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Organic Rice Production and SRI - Mr. Boondit Varinruk

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Organic Rice Production and SRI

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Organic Rice Production and SRI - Mr. Boondit Varinruk

  1. 1. ORGANIC RICE PRODUCTION Boondit Varinruk Agronomist Rice Research and Development Division, Rice Department, MOAC, Thailand. E-mail: boondit.v@rice.mail.go.th June 2-3, 2015 SRI (System of Rice Intensification) &
  2. 2. Topics ORGANIC RICE PRODUCTION : 1. OR production framework 2. OR farming model development 3. Some OR research & development 4. Case: OR cultivation in Upper Northern Thailand Comment to SRI : 1. SRI & Conventional techniques 2. Modification of SRI 3. Experiment in the farmer field
  3. 3. 2. ORGANIC RICE PRODUCTION FRAME WORK
  4. 4. 1992 : Chiengrai & Phayao : North * private company, farmers, RD ‚ FRAGRANT RICE‛ 1993 : Surin & Yasothon : Northeast * NGO’s, farmer group ORGANIC RICE PRODUCTION in THAILAND *Chiengrai *Payao *Surin *Yasothorn
  5. 5. “ CHIENGRAI/PHAYAO “ Facilitate by ‘Top Organic Products & Supplies’ (STC) MARKETING : TOP, Riseria Monferrato FARMING : 3 farmer groups RRDD PROCESSING : CRI miller, CapRice CERTIFY : BAC (Italy) ‚ORGANIC RICE : ThHML, GR‛
  6. 6. 3. ORGANIC FARMING MODEL DEVELOPMENT 3 Layers: A: BASIC ASPECTS/GUIDELINE B: FARMERS PRACTICES C: RECOMMENDED TECHNOLOGY (R&D) 3 COMPONENTS : A: Production site B: Cultivation model C: Product management Certification system
  7. 7. BASIC ASPACTS OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE  Emphasize; soil fertility, bio- diversity, balance of nature  Chemical-free, GMO’s free ‘safety food’  Health and environment concern  Certification and traceability  Green business.
  8. 8. 1. Production site  Soil fertility, Topography, Water, Climate  Resources, Risk & Support factors  Boundary, Contamination, Treatment & Protection “Production site management”
  9. 9. 2. Cultivation model : (techniques & inputs)  Varieties & seed  Cultural practices  Soil fertility management  Crop protection  Post harvest management “Cultivation management”
  10. 10. 3. PRODUCTION/YIELD MANAGEMENT • Harvesting date • Estimated yield • Tools & Material preparation • Combined harvester dating • Paddy rice drying plan • Paddy bags tagging/coding • Separation from other paddy rice??
  11. 11. Certification system  Site assessment  Cultivation techniques assessment, monitoring and sampling  Production stock & quality control  Report summary & verify  Certify or not…
  12. 12. OR Model arrangement A : Conformed components adapted B : Incompatible components:  replace by local materials/techniques  research and development C : Base on : the advantage of local resource, traditional cultivar, suitable condition.
