12)

BATFE 41F
BATFE 41FBATFE 41F
BATFE 41F
 
媽媽中級 0522
媽媽中級 0522媽媽中級 0522
媽媽中級 0522
 
Prueba decima seguna Promocion
Prueba decima seguna PromocionPrueba decima seguna Promocion
Prueba decima seguna Promocion
 
Certificate Introduction of Enterprise Architecture TOGAF
Certificate Introduction of Enterprise Architecture TOGAFCertificate Introduction of Enterprise Architecture TOGAF
Certificate Introduction of Enterprise Architecture TOGAF
 
resume-WANDA_EWING (1)
resume-WANDA_EWING (1)resume-WANDA_EWING (1)
resume-WANDA_EWING (1)
 
スプリングセミナー2016"クラウドのための仮想ネットワークプログラミング"
スプリングセミナー2016"クラウドのための仮想ネットワークプログラミング"スプリングセミナー2016"クラウドのための仮想ネットワークプログラミング"
スプリングセミナー2016"クラウドのための仮想ネットワークプログラミング"
 
CSH_Chinese 5-2_9-28 greeting n classroom lg
CSH_Chinese 5-2_9-28  greeting n classroom lgCSH_Chinese 5-2_9-28  greeting n classroom lg
CSH_Chinese 5-2_9-28 greeting n classroom lg
 
HTML5 for SEO and accessibility in 2016
HTML5 for SEO and accessibility in 2016HTML5 for SEO and accessibility in 2016
HTML5 for SEO and accessibility in 2016
 
BioStorage Technologies Case Study: How to build an informatics platform usin...
BioStorage Technologies Case Study: How to build an informatics platform usin...BioStorage Technologies Case Study: How to build an informatics platform usin...
BioStorage Technologies Case Study: How to build an informatics platform usin...
 
Chinese Link Textbook Lesson 16 sentence pattern
Chinese Link Textbook Lesson 16 sentence pattern Chinese Link Textbook Lesson 16 sentence pattern
Chinese Link Textbook Lesson 16 sentence pattern
 
Tema 6. Los medios naturales de España
Tema 6. Los medios naturales de EspañaTema 6. Los medios naturales de España
Tema 6. Los medios naturales de España
 
Web Design Trends 2016
Web Design Trends 2016Web Design Trends 2016
Web Design Trends 2016
 

Similar to The Web and the Mind

New Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web Logs
New Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web LogsNew Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web Logs
New Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web LogsBryan Loar
 
New Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web Logs
New Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web LogsNew Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web Logs
New Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web Logsguestf2c507
 
Web2.0 Daniel Church
Web2.0 Daniel ChurchWeb2.0 Daniel Church
Web2.0 Daniel ChurchFantastic1234
 
Going social: the librarians bag of tricks
Going social: the librarians bag of tricksGoing social: the librarians bag of tricks
Going social: the librarians bag of tricksBonaria Biancu
 
The Future of Social Networks on the Internet: The Need for Semantics
The Future of Social Networks on the Internet: The Need for SemanticsThe Future of Social Networks on the Internet: The Need for Semantics
The Future of Social Networks on the Internet: The Need for SemanticsJohn Breslin
 
Learning as a Social Process
Learning as a Social ProcessLearning as a Social Process
Learning as a Social ProcessRobert Cormia
 
Interlinking Online Communities and Enriching Social Software with the Semant...
Interlinking Online Communities and Enriching Social Software with the Semant...Interlinking Online Communities and Enriching Social Software with the Semant...
Interlinking Online Communities and Enriching Social Software with the Semant...John Breslin
 
Emerging tech for teaching and learning: heading into fall 2008
Emerging tech for teaching and learning: heading into fall 2008Emerging tech for teaching and learning: heading into fall 2008
Emerging tech for teaching and learning: heading into fall 2008Bryan Alexander
 
Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: into fall 2008
Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: into fall 2008Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: into fall 2008
Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: into fall 2008Bryan Alexander
 
The Social Semantic Web: An Introduction
The Social Semantic Web: An IntroductionThe Social Semantic Web: An Introduction
The Social Semantic Web: An IntroductionJohn Breslin
 
My Year Without Search
My Year Without SearchMy Year Without Search
My Year Without SearchRandy Connolly
 
Social software for teaching and learning, mid-2008
Social software for teaching and learning, mid-2008Social software for teaching and learning, mid-2008
Social software for teaching and learning, mid-2008Bryan Alexander
 
