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FAO’s Policy Advice on
Sustainable Rice Intensification:
Closing the yield and nature gaps
Jan Willem Ketelaar, FAO Region...
1 billion…
… hungry
.. obese
…tons/year wasted!
3
Number of undernourished people in the world, 2010-12,
based on caloric intake per person (millions of people)
Source: D...
4
Challenges to food security
• Chronically hungry: 854 million (FAO, 2013)
• Global population of over 9 billion by 2050
...
Water is Essential
cannot produce food without water but we can produce food with
less water
Our water-guzzling food factory
Opinion Article INYT-June 1, 2015
Question:
Which consumes the most water?
• A: A 10-minut...
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
2013
2015
2017
2019
2021
2023
2025
2027...
Green Revolution Slows (Source: IRRI) : Global Paddy Yield (1961-2010)
© WPQ
Average yield (t ha-1)
Average yearly increas...
Closing the yield gap:
• In Asian rice production:
– Land is moving out
– Labor is moving out
– Water is moving out
• Majo...
10
Simulated
with
model(s)
80% of
Simulated:
Experiment
Station
Village, Block, District: Crop
Cuts
Rice
Raebareli
Kanpu Dehat
Firozabad
Faizabad
Gorakhpur
Meerut
Muzaffarnagar
Moradabad
Lucknow Bareilly
Gonda
0
0.5
1
1.5
...
Rice-based Farming Systems – more than just rice!
IRRI
Crop Intensification Risks:
Rice planthopper outbreaks, linked to
pesticide (and N-fertilizer) overuse,
have occurred...
Challenge:
Sustainable Rice Intensification,
optimizing ecosystem services
A POLICYMAKER’S GUIDE
TO THE SUSTAINABLE
INTENS...
Relationships between 6 rice intensification/farming/crop
management systems and 13 ecosystem services – benefits that
peo...
Synergies and Tradeoffs between ecosystem services and rice yield
(FAO, 2014)
• Understanding ecosystem
services & “eco-
engineering” vital for local
adaptation and responsible
management
• Supportive...
International Wetlands Convention
(Ramsar, 1971)
• COP-XI adopted Resolution XI-
15 on rice paddy and pest
control calling...
A Regional Rice Strategy
 FAO de-centralization
 Upon request by member
countries, FAO formulated
RRS, endorsed at March...
A Vision for the Rice Economy
A Regional Rice Strategy
“Food-secure, better nourished and
prosperous rice farmers and cons...
Designed to:
Regional Rice Initiative
Contribute to FAO
Strategic Objective 2
(SO2) “Increase and improve
provision of goo...
Regional Rice Initiative (2013-15)
Rice-fish
Rice-duck
Trees outside
forest
Rice-vegetables
Climate change
adaptation
Cult...
The Way Forward
• Closing both yield and nature gaps vital
for global food and nutrition security
• No silver bullet solut...
New EU funded and AIT-FAO-Oxfam
implemented project on System of Rice
Intensification action research and training
in rain...
FAO’s Policy Advice on Sustainable Rice Intensification: Closing the yield and nature gaps - Mr. Johannes W. Ketelaar
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FAO’s Policy Advice on Sustainable Rice Intensification: Closing the yield and nature gaps - Mr. Johannes W. Ketelaar

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FAO’s Policy Advice on Sustainable Rice Intensification: Closing the yield and nature gaps

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FAO’s Policy Advice on Sustainable Rice Intensification: Closing the yield and nature gaps - Mr. Johannes W. Ketelaar