  13. 13. 4. SELECTED RESEARCH ON ORGANIC RICE : 4.1 Varietal assessment : Variety Group ORGANIC CHEMICAL t/ha % t/ha % 1. Photo-sens. 3.3 102 3.2 100 2. Non-photo-sens. 3.7 86 4.4 100 3. HYV 4.3 84 5.1 100 4. Japonica 2.1 73 2.9 100 a. 1999-2001 Varietal assessment
  14. 14. b. 2002 : Varietal assessment CV(M)=13.3% CV(S) =8.0% F-test: M x S = 1.75ns Variety (S) Cultivation (M) Mean- varietyChemical Organic Untreated 1. KDML105 2.98 2.91 2.68 2.86cd 2. Red jasmine 2.84 2.67 2.05 2.52c 3. Hawm Pitsanulok 1 3.38 3.61 2.88 3.29 b 4. RD6 3.08 3.28 2.72 3.03 c 5. Suphan Buri 1 4.05 4.30 3.45 3.91 a 6. Pathumtani 1 3.18 2.69 2.48 2.79 d 7. Sakolnakorn 3.10 2.90 2.75 2.91cd 8. Sanpatong 1 4.14 3.94 3.54 3.88a Mean – model 3.34 a 3.28 a 2.82 b -
  15. 15. c. 2003 : Varietal assessment CV(M)=11.0% CV(S) =7.7% F-test: M x S = 2.11* Variety (S) Cultivation (M) Mean- varietyChemical Organic Untreated 1. KDML105 3.71a 3.83a 3.01b 3.52 2. Red jasmine 4.04a 4.11a 3.14b 3.76 3. Hawm Pitsanulok 1 3.96a 3.88a 3.33b 3.72 4. RD6 4.28a 4.09ab 3.68b 4.01 5. Suphan Buri 1 5.03a 4.58a 3.86b 4.49 6. Pathumtani 1 4.66a 3.98b 3.66b 4.10 7. Sakolnakorn 3.98a 3.36b 3.23b 3.52 8. Sanpatong 1 5.15a 4.24b 3.84b 4.41 Mean – model 4.35 4.01 3.47 -
  16. 16. d. RICE VARIETY FOR ORGANIC PRODUCTION • Most of photo-sensitive tall varieties are suitable • Some semi-dwarft is suitable (e.g.SPR1) • Japonica rice is not suitable to organic cultivation (due to high N requirement)
  17. 17. 4.2 Planting method improvement : a. 1999-2001 : at CHR Plt. methods Grain yield(t/ha) 1998 1999 2000 2001 1. Dibbling 1/ 4.0a 4.1a 2.8b 1.9b 2. Drilled in row 3.9a 4.0a 4.0a 2.1b 3. Broadcasting 4.2a 4.1a 3.6a 2.2b 4. Transplanting 4.0a 3.7a 3.3ab 3.6a C.V.(%) 11.6 6.9 15.1 11.8 1/ changed to pre-germinated seed broadcasting
  18. 18. b. 2002-2003 average* on 3 locations : Planting method Location Mean PAN PRE SPT t/ha %ck t/ha %ck t/ha %ck t/ha %ck 1. pre-germinated seed broadcasting 2.51 79 2.88 67 3.61 98 3.00 81 2. Dry-seed broadcasting 2.88 91 2.83 66 3.17 86 2.96 80 3. Dry-seed drilled 2.80 88 3.54 83 3.06 83 3.13 84 4. Transplanting(CK) 3.18 100 4.28 100 3.69 100 3.72 100 Mean 2.84 - 3.38 - 3.38 - 3.20 - *Average from 3rd to 6th year experiments out of 8 year
  19. 19. c: PLANTING METHOD for OR • Transplanting is the most preferred • Dry-seeded drilling and broadcasting can be used in some area • Recommend to alternate planting method
  20. 20. 4.3 Soil fertility management : a. 1997-2000 at CRI : * Rice plants were infected by bacterial leaf bright and neck blast. Treatments Years 1997 1998 1999 * 2000 1. Green manure (mung bean) 2.63b 4.28a 3.22a 3.31b 2. Animal manure (cow dung) 2.90b 4.14a 3.21a 3.36ab 3. T1+T2 3.18b 4.18a 3.39a 3.83a 4. Chemical fertility (9-6-0) 3.63a 4.45a 3.43a 3.37ab 5. Control 2.82b 3.43b 3.21a 2.80b Means 3.12 4.11 3.29 3.30 C.V. (%) 8.5 11.1 5.2 11.2