From Web 2.0 to Web 3.0: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Where the Technology is ...
From Web 2.0 to Web 3.0: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Where the Technology is ...From Web 2.0 to Web 3.0: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Where the Technology is ...
From Web 2.0 to Web 3.0: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Where the Technology is ...Pavlinka Kovatcheva
 
The Social Web and Cultural Heritage
The Social Web and Cultural Heritage The Social Web and Cultural Heritage
The Social Web and Cultural Heritage Julita Vassileva
 
Web 20 E Oltre 1202297800291589 3
Web 20 E Oltre 1202297800291589 3Web 20 E Oltre 1202297800291589 3
Web 20 E Oltre 1202297800291589 3Universita' di Bari
 
Supporting Sensemaking by Modelling Discourse as Hypermedia Networks
Supporting Sensemaking by Modelling Discourse as Hypermedia NetworksSupporting Sensemaking by Modelling Discourse as Hypermedia Networks
Supporting Sensemaking by Modelling Discourse as Hypermedia NetworksSimon Buckingham Shum
 
Elsevier Gran Challenge: The living document
Elsevier Gran Challenge: The living documentElsevier Gran Challenge: The living document
Elsevier Gran Challenge: The living documentAlberto Labarga
 
Vks Presentation, Jankowski,15 Jan2009, Websites & Books, Near Final
Vks Presentation, Jankowski,15 Jan2009, Websites & Books, Near FinalVks Presentation, Jankowski,15 Jan2009, Websites & Books, Near Final
Vks Presentation, Jankowski,15 Jan2009, Websites & Books, Near FinalNick Jankowski
 
Library Blogging: Reaching Out with a Dynamic Web Presence
Library Blogging: Reaching Out with a Dynamic Web PresenceLibrary Blogging: Reaching Out with a Dynamic Web Presence
Library Blogging: Reaching Out with a Dynamic Web PresenceHeather Martyn
 

Similar to The Web and the Mind (20)

New Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web Logs
New Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web LogsNew Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web Logs
New Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web Logs
 
New Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web Logs
New Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web LogsNew Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web Logs
New Forms Of Communication: Harnessing Collective Knowledge through Web Logs
 
Web2.0 Daniel Church
Web2.0 Daniel ChurchWeb2.0 Daniel Church
Web2.0 Daniel Church
 
Going social: the librarians bag of tricks
Going social: the librarians bag of tricksGoing social: the librarians bag of tricks
Going social: the librarians bag of tricks
 
The Future of Social Networks on the Internet: The Need for Semantics
The Future of Social Networks on the Internet: The Need for SemanticsThe Future of Social Networks on the Internet: The Need for Semantics
The Future of Social Networks on the Internet: The Need for Semantics
 
Learning as a Social Process
Learning as a Social ProcessLearning as a Social Process
Learning as a Social Process
 
Interlinking Online Communities and Enriching Social Software with the Semant...
Interlinking Online Communities and Enriching Social Software with the Semant...Interlinking Online Communities and Enriching Social Software with the Semant...
Interlinking Online Communities and Enriching Social Software with the Semant...
 
Emerging tech for teaching and learning: heading into fall 2008
Emerging tech for teaching and learning: heading into fall 2008Emerging tech for teaching and learning: heading into fall 2008
Emerging tech for teaching and learning: heading into fall 2008
 
Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: into fall 2008
Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: into fall 2008Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: into fall 2008
Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: into fall 2008
 
The Social Semantic Web: An Introduction
The Social Semantic Web: An IntroductionThe Social Semantic Web: An Introduction
The Social Semantic Web: An Introduction
 
My Year Without Search
My Year Without SearchMy Year Without Search
My Year Without Search
 
Social software for teaching and learning, mid-2008
Social software for teaching and learning, mid-2008Social software for teaching and learning, mid-2008
Social software for teaching and learning, mid-2008
 
From Web 2.0 to Web 3.0: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Where the Technology is ...
From Web 2.0 to Web 3.0: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Where the Technology is ...From Web 2.0 to Web 3.0: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Where the Technology is ...
From Web 2.0 to Web 3.0: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Where the Technology is ...
 
