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Farmer Adaptation of System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
Methods in the Lower Mekong Basin Region
Dr. Abha Mishra
Co-Dire...
SRI @ AIT
SRI at AIT
Why SRI at AIT
 Global interest
 Major attraction at farmers‘field;
 Asia: largest producer of ric...
 Out of 65 millions inhabitants, 60 millions
reside in LMB
 Agriculture, fishing and forestry employs
90%
 Rice cultiva...
Characteristics of the rainfed areas
Household characteristics
 Av. Landholding is 1-2 ha
 Average age of farmers is 50+...
WBI workshop and genesis of the
SRI-LMB
 Goal
• Development of adaptive measures to
protect against climate change so as ...
SRI
‘Menu’ for change
Capturing farmers imagination by enabling them to get higher
yield with reduced external inputs, and...
SRI-LMB @ACISAI Center, AIT
Regional innovation platform for linking local to
global actors and institutions to meet the g...
Sustaining and Enhancing the Momentum for
Innovation around the System of Rice Intensification in
Lower Mekong River Basin...
working in 30 districts of 10 food
insecure provinces
30-10-2015
 Increase productivity
 Reduce input cost
 Make rice c...
Implementation structure
and methodology
30-10-2015
SRI-LMB
Working in collaboration
Farmers
Researcher
Trainers
Local consortia
Ministry
Farmers group
Regional consortium
30...
PMU CAMBODIA
Implementing
consortia include
NGO, GO,
academics
PMU LAOS
Implementing
consortia include
NGO, GO, academics
...
4th post FFS site (2 FT)
3rd post FFS site (2 FT)
2nd post FFS site (2 FT)
1st post FFS site (2 FT)
4th post FFS site (2 F...
Farmers participatory
action research findings (
year 2014)
30-10-2015
More than 120 sets of experiments
@ 62 FPAR sites in 2014
Cambodia & Thailand In five provinces
- 13 districts were rainfe...
Implementation through FFS
approach
Season long training &
structured learning
sessions at different
growth stages
SRI see...
Farmers applied different sets of
practices
Crop management
practices
Conventional practices
(CP)
SRI-T
(SRI-I & SRI-LAP)
...
Experimental method for field
testing and data handling
Design and data handling at
field
• Three treatments and 4
replica...
Data handling at national and
regional level
• System Architecture
INTERNET
Input Data
Download Output File
Save data into...
30-10-2015
Analysis
Quantitative analysis
• ANOVA (significant difference)
• Meta analysis (regional trend)
• Cluster analysis (adopt...
FPAR results from more than
120 sets of experiments
involving 3200 farmers
30-10-2015
Higher productivity and fertilizer use
efficiency in SRI
kggrain/kginorganicfertilizerapplied
Yield Fertilizer use efficie...
Meta trend
SRI-I and SRI-LAP
and SRI-D indicated
significantly higher
yield benefit with
respect to
conventional practices...
Meta trend in rainfed areas
Positive and
significant large
effect size
confirmed the
benefit of applying
SRI practices eve...
Higher productivity with less
input use
Cambodia Thailand
• Seed = 40% seed cost
saving
• Water = no difference
• Pesticid...
Economic productivity
USdollargained/US$spent/ha
With reference to CP
 339.47% and 284.21% higher in SRI-D and SRI-T resp...
1a (all inputs valued) Cambodia
rainfed
Thailand
rainfed
Thailand
irrigated
0.769±0.03 c
(0.05±0.01)
2.655±0.12 a
(0.4±0.0...
2a (all inputs valued) Cambodia
rainfed
Thailand
rainfed
Thailand
irrigated
0.769±0.03 c
(0.05±0.01)*
2.17±0.11 a
(0.4±0.0...
Adaptation response from farmers
for SRI practices
ClusterProfilePlots
1
SOILCONDITIO
SEEDAGE
SEEDRAISE
SPACING
SEEDPERHIL...
Learning
30-10-2015
Factors affecting adoption
 Less input use, higher yield
and higher net return (+)
 Quality of grain (+)
 No lodging (+...
Factors that will speed up SRI
adoption
• SRI with direct seeding with low seed rate (Thailand)
• Support for critical irr...
Conclusions and way forward
• Efforts to make SRI knowledge and practices available on a wider
scale can raise productivit...
Visit SRI-LMB at: http://www.sri-lmb.ait.asia/
CONTACT US
Asian Center of Innovation for Sustainable
Agriculture Intensifi...