  21. 21. b. 1998-2001 average on 4 locations : Treatments Locations Means PAN PSL UBN PTL T/ha %CK 1. Green manure 3.28 2.58 2.48 1.93 2.57 154 2. Compost - - 2.43 1.99 2.21 132 3. Animal manure 3.28 2.98 2.54 2.01 2.16 129 4. Chemical fertilizer 3.64 3.29 2.61 2.39 2.98 178 5. Control (CK) 2.96 2.22 2.00 1.17 1.67 100 Means 3.29 2.77 2.41 1.90 - -
  22. 22. c.Green manure 1999-2001 at CRI Treatment RD15 KDML105 1999 2000 2001 1999 2000 2001 1. Control 2.56b 3.09b 2.68 abc 2.51b 3.19d 3.38bc 2. Cow pea 2.46b 3.11b 2.21c 2.55b 3.32cd 3.36bc 3. Mung bean 2.68b 3.24ab 2.38bc 2.54b 3.28cd 3.12c 4. Sunn hemp 2.63b 3.31ab 2.53 abc 2.50b 3.66bc 3.31bc 5. Seabania rostrata 3.11a 3.41a 2.78ab 3.06a 3.78ab 3.97a 6. CF (3+3) –4-4 3.46a 3.43a 2.99a 3.06a 4.14a 3.51ab Mean 2.82 3.27 2.60 2.70 3.56 3.44 C.V.(%) 9.1 4.8 12.5 8.5 7.8 6.3
  23. 23. d. SOIL FERTILITY MANAGMANT FOR OR • GM (mung bean) + FYM = CF • KDML 105 average yield vary to location (N S) • Stubble GM CP FYM • Organic <10-20% return <Chemical • GM : Sesbania, Sunn hemp = 18.8 kgN/ha = CF : suited to organic farming (erratic rainfall cond.)
  24. 24. 5. ORGANIC RICE CULTIVATION IN NORTHERN THAILAND • 800 ha rice field • Soil: 1.0-2.5 % o.m. ; 3-38 ppm P, 25-91 ppm K • Depend to rainfall • 1,200-1,400 mm annual rainfall • rice growing during May-Nov. before rice : GM crops. after rice : fallow, animal grazing
  25. 25. 5.1 RICE VARIETIES & SEED PRODUCTION • Fragrant rice : KDML105, RD15 • seed produced by farmer group with technical recommendation and supported by CHR Rice Research Center รูปภาพ • รวงข้าว • ข้าวเปลือก,กล้อง,ข้าวสาร
  26. 26. 5.2 LAND PREPARATION & PLANTING METHODS • Plowed twice : Mar-Aprilรูปภาพ • รถไถนา • ข้าวนาหว่าน • แปลงกล้า, ข้าวนาดา Dry ”seeded - 95kg/ha (mixed w/ mung bean broadcast fb. harrowing) Transplanted - 62 kg/ha - prepare seedling nursery in May & June - puddle soil and left submerged - transplant in June & August
  27. 27. 5.3 SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT A Plow rice stubble & corporate in to the soil B Grow green manure crops ; sunn hemp, Sesbania, mungbean C Add rice straw compost (if necessary) D Apply FYM : cow dung (if necessary) •
  28. 28. 5.4 WATER MANAGEMENT & WEED CONTROL • 5-10 cm dept of water vigorous plants • transplanting weed control • hand/mechanical weeding (if necessary) • drain out 10-15 d before harvesting (depend on soil texture) รูปภาพ • ข้าวหลังปักดา • คนถอนหญ้า
  29. 29. 5.5 PEST CONTROL A Craps & golden apple snail : drain out ;collect for animal feed & bio-extract application Toxic plants: oleader, tea waste B Gall midge : DSR < TPR C Blast : ORF < CRF D Natural enamies were observed
  30. 30. 5.6 POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT • Harvested by sickle 2-3 d sun dry collect & pile in the field 10-50 d. threshing # manpower # machine 13-15 % M.C. paddy • combined-harvester 4-5 d sun dry AVERAGE GRAIN YIELD : 3-4 T/ha
  31. 31. 5.7 STORAGE & PROCESSING CR/PY farmer * 2,800 t paddy Miller (CRI) * 1,000 t w/b rice CapRice(BKK) * graded/packed rice Riseria M. * transport to Italy Consumers * EU markets