The Social Web and Cultural Heritage
The Social Web and Cultural Heritage The Social Web and Cultural Heritage
The Social Web and Cultural Heritage
 
Web 20 E Oltre 1202297800291589 3
Web 20 E Oltre 1202297800291589 3Web 20 E Oltre 1202297800291589 3
Web 20 E Oltre 1202297800291589 3
 
Supporting Sensemaking by Modelling Discourse as Hypermedia Networks
Supporting Sensemaking by Modelling Discourse as Hypermedia NetworksSupporting Sensemaking by Modelling Discourse as Hypermedia Networks
Supporting Sensemaking by Modelling Discourse as Hypermedia Networks
 
Elsevier Gran Challenge: The living document
Elsevier Gran Challenge: The living documentElsevier Gran Challenge: The living document
Elsevier Gran Challenge: The living document
 
Vks Presentation, Jankowski,15 Jan2009, Websites & Books, Near Final
Vks Presentation, Jankowski,15 Jan2009, Websites & Books, Near FinalVks Presentation, Jankowski,15 Jan2009, Websites & Books, Near Final
Vks Presentation, Jankowski,15 Jan2009, Websites & Books, Near Final
 
Library Blogging: Reaching Out with a Dynamic Web Presence
Library Blogging: Reaching Out with a Dynamic Web PresenceLibrary Blogging: Reaching Out with a Dynamic Web Presence
Library Blogging: Reaching Out with a Dynamic Web Presence
 
Jx2517481755
Jx2517481755Jx2517481755
Jx2517481755
 

More from Srinath Srinivasa

Modeling sustainability in social networks
Modeling sustainability in social networksModeling sustainability in social networks
Modeling sustainability in social networksSrinath Srinivasa
 
Characterizing online social cognition
Characterizing online social cognitionCharacterizing online social cognition
Characterizing online social cognitionSrinath Srinivasa
 
Big Social Machines: Architecture and Challenges
Big Social Machines: Architecture and ChallengesBig Social Machines: Architecture and Challenges
Big Social Machines: Architecture and ChallengesSrinath Srinivasa
 
Abstraction and Expression on the Web
Abstraction and Expression on the WebAbstraction and Expression on the Web
Abstraction and Expression on the WebSrinath Srinivasa
 
The Power Law of Social Media: What CIOs Should Know
The Power Law of Social Media: What CIOs Should KnowThe Power Law of Social Media: What CIOs Should Know
The Power Law of Social Media: What CIOs Should KnowSrinath Srinivasa
 
Big Data and the Semantic Web: Challenges and Opportunities
Big Data and the Semantic Web: Challenges and OpportunitiesBig Data and the Semantic Web: Challenges and Opportunities
Big Data and the Semantic Web: Challenges and OpportunitiesSrinath Srinivasa
 
Aggregating Operational Knowledge in Community Settings
Aggregating Operational Knowledge in Community SettingsAggregating Operational Knowledge in Community Settings
Aggregating Operational Knowledge in Community SettingsSrinath Srinivasa
 
Information Networks and Semantics
Information Networks and SemanticsInformation Networks and Semantics
Information Networks and SemanticsSrinath Srinivasa
 
Semantics hidden within co-occurrence patterns
Semantics hidden within co-occurrence patternsSemantics hidden within co-occurrence patterns
Semantics hidden within co-occurrence patternsSrinath Srinivasa
 
The open problem of open-world computing
The open problem of open-world computingThe open problem of open-world computing
The open problem of open-world computingSrinath Srinivasa
 
Trends In Graph Data Management And Mining
Trends In Graph Data Management And MiningTrends In Graph Data Management And Mining
Trends In Graph Data Management And MiningSrinath Srinivasa
 
Information Networks And Their Dynamics
Information Networks And Their DynamicsInformation Networks And Their Dynamics
Information Networks And Their DynamicsSrinath Srinivasa
 

More from Srinath Srinivasa (15)

AI and the sense of self
AI and the sense of selfAI and the sense of self
AI and the sense of self
 
Modeling sustainability in social networks
Modeling sustainability in social networksModeling sustainability in social networks
Modeling sustainability in social networks
 
Characterizing online social cognition
Characterizing online social cognitionCharacterizing online social cognition
Characterizing online social cognition
 
Open ended data
Open ended dataOpen ended data
Open ended data
 
Big Social Machines: Architecture and Challenges
Big Social Machines: Architecture and ChallengesBig Social Machines: Architecture and Challenges
Big Social Machines: Architecture and Challenges
 
Abstraction and Expression on the Web
Abstraction and Expression on the WebAbstraction and Expression on the Web
Abstraction and Expression on the Web
 
Towards a "Mindful" Web
Towards a "Mindful" WebTowards a "Mindful" Web
Towards a "Mindful" Web
 
The Power Law of Social Media: What CIOs Should Know
The Power Law of Social Media: What CIOs Should KnowThe Power Law of Social Media: What CIOs Should Know
The Power Law of Social Media: What CIOs Should Know
 
Big Data and the Semantic Web: Challenges and Opportunities
Big Data and the Semantic Web: Challenges and OpportunitiesBig Data and the Semantic Web: Challenges and Opportunities
Big Data and the Semantic Web: Challenges and Opportunities
 