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Farmer Adaptation of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Methods in the Lower Mekong Basin region

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Farmer Adaptation of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Methods in the Lower Mekong Basin region - Dr. Abha Mishra
(12 Oct 2015 at Cornell University, Itacha, NY, USA)

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Farmer Adaptation of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Methods in the Lower Mekong Basin region

  1. 1. Farmer Adaptation of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Methods in the Lower Mekong Basin Region Dr. Abha Mishra Co-Director, ACISAI Center, Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand, Team Leader, SRI-LMB SRI-Rice, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 12 October 2015 30-10-2015
  2. 2. SRI @ AIT SRI at AIT Why SRI at AIT  Global interest  Major attraction at farmers‘field;  Asia: largest producer of rice;  Asia: largest consumer of agricultural water;  Asia: 50-70% farmers are engaged in rice farming;  Asia: Food security is linked to rice production; SRI: Provides larger ambit to address the multiple issues associated with sustainable agricultural development in the context of climate change
  3. 3.  Out of 65 millions inhabitants, 60 millions reside in LMB  Agriculture, fishing and forestry employs 90%  Rice cultivation in 10 million hectare out of which 6 million hectare is rainfed  wide spread poverty in the region, mostly smallholder farmers who are engaged in rice farming in rainfed area are poor  Costly farming techniques are not applied with the given level of uncertainty  Rice contributes 75% towards people per capita calorific supply  Food insecurity  Productivity of rice is low 30-10-2015 Why LMB region
  4. 4. Characteristics of the rainfed areas Household characteristics  Av. Landholding is 1-2 ha  Average age of farmers is 50+  More than 70% are women  Grow only one crop of rice in wet season with very limited diversification  Subsistence type rice farming in Cambodia and Laos where as in Thailand rice is grown for export and now also in Vietnam  Average rice yield is 2-3 t/ha  Increasing households loans  Increasing out-migration of farmers  Food insecurity 30-10-2015
  5. 5. WBI workshop and genesis of the SRI-LMB  Goal • Development of adaptive measures to protect against climate change so as to address the food security and livelihood issues of rainfed smallholders farmers in lower Mekong river basin (LMB) countries  Action • Develop local, national and regional platform for joint initiative and coordinated actions • Increase crop yield, productivity and profitability on sustainable basis at smallholders farmers’ field in rainfed areas of LMB region. Partners stimulate and support local innovation through farmers participatory action research http://www.ait.ac.th/research/workshop-reports/AIT-WBI-Workshop- Report.pdf/view#.VWafG820jjA 30-10-2015
  6. 6. SRI ‘Menu’ for change Capturing farmers imagination by enabling them to get higher yield with reduced external inputs, and fuelling their capacity for innovation  Offers low cost solution  Doesn’t require external inputs  Practices are amenable to farmers experimentation  Follows agro ecological principles  Transplanting younger and fewer seedlings/hill  maintaining wider spacing  Avoiding continuous soil saturation  Applying compost as much as possible 30-10-2015
  7. 7. SRI-LMB @ACISAI Center, AIT Regional innovation platform for linking local to global actors and institutions to meet the goals of food security and environmental sustainability through generating and providing innovative solutions under the overall concept of sustainable agriculture intensification. AIT Research Strategy (2012- 2016) 30-10-2015
  8. 8. Sustaining and Enhancing the Momentum for Innovation around the System of Rice Intensification in Lower Mekong River Basin (SRI-LMB) http://www.sri-lmb.ait.asia/ Royal University of Agriculture National University of Laos Hanoi University of Agriculture Rajabhat University 30-10-2015
  9. 9. working in 30 districts of 10 food insecure provinces 30-10-2015  Increase productivity  Reduce input cost  Make rice cultivation profitable
  10. 10. Implementation structure and methodology 30-10-2015
