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Learnings from policy baseline research of SRI-LMB - Mr. Brian Lund


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Learnings from policy baseline research of SRI-LMB

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Learnings from policy baseline research of SRI-LMB - Mr. Brian Lund

  1. 1.  Critical insights & contextual analysis of the current policies and practices of public and private sectors that affect smallholders - including rain-fed rice farmers - in attaining sustainable livelihoods, productivity and profitability while facing the pressure of climate change.  Research findings and recommendations for policy advocacy work to inform the policy advocacy and communication activities supported by the SEMIL-SRI- LMB. 2
  2. 2.  Small holder Farmers (Women)  Overall Policy Framework which has implication on smallholder farmers
  3. 3.  Transitioning agriculture (affecting smallholders)  Farmers’ choice (all 4)  Rural finance (all 4)  Rural industries or processing (all 4)  Access to inputs – including labor (all 4)  Access to markets (all 4)  Private sector partnerships (all 4)  Access to Land and the Rule of Law (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Vietnam)  Irrigation (Cambodia, Lao PDR)  Farmers’ groups (Lao PDR, Vietnam)  Contract farming: Thailand  Women representation ( all 4) 5
  4. 4.  4 agro-ecozones: coastal, plain, Plateau and Tonle-Sap  2 categories: commercial (1-3 ha) and subsistence (<1 ha)  Very low yield (2.8t/ha avg) and poor value  Persistent difficulty access to food security  Increasing diversification and use of other income sources, incl. migration 6
  5. 5. New Extension policy is recently launched,  Public investment to implement this policy is still a question. Women’s representation is still a question but good signs Increased influence of the private sector Development of a cohesive extension policy’s monitoring and evaluation framework and resources investment plan needs to be established.  Adequate incentives for extension staff/system  Coordination of all extension providers (TWG can be the mechanism) 7
  6. 6. Focus on supplementary irrigation (reduce risk, but low return) and large scales (not adapted to topography) Difficult transfer to user groups because of low incentive to invest. Advocate for the development of (dry season) small scale irrigation schemes that are more likely to benefit small farmers (women)  Capacity building of Gvt staff to train farmers and to transfer schemes to user groups 8
  7. 7. Insufficient evidence of the impacts of CC on small farmers. CCCSP is ready, but translation into practical plans coordinated intra- and inter- ministries is very arduous  Development of evidence of the impact of climate change on poor farmers and women (micro-economic studies necessary) 9
  8. 8.  Key rice producing area: 7 plains.  2 distinct small farmers: plain (about 3.5 T/h) and upland (about 1.9 T/ha)  92 % glutinous rice  Plain farmers are increasingly commercial  Upland farmers are switching to cash crops 10
  9. 9. Industrialization of the agricultural sector Use of natural resources to generate income (“turning land into capital”) Little coordination between ministries with opposite goals.  MAF decided to transform from service provider to facilitator  good opportunities.  New Law -Farmers cooperative/Association will bring a good opportunity to SEMIL project. 11
  10. 10. Schemes are under-performing because:  poor non-participatory designs  lack of investment (most channels are earthen) / mismatch design vs resources Disconnection between irrigation schemes and markets (input and output) Positive move towards reinforcing user groups. Guidelines for co-management between user groups and gvt  Participatory design of irrigation scheme with focus on small- scale and sustainability. Balance between supplementary and dry irrigation. 12
  11. 11. Very positive development MAF transitions from service provider to facilitator commercial farmers cooperatives are created. Strengthen enabling environment for farmers cooperatives to ensure that they do not become a relay for political structures, but serve their members.  Women in extension services Provide networking opportunities for farmers cooperatives. Advocate for direct provision of seed fund to cooperatives. 13
  12. 12.  Third largest exporter of rice.  Mature agricultural sector for the region.  Rice smallholders: 56% of rice farmers <3.2 ha  Central region: rice bowl of Thailand.  Northeast: rice farming with low productivity. 14
  13. 13. The Philosophy of Self-Sufficiency and the New Theory are guiding agricultural development (articulated in the 11th NESDP).  Positive view of farming based on diversified farms for sustainability. Use the Philosophy of Self-Sufficiency as a platform to interact with gvt.  Reinforce the role of women farmers Advocate for increasing number of options for farmers (some have become stuck in credit cycle). 15
  14. 14. Market intervention, now terminated. Has affected the whole value chain Did not benefit small farmers. Space available for advocacy as there is now a vacuum. Gov’t will be especially sensitive to better focus of subsidies towards the poorest. Opportunity to call for research on the impact of global markets and how small farmers may benefit (position in the value chain). 16
  15. 15. Thailand is one of the pioneer and is now actively exporting the model to neighboring countries. Model mostly benefited the better-off farmers by mitigating state deficiency. Benefit for most vulnerable with low bargaining power is less than evident (debt, landlessness…). Strengthen implementation of legal framework to protect smallest farmers and lobbying agri-business for long-term mutually beneficial approach. Reinforce capacity of extension staff, smallholders and cooperatives to deal with agri-business. 17
  16. 16. Successful promotion by Thai government Slow uptake as organic certification is too expensive for smallholders or cooperatives. Reinforce attractiveness for farmers by raising profile of Thai organic rice /or SRI rice on domestic and international markets and by awareness campaign on the benefits (fits with the New Philosophy) 18
  17. 17.  Doi Moi in 1986.  Increased yield and diversification into non- farm activities.  Smallholders <  0.5 ha with fragmented land.  30-35% of rural population poor or near poor.  Smallholders mainly live in disadvantaged areas: North and central highlands. Rice is not as important for them as for others. 19
  18. 18. Continues to guide Gvt policy intervention with - results in low- quality high-volume. Gvt’s strong interventionism in export and less focus on domestic rice market Focus on rice quality for policy intervention on domestic market and ensure this is enshrined in next SEDP (drafting is starting) 20
  19. 19. 95% of farmers have a land use certificate.  Farmers’ opportunities to diversify into other areas and increase incomes are limited by factors like water consumption, labor use, carbon emissions.  The designated rice land policy and difficulties in land-use transformation (Decree No. 42/2012/NĐ-CP dated 11 May 2012 requires the Prime Minister's approval for any change of land-use purpose from designated rice land to non-farm usage).  Review the new agriculture restructuring re potential benefit to smallholder farmers. Constructive dialogue with Provincial govt/ Farmer Union for possible way to promote/strengthen small holder farmers to gain more benefit from rice production policy. 21
  20. 20. Various services are offered, including technical trainings, field demonstration workshops, on-site consultation, and provision of market information. However extension services is mostly to response to govt’s objectives (not really focus on demand-driven), with insufficient budget and not wider reaching to the poor. Recent positive evolutions have seen increased budget for extension. Emphasis on the quality of services and women as the audience.  Incentives for private or farmer-led extension services (including transparent input registration…) Facilitation of contract farming arrangements with development of regulations and mechanisms to protect the poorest 22
  21. 21.  The Philosophy of Self-Sufficiency and The New Theory in Thailand  Lao PDR’s focus on farmers’ cooperatives and on public extension as a facilitator  Rice Production Policy- support to reduce input cost in Viet Nam  Thailand experiment with precision farming and support to organic agriculture.  New Extension policy ‘s monitoring and implementing and monitoring resource allocation for extension in ASDP2014-2018 for Cambodia 23
  22. 22. 24