Aggregating Operational Knowledge in Community Settings
Aggregating Operational Knowledge in Community SettingsAggregating Operational Knowledge in Community Settings
Aggregating Operational Knowledge in Community Settings
 
Information Networks and Semantics
Information Networks and SemanticsInformation Networks and Semantics
Information Networks and Semantics
 
Semantics hidden within co-occurrence patterns
Semantics hidden within co-occurrence patternsSemantics hidden within co-occurrence patterns
Semantics hidden within co-occurrence patterns
 
The open problem of open-world computing
The open problem of open-world computingThe open problem of open-world computing
The open problem of open-world computing
 
Trends In Graph Data Management And Mining
Trends In Graph Data Management And MiningTrends In Graph Data Management And Mining
Trends In Graph Data Management And Mining
 
Information Networks And Their Dynamics
Information Networks And Their DynamicsInformation Networks And Their Dynamics
Information Networks And Their Dynamics
 

Recently uploaded

How to login to Router net ORBI LOGIN...
How to login to Router net ORBI LOGIN...How to login to Router net ORBI LOGIN...
How to login to Router net ORBI LOGIN...rrouter90
 
Cybersecurity Threats and Cybersecurity Best Practices
Cybersecurity Threats and Cybersecurity Best PracticesCybersecurity Threats and Cybersecurity Best Practices
Cybersecurity Threats and Cybersecurity Best PracticesLumiverse Solutions Pvt Ltd
 
Unidad 4 – Redes de ordenadores (en inglés).pptx
Unidad 4 – Redes de ordenadores (en inglés).pptxUnidad 4 – Redes de ordenadores (en inglés).pptx
Unidad 4 – Redes de ordenadores (en inglés).pptxmibuzondetrabajo
 
办理澳洲USYD文凭证书学历认证【Q微/1954292140】办理悉尼大学毕业证书真实成绩单GPA修改/办理澳洲大学文凭证书Offer录取通知书/在读证明...
办理澳洲USYD文凭证书学历认证【Q微/1954292140】办理悉尼大学毕业证书真实成绩单GPA修改/办理澳洲大学文凭证书Offer录取通知书/在读证明...办理澳洲USYD文凭证书学历认证【Q微/1954292140】办理悉尼大学毕业证书真实成绩单GPA修改/办理澳洲大学文凭证书Offer录取通知书/在读证明...
办理澳洲USYD文凭证书学历认证【Q微/1954292140】办理悉尼大学毕业证书真实成绩单GPA修改/办理澳洲大学文凭证书Offer录取通知书/在读证明...vmzoxnx5
 
Company Snapshot Theme for Business by Slidesgo.pptx
Company Snapshot Theme for Business by Slidesgo.pptxCompany Snapshot Theme for Business by Slidesgo.pptx
Company Snapshot Theme for Business by Slidesgo.pptxMario
 
TRENDS Enabling and inhibiting dimensions.pptx
TRENDS Enabling and inhibiting dimensions.pptxTRENDS Enabling and inhibiting dimensions.pptx
TRENDS Enabling and inhibiting dimensions.pptxAndrieCagasanAkio
 
IP addressing and IPv6, presented by Paul Wilson at IETF 119
IP addressing and IPv6, presented by Paul Wilson at IETF 119IP addressing and IPv6, presented by Paul Wilson at IETF 119
IP addressing and IPv6, presented by Paul Wilson at IETF 119APNIC
 
Summary IGF 2013 Bali - English (tata kelola internet / internet governance)
Summary  IGF 2013 Bali - English (tata kelola internet / internet governance)Summary  IGF 2013 Bali - English (tata kelola internet / internet governance)
Summary IGF 2013 Bali - English (tata kelola internet / internet governance)ICT Watch - Indonesia
 
Summary ID-IGF 2016 National Dialogue - English (tata kelola internet / int...
Summary  ID-IGF 2016 National Dialogue  - English (tata kelola internet / int...Summary  ID-IGF 2016 National Dialogue  - English (tata kelola internet / int...
Summary ID-IGF 2016 National Dialogue - English (tata kelola internet / int...ICT Watch - Indonesia
 

Recently uploaded (9)

How to login to Router net ORBI LOGIN...
How to login to Router net ORBI LOGIN...How to login to Router net ORBI LOGIN...
How to login to Router net ORBI LOGIN...
 