  11. 11. SRI-LMB Working in collaboration Farmers Researcher Trainers Local consortia Ministry Farmers group Regional consortium 30-10-2015
  12. 12. PMU CAMBODIA Implementing consortia include NGO, GO, academics PMU LAOS Implementing consortia include NGO, GO, academics PMU THAILAND Implementing consortia include NGO GO, academics PMU VIETNAM Implementing consortia include NGO, GO academics P1 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 Provinces Districts Oxfam policy dialogue FAO Action research implementation at national level (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam) P 2 P 3 P1 P 3 P2 P1 P 2 P 1 P 2 UQ Advisory support on FFS based action research SRI-Rice Advisory support on SRI Local consortia National consortia* Regional consortia* 30-10-2015
  13. 13. 4th post FFS site (2 FT) 3rd post FFS site (2 FT) 2nd post FFS site (2 FT) 1st post FFS site (2 FT) 4th post FFS site (2 FT) 3rd post FFS site (2 FT) 2nd post FFS site (2 FT) 1st post FFS site (2 FT) 4th post FFS site (2 FT) 3rd post FFS site (2 FT) 2nd post FFS site (2 FT) 1st post FFS site (2 FT) FPAR sites FPAR sites FPAR sites FPAR structure at the local level Each province has three districts and each district has 4 FPAR sites30-10-2015
  14. 14. Farmers participatory action research findings ( year 2014) 30-10-2015
  15. 15. More than 120 sets of experiments @ 62 FPAR sites in 2014 Cambodia & Thailand In five provinces - 13 districts were rainfed and 2 were irrigated - Broadly two options were explored using experiments: SRI demonstration (SRI-D) as a ‘test site’ and (2) Integration of SRI practices with existing cultivation practices as learning plot for location specific adaptation (SRI-T) - And compared with existing conventional management practices (CP) in target area set up as a farmers’ practice. 15 districts, 3 in each province 30-10-2015
  16. 16. Implementation through FFS approach Season long training & structured learning sessions at different growth stages SRI seedbed Wetbed30-10-2015
  17. 17. Farmers applied different sets of practices Crop management practices Conventional practices (CP) SRI-T (SRI-I & SRI-LAP) SRI-D Seedling age 40-60 day-old (established by baseline) 39-20 day-old 8-19 day-old* (8-15 day-old for Cambodia and Thailand) Seed rate 100-150 kg/ha 20-30% less than CM 5-20 kg/ha Transplanting spacing Crowded, 10 x 10 cm 10 x 15 to 19 x 19 cm 20 x 20 – 30 x 30 cm or more Planting/hill >5-6 4-5 seedlings/hill 1-3 seedlings/hill Soil condition Flooded (or no effort in maintaining aerobic soil condition Relatively aerobic soil condition with respect to CM either through shallow water level or through intermittent drying Maintaining aerobic soil condition at least for a week during tillering stage 30-10-2015
  18. 18. Experimental method for field testing and data handling Design and data handling at field • Three treatments and 4 replications (minimum) for each experiment • Data collection and analysis (average) by farmers at three growth stages (Tillering, flowering, and harvesting) • Data recorded by farmers using farmers diary • Data were compiled by district trainer and subsequently by provincial coordinator • Data collection process was backstopped by researcher 30-10-2015
  19. 19. Data handling at national and regional level • System Architecture INTERNET Input Data Download Output File Save data into DB Query Data 30-10-2015
  20. 20. 30-10-2015
  21. 21. Analysis Quantitative analysis • ANOVA (significant difference) • Meta analysis (regional trend) • Cluster analysis (adoption response) Qualitative analysis • Group discussion (at local, national, and regional level) • Farmers’ response • Feedback from ministries, national & regional stakeholders 30-10-2015
  22. 22. FPAR results from more than 120 sets of experiments involving 3200 farmers 30-10-2015
  23. 23. Higher productivity and fertilizer use efficiency in SRI kggrain/kginorganicfertilizerapplied Yield Fertilizer use efficiency Ton/ha With reference to CP  100% and 60% yield increment in SRI-D and SRI-T respectively with reference to CP  46.27% and 36.22% increment in fertilizer use efficiency 30-10-2015
  24. 24. Meta trend SRI-I and SRI-LAP and SRI-D indicated significantly higher yield benefit with respect to conventional practices 30-10-2015
  25. 25. Meta trend in rainfed areas Positive and significant large effect size confirmed the benefit of applying SRI practices even in rainfed environment. 30-10-2015