  1. 1. FAO’s Policy Advice on Sustainable Rice Intensification: Closing the yield and nature gaps Jan Willem Ketelaar, FAO Regional Office for Asia and Pacific, SRI-LMB Workshop, Siem Reap, Cambodia 2-3 June 2015
  2. 2. 1 billion… … hungry .. obese …tons/year wasted!
  3. 3. 3 Number of undernourished people in the world, 2010-12, based on caloric intake per person (millions of people) Source: Data from FAO Food Security Indicators, 2013. Rest of world Asia 560 294 Total = 854
  4. 4. 4 Challenges to food security • Chronically hungry: 854 million (FAO, 2013) • Global population of over 9 billion by 2050 – 70-100% increase food production by 2050 • Declining water & land per caput 4.3 ha (1961) to 1.6 ha (2050) • Lower productivity growth & production stress from climate change • Rapid urbanization & change in consumption patterns
  5. 5. Water is Essential cannot produce food without water but we can produce food with less water
  6. 6. Our water-guzzling food factory Opinion Article INYT-June 1, 2015 Question: Which consumes the most water? • A: A 10-minute shower • B: A handful of 10 almonds • C: A quarterpound hamburger patty • D: A washing machine load
  7. 7. 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 2025 2027 2029 2031 2033 2035 Asia Africa Americas Rest of world Million tons milled rice 2010 global rice production Additional rice needed: 114 million tons by 2035 Global rice production increases needed to meet demand by 2035 (Source: IRRI)
  8. 8. Green Revolution Slows (Source: IRRI) : Global Paddy Yield (1961-2010) © WPQ Average yield (t ha-1) Average yearly increase over previous 10 years (kg ha-1) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 Year 0 40 80 120 160 200
  9. 9. Closing the yield gap: • In Asian rice production: – Land is moving out – Labor is moving out – Water is moving out • Major changes in crop production/protection practices and increases in efficiency needed! • In order for rice production to grow, farmers will need to learn how to save!
  10. 10. 10 Simulated with model(s) 80% of Simulated: Experiment Station Village, Block, District: Crop Cuts
  11. 11. Rice Raebareli Kanpu Dehat Firozabad Faizabad Gorakhpur Meerut Muzaffarnagar Moradabad Lucknow Bareilly Gonda 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000 Yield(ton/hectare) Area (hectares) Yield Gap between top yield and average of the rest of the sample Top 15% yield 3.03 31% Rest of the sample yield 2.08 46% Yield Gap 0.95 Yield data from 11 districts in Uttar Pradesh, India
  12. 12. Rice-based Farming Systems – more than just rice!
  13. 13. IRRI Crop Intensification Risks: Rice planthopper outbreaks, linked to pesticide (and N-fertilizer) overuse, have occurred at an unprecedented frequency during last decade (Source: IRRI/Horgan)
  14. 14. Challenge: Sustainable Rice Intensification, optimizing ecosystem services A POLICYMAKER’S GUIDE TO THE SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATION OF SMALLHOLDER CROP PRODUCTION www.fao.org/ag/save-and-grow/
  15. 15. Relationships between 6 rice intensification/farming/crop management systems and 13 ecosystem services – benefits that people obtain from ecosystems – as key outcomes of multi- functional rice-based agricultural systems (FAO, 2014)
  16. 16. Synergies and Tradeoffs between ecosystem services and rice yield (FAO, 2014)
  17. 17. • Understanding ecosystem services & “eco- engineering” vital for local adaptation and responsible management • Supportive policies, reducing subsidies on chemical farm inputs • Investments in research and ecosystem-literacy training for smallholder rice farmers Closing the ‘Nature Gap’
  18. 18. International Wetlands Convention (Ramsar, 1971) • COP-XI adopted Resolution XI- 15 on rice paddy and pest control calling on governments to strengthen pesticide regulation for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of wetland ecosystem services. Source: http://www.ramsar.org/cda/en/ramsar- documents-cops-cop11-cop11-drs/main/ramsar/1- 31-58-500%5E25607_4000_0__
  19. 19. A Regional Rice Strategy  FAO de-centralization  Upon request by member countries, FAO formulated RRS, endorsed at March 2014 APRC in Mongolia  Support for (re)formulation and implementation of national rice strategies or policies
  20. 20. A Vision for the Rice Economy A Regional Rice Strategy “Food-secure, better nourished and prosperous rice farmers and consumers in the Asia/Pacific region who benefit equitably from a vibrant, innovative and transformed rice sector that is more productive, efficient and environmentally sustainable by 2030”
  21. 21. Designed to: Regional Rice Initiative Contribute to FAO Strategic Objective 2 (SO2) “Increase and improve provision of goods and services from agriculture, forestry and fisheries in a sustainable manner”
  22. 22. Regional Rice Initiative (2013-15) Rice-fish Rice-duck Trees outside forest Rice-vegetables Climate change adaptation Cultures/ heritages Policy and strategy formulation and implementation • National rice strategy/policy • Farm input policy/reduce subsidies • Code of Conduct Pesticide Management, Convention on Biological Diversity, Ramsar Wetlands Convention Evidence Knowledge • - Inputs • + Yield • + Income • + rice ecosystem goods & services Producing more and better with less inputs in a sustainable way
  23. 23. The Way Forward • Closing both yield and nature gaps vital for global food and nutrition security • No silver bullet solutions – policies, approaches, production systems & management practices need to be tailored to individual country and local smallholder farmer needs, opportunities & challenges. • Sustainable production is knowledge intensive – investments in agricultural research for development and capacity building for ecosystem-literacy training are essential.
  24. 24. New EU funded and AIT-FAO-Oxfam implemented project on System of Rice Intensification action research and training in rainfed rice-based farming systems in Lower Mekong River Basin: http://www.sri-lmb.ait.asia

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