Cybersecurity Threats and Cybersecurity Best Practices
Cybersecurity Threats and Cybersecurity Best PracticesCybersecurity Threats and Cybersecurity Best Practices
Cybersecurity Threats and Cybersecurity Best Practices
 
Unidad 4 – Redes de ordenadores (en inglés).pptx
Unidad 4 – Redes de ordenadores (en inglés).pptxUnidad 4 – Redes de ordenadores (en inglés).pptx
Unidad 4 – Redes de ordenadores (en inglés).pptx
 
办理澳洲USYD文凭证书学历认证【Q微/1954292140】办理悉尼大学毕业证书真实成绩单GPA修改/办理澳洲大学文凭证书Offer录取通知书/在读证明...
办理澳洲USYD文凭证书学历认证【Q微/1954292140】办理悉尼大学毕业证书真实成绩单GPA修改/办理澳洲大学文凭证书Offer录取通知书/在读证明...办理澳洲USYD文凭证书学历认证【Q微/1954292140】办理悉尼大学毕业证书真实成绩单GPA修改/办理澳洲大学文凭证书Offer录取通知书/在读证明...
办理澳洲USYD文凭证书学历认证【Q微/1954292140】办理悉尼大学毕业证书真实成绩单GPA修改/办理澳洲大学文凭证书Offer录取通知书/在读证明...
 
Company Snapshot Theme for Business by Slidesgo.pptx
Company Snapshot Theme for Business by Slidesgo.pptxCompany Snapshot Theme for Business by Slidesgo.pptx
Company Snapshot Theme for Business by Slidesgo.pptx
 
TRENDS Enabling and inhibiting dimensions.pptx
TRENDS Enabling and inhibiting dimensions.pptxTRENDS Enabling and inhibiting dimensions.pptx
TRENDS Enabling and inhibiting dimensions.pptx
 
IP addressing and IPv6, presented by Paul Wilson at IETF 119
IP addressing and IPv6, presented by Paul Wilson at IETF 119IP addressing and IPv6, presented by Paul Wilson at IETF 119
IP addressing and IPv6, presented by Paul Wilson at IETF 119
 
Summary IGF 2013 Bali - English (tata kelola internet / internet governance)
Summary  IGF 2013 Bali - English (tata kelola internet / internet governance)Summary  IGF 2013 Bali - English (tata kelola internet / internet governance)
Summary IGF 2013 Bali - English (tata kelola internet / internet governance)
 
Summary ID-IGF 2016 National Dialogue - English (tata kelola internet / int...
Summary  ID-IGF 2016 National Dialogue  - English (tata kelola internet / int...Summary  ID-IGF 2016 National Dialogue  - English (tata kelola internet / int...
Summary ID-IGF 2016 National Dialogue - English (tata kelola internet / int...
 