  26. 26. Higher productivity with less input use Cambodia Thailand • Seed = 40% seed cost saving • Water = no difference • Pesticide = 1/3rd cost saving • Seed = 93.27% • Water = 2-3 irrigation saving (only for irrigated dist. (Tron and Pichai) • Pesticide+ fungicide = 208 US$/ha (77% less compared to last season) 30-10-2015
  27. 27. Economic productivity USdollargained/US$spent/ha With reference to CP  339.47% and 284.21% higher in SRI-D and SRI-T respectively  Cost of cultivation included cost of labour and water as well. Higher economic productivity with SRI 30-10-2015
  28. 28. 1a (all inputs valued) Cambodia rainfed Thailand rainfed Thailand irrigated 0.769±0.03 c (0.05±0.01) 2.655±0.12 a (0.4±0.01) 2.066±0.08 b (0.05±0.01) 1b (labour inputs for transplanting, weeding and harvesting were excluded from Cambodia and cost of water from Cambodia and Surin province of Thailand 2.10±0.06 b (0.66±0.04) 2.9±0.13 a (0.54±0.01) 2.06±0.08 b (0.05±0.01) With producer price @ 0.3 and 0.43 US$/kg paddy for Cambodia and Thailand respectively * Baseline @0.3 US$/kg in both countries Economic productivity gain was higher in rainfed 30-10-2015
  29. 29. 2a (all inputs valued) Cambodia rainfed Thailand rainfed Thailand irrigated 0.769±0.03 c (0.05±0.01)* 2.17±0.11 a (0.4±0.01)* 1.79±0.08 b (0.05±0.01) 2b (labour inputs for transplanting, weeding and harvesting were excluded from Cambodia and cost of water from Cambodia and Surin province of Thailand 2.08±0.06 b (0.66±0.04) 2.4±0.12 a (0.54±0.01) 1.79±0.08 b (0.05±0.01) Average paddy yield at FPAR sites 4.3±0.73 c 5.82±1.29 b 6.26±0.82 a With domestic price @ 0.3 and 0.38 US$/kg paddy for Cambodia and Thailand respectively * Baseline @0.3 US$/kg in both countries Economic productivity gain was higher in rainfed 30-10-2015
  30. 30. Adaptation response from farmers for SRI practices ClusterProfilePlots 1 SOILCONDITIO SEEDAGE SEEDRAISE SPACING SEEDPERHILL 2 SOILCONDITIO SEEDAGE SEEDRAISE SPACING SEEDPERHILL SRI practices F ratio Seedling/hill 7307.98 Spacing 412.39 Seedling raising method 398.12 Seedling age 80.23 Aerobic soil condition at least for a week at vegetative stage 0.358 159 cases 47 cases Seedling/hill and spacing have the highest impact in group formation than any other SRI principles 30-10-2015
  31. 31. Learning 30-10-2015
  32. 32. Factors affecting adoption  Less input use, higher yield and higher net return (+)  Quality of grain (+)  No lodging (+)  Less pest and diseases (+)  Unreliable weather and water availability (-)  Market instability and price volatility (-)  No incentive for good work (-)  Transplanting & labour use (Thailand) (-) 30-10-2015
  33. 33. Factors that will speed up SRI adoption • SRI with direct seeding with low seed rate (Thailand) • Support for critical irrigation • Better incentive and market stability • Green SRI from farm to fork REGIONAL REVIEW & PLANNING WORKSHOP REPORT Siem Reap, Cambodia 02-03 June 2015 Sustaining and Enhancing the Momentum for Innovation and Learning around the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in the Lower Mekong River Basin (SRI-LMB) This project is funded by the European Union A project implemented by the Asian Institute of Technology the European Union http://www.sri- lmb.ait.asia/country/doc/Regional%20Review%20and%20 Planning%20Workshop-REPORT%20(02- 03%20June%202015).pdf 30-10-2015
  34. 34. Conclusions and way forward • Efforts to make SRI knowledge and practices available on a wider scale can raise productivity and incomes and in turn can address food insecurity of the broad population of smallholders without further deteriorating the environment. • Economic productivity was higher in rainfed compared to the irrigated systems therefore only a small investment is needed to make the rainfed system more productive and resilient. • Bringing poor smallholding farmers more directly into the process of economic growth can offer more hope at both micro and macro levels. 30-10-2015
  35. 35. Visit SRI-LMB at: http://www.sri-lmb.ait.asia/ CONTACT US Asian Center of Innovation for Sustainable Agriculture Intensification (ACISAI) Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) Gnd. Floor, Admin Building PO Box: 4, Klong Luang Pathumthani, Thailand 12120 Email : srilmb@ait.asia Phone : +66-2-524-5823 Fax : +66-2-524-5828 30-10-2015

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