The Web and the Mind

  • 1. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 The Web and the Mind Srinath Srinivasa Web Science Lab IIIT Bangalore http://cds.iiitb.ac.in/wsl
  • 2. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Outline A brief history of the WWW Models of the Web – Web as a Database/Repository – Web as a Cognitive Extension of us – Web as a socio-cognitive space Social Machines Web Science Abstraction and Expression on the Web Characterizing Online Collectives
  • 3. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Some Recent News Topics Re-emergence of the free-speech debate Personal liberty, sedition, Sec 66A, annoyance, … “The right to be forgotten” Privacy, accountability, personal liberty, … Net Neutrality Bridging the digital divide, neo-colonialism, “data darwinism”, …
  • 4. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Some Recent News Topics Re-emergence of the free-speech debate Personal liberty, sedition, Sec 66A, annoyance, … “The right to be forgotten” Privacy, accountability, personal liberty, … Net Neutrality Bridging the digital divide, neo-colonialism, “data darwinism”, … W W WW W W
  • 5. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 A brief history of the WWW 1989 CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee lays out a proposal for information management called “Mesh” Original proposal available from http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposa l.html 1990 Berners-Lee changes name to “World Wide Web” while writing code for the Mesh Creates three fundamental building blocks: HTML URL (later called URI) HTTP
  • 6. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 A brief history of the WWW 1990 First web page appears on the Internet 1991 Web available for access to people outside of CERN 1993 WWW code made available for free on a royalty-free basis forever by CERN 1994 Berners-Lee joins MIT to found the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Original logo for the WWW Image source: Wikipedia
  • 7. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 A brief history of the WWW Design principles for WWW adopted by the W3C: Decentralization (no one controls content on the web) Non-discrimination (net neutrality) Bottom-up design (Open source, participatory approach to maintaining web code) Universality (Agnostic to computing platforms or hardware) Consensus (Participatory approach to web standards) Source: webfoundation.org
  • 8. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 A brief history of the WWW 1993 Mark Andreessen from NCSA releases Mosaic – the first graphical browser for the web 1994 Andreessen, with two colleagues form Mosaic Communications Corporation and release the first commercial web browser: Netscape Navigator First International WWW conference is organized at CERN in May 1994 1996—2000 Dot com boom (“Get large or get lost” mantra) and birth of several first generation search engines and e-commerce sites (Yahoo, Excite, Lycos, Altavista, Amazon, …)
  • 9. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 A brief history of the WWW 2001—2002 Dot com bust. Major web and Internet companies go bankrupt (Excite, Lycos, Nortel Networks, Worldcom,...) 2002– Web 2.0. Web reinvents itself as a participatory social medium bringing social science and psychology central to thinking about the web.
  • 10. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Models of the Web The web is unlike any other technology developed so far Unlike say cars or washing machines, there is only one web Is the web a “technology” or a “tool” that we use or is it something else? Notable paradigms of the Web considered by researchers: Very large database Digital library / Repository A cognitive extension of ourselves Participatory socio-cognitive space
  • 11. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Web as a Database Early approaches (mid '90s) to model the Web Focused on the “semi- structured” nature of the Web and as a special case of managing structured (RDBMS) databases Research objectives: structured and rich query semantics Examples include: [AMM 97], [Eng 98], WebQL An example WebQL query Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WebQL
  • 12. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Web as a Digital Library Shift from: Strict notions of “query” Looser notions of “retrieval” and “relevance” Strict notions of “schema” Looser notions of “ontology” Emphasis still on retrieving information Web still seen as a passive repository of information Examples: [GR+ 97], [HMA 03]
  • 13. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Web as a Cognitive Extension of Ourselves Rooted in Vannevar Bush's interpretation of hypertext reflecting the way information is organized in human brains Focus on interpreting hyperlinks, rather than (just) data on web pages Hyperlink as a(n): – Relevance indicator – Endorsement – Attention pathway Examples: PageRank [BP 98], HITS [GKR 98] Memex
  • 14. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Web as a Socio-cognitive Space Most contemporary paradigm for understanding the web Web as an active, participatory, social space – people are no longer users, but participants Shift of emphasis from retrieving information from the web to engaging users with the web The Web uses us as much as we use the Web! Examples: Crowdsourcing, Participatory authoring, Push notifications on social media, Click-baiting, etc. The global mind and superintelligence
  • 15. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 The Socio-cognitive Space Image source: https://www.pinterest.com/pin /4433299610614823/
  • 16. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Web Science From www.webscience.org “Nothing like the Web has ever happened in all of human history. The scale of its impact and the rate of its adoption are unparalleled. This is a great opportunity as well as an obligation. If we are to ensure the Web benefits the human race we must first do our best to understand it. The Web is the largest human information construct in history. The Web is transforming society. In order to understand what the Web is, engineer its future and ensure its social benefit we need a new interdisciplinary field that we call Web Science.”
  • 17. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Social Machines Represents a class of environments comprising of interplay between humans and technology Outputs of social machines a result of both human and algorithmic decisions Building blocks of the global socio-cognitive space “The Web is an engine to create abstract social machines” – Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web [BH 09] About Social Machines https://youtu.be/8Iz7ZqSOJGU
  • 18. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Social Machines
  • 19. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Web Observatory and Telescope Image source: http://www.iconsmind.com/
  • 20. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Perspectives towards the Web The Web is an Opportunity The Web is a Threat The Web is.
  • 21. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Global Socio-cognitive Space Aggregators Twitter diplomacy MOOC Cognition Attention Emotions Mental models Macro Effects MicroEffects
  • 22. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 The Web and the Mind On the micro effects of the global socio-cognitive space
  • 23. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 A (highly) Simplified Model of Cognition Declarative memory Semantic Episodic Procedural memory Reflexes Motor control Active mental model Emotion and limbic subsystem Long-term memory Working memory Frontal lobe Amygdala
  • 24. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 The psychological dimension of the online free-speech debates
  • 25. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 The Free Speech Conundrum
  • 26. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 The Free Speech Conundrum The holy grail of democratic societies – freedom of speech (and expression) – is suddenly at the center of a new found controversy At the core of this debate is a call to distinguish between “free speech” and “bad speech”
  • 27. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Free Speech and Bad Speech The line is not always clear: Disagreeing with popular opinion (free speech) Supporting/opposing a political party (free speech) Racial slur (bad speech) Inciting mob violence publicly (bad speech) Scholarly writing criticizing government or specific religions (free speech considered bad speech in some places) Artistic depiction that offends religious sentiments (let's not even go there!)
  • 28. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Characterizing Speech Claim: The free speech versus bad speech debate presents a false dilemma, which can never be completely resolved Need: Semantic characterization of speech and conversations and creating awareness and tool-support for online conversations based on this characterization
  • 29. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Abstraction and Expression Articulation of our objective understanding of something Communicates an idea Articulation of our subjective feeling about something Communicates an emotion
  • 30. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Abstraction and Expression Reporting: mostly abstraction Opinion: mix of abstraction and expression Emotional reaction: mostly expression
  • 31. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Abstraction ● Semantic meta-construct used to build our world view ● Processing is resource intensive (“System 2” in Prospect Theory [KT79] terminology) ● Subject to innate cognitive resistance in assimilation due to factors like bounded rationality and conformance pressures Images source: Wikipedia
  • 32. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Abstraction and Conformance Asch Conformity Experiments
  • 33. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Conformance and Diffusion of Ideas Information diffusion is faster in sparsely connected parts of a network, rather than densely connected (entrenched) parts due to conformance effects. Node d in the above figure does not switch to the new idea because of conformance pressures from nodes e, f and g Image Source: [Sri 06]
  • 34. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Models for Diffusion of Ideas Typically based on an element of “criticality” balancing: ability to communicate new idea, and pressure to conform to existing ideas Example models [EK 10] Percolating clusters Ising model Cluster density based diffusion
  • 35. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Expression ● Semantic construct encapsulating our emotional state for communication ● Subconsciously affects receiver's emotional state by means of emotional contagion ● Emotional contagion also spreads through the web (Ex: Facebook Experiment [KGH 14]) ● Characteristically different from spread of ideas, which have a natural resistance to assimilation Images source: Wikipedia
  • 36. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Spread of Emotions Models based on spread of epidemics, useful in modeling spread of emotions Emotions are psychosomatic phenomena causing both cognitive and physical affect Intense emotional states induce a state of trauma that have long range repercussions like PTSD Example epidemic models [EK 10] – SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered/Resistant) useful for modeling spread of intense emotions in a population – SIS (Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible) useful for modeling spread of mild emotions in a population
  • 37. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Abstraction versus Expression Objective belief Asserts an idea Humans have innate resistance towards ideas thrown at them We need to have an “open mind” to entertain new abstractions Subjective emotion Communicates a feeling Humans have innate “anti- resistance” towards emotions thrown at them We need to be “mindful” of our emotional state to be unaffected by an incoming emotion
  • 38. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Mental Model Axiomatic framework within which we perform reasoning. Encapsulates underlying assumptions, ground truths and inference rules Active mental model Reasoning and deduction carried out within the framework of the currently active mental model Any input that challenges the currently held mental model usually elicits an emotional reaction (laughter, terror, etc.) Linking Abstractions and Expressions
  • 39. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Characterizing Online Communication Mental model 1 Mental model 2 Mental model 1 Mental model 2
  • 40. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Characterizing Online Communication Mental model 1 Mental model 2 Mental model 1 Mental model 2
  • 41. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Characterizing Online Communication Mental model 1 Mental model 2 End Result? Mental model 1 Mental model 2
  • 42. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 The Intense Online World Online communication tend to be more intense and overwhelming due to following factors: – Lack of coherence between mental models (due to anonymity, asynchrony, solipsism, etc.) – Interplay between abstractive and expressive content in conversation Emotions spread faster than ideas due to anti-resistance Spread of emotions greatly complicates the spread of ideas
  • 43. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Online Collectives
  • 44. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Wisdom of Crowds? Not all groups of people form “wise” crowds!
  • 45. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Coagulation Abstraction and Expression can affect group behaviour in different ways A given abstraction or expression can “coagulate” over a group of people (most people in the group think the same way / most people in the group feel the same way) Coagulation in abstraction and expression can explain some failures of crowdsourcing efforts
  • 46. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Classification of Groups [SS 15] Some coherence in abstractions (Ex: NPOV, NOR,V for Wikipedia) High coagulation Low coagulation
  • 47. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Classification of Groups Crowds Group of people having shared attention but no shared abstraction or shared expression Rich in insights due to diverse opinions No major emotional contagion Members act as individuals Pose high cognitive load on members Unstable Wise Crowds Share some common abstraction in the form of “ground rules” to facilitate management of diverse opinions without degenerating
  • 48. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Classification of Groups Herds Group sharing a common abstraction “Herd mentality” pertains to every member of the group thinking in the same way High in persuasive power Low on collective insight Manipulable by external forces if the characteristics of the herd are known
  • 49. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Classification of Groups Mobs Groups sharing a common emotional state Common emotional state could be either positive emotion (jubilant football fans) or negative emotion (lynch mobs) Need not have common abstraction (members of an angry mob may each be venting personal frustrations through the mob) Highly unpredictable behaviour
  • 50. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Classification of Groups Gangs Groups sharing both a common abstraction and common emotion All members of the group think and feel the same way about something Passionate and highly persuasive Common emotion could be positive (The researcher “gang of four” on design patterns) or negative (bandits and other organized criminals) Powerful and highly impactful collective actions
  • 51. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 A Computational Model
  • 52. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 A Computational Model
  • 53. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 A Computational Model User Evaluation Dataset comprising of tweets pertaining to #DelhiPolls, #DelhiElections 35 evaluators given a set of 20 randomly picked tweets Evaluators were asked a set of indirect questions seeking their opinion about coagulation levels of abstractions and expressions
  • 54. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 A Computational Model Evaluation Results
  • 55. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 Free Speech Revisited What appears as the online free speech conundrum is actually a complex phenomenon caused by abstraction, expression, dissonance across mental models and group coherence of abstractions and expressions and amplified by the scale of the Web The issue is not (just) a question of what is or should be legal provisions around online speech We need better models to understand cognitive and emotional aspects of human communication and their impacts on a global scale Linearly extrapolating existing models from social psychology bound to fail because, never before in human history was there a global socio-cognitive conversational space like the Web
  • 56. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 The Web and the Mind The web is affecting what we think and feel – thus molding us at a very fundamental level, offering both opportunities and challenges Our understanding of web-scale cognitive phenomena too premature to advocate any form of social or regulatory solutions Web Science: A rich area of research for enthusiastic and curious minds!
  • 57. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 May you be born in interesting times... -- an ancient Chinese curse Thank You!
  • 58. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 References [AMM 97] G.O. Arocena, A.O. Meldelzon and G.A. Mihaila, Applications of a Web query language, in: Proc. of the 6th International World Wide Web Conference, April 7–11, 1997, Santa Clara, California, USA, http://www6.nttlabs.com/HyperNews/get/PAPER267.html [GR+ 97] Gudivada, V.N.; Raghavan, V.V.; Grosky, William I; Kasanagottu, R., "Information retrieval on the World Wide Web," Internet Computing, IEEE , vol.1, no.5, pp.58,68, Sep/Oct 1997 [BP 98] Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page. 1998. The anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual Web search engine. In Proceedings of the seventh international conference on World Wide Web 7 (WWW7), Philip H. Enslow, Jr. and Allen Ellis (Eds.). Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, The Netherlands, 107-117. [Eng 98] Carlos F. Enguix. 1998. Database querying on the World Wide Web: UniGuide, an object-relational search engine for Australian universities. Comput. Netw. ISDN Syst. 30, 1-7 (April 1998), 567-572. DOI=10.1016/S0169-7552(98)00080-4 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7552(98)00080-4 [GKR 98] David Gibson, Jon Kleinberg, and Prabhakar Raghavan. 1998. Inferring Web communities from link topology. In Proceedings of the ninth ACM conference on Hypertext and hypermedia : links, objects, time and space---structure in hypermedia systems: links, objects, time and space---structure in hypermedia systems (HYPERTEXT '98). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 225-234. [HMA 03] Ian Horrocks, Deborah L. McGuinness, and Christopher A. Welty. 2003. Digital libraries and web-based information systems. In The description logic handbook, Franz Baader, Diego Calvanese, Deborah L. McGuinness, Daniele Nardi, and Peter F. Patel-Schneider (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA 427-449.
  • 59. Bangalore Science Forum, February 2016 References [BH 09] Berners-Lee, Tim; J. Hendler (2009). "From the Semantic Web to social machines: A research challenge for AI on the World WideWeb" (PDF). Artificial Intelligence. doi:10.1016/j.artint.2009.11.010. [EK 10] David Easley, Jon Kleinberg. Networks, Crowds and Markets: Reasoning about a Highly Connected World. Cambridge University Press, 2010. [KA 79] Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. "Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk." Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society (1979): 263- 291. [KGH 14] Kramer, Adam DI, Jamie E. Guillory, and Jeffrey T. Hancock. "Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.24 (2014): 8788-8790. [SS 15] Nirmal Kumar Sivaraman, Srinath Srinivasa. Abstractions, Expressions and Online Collectives. Proceedings of ACM WebSci 2015, Oxford, UK, June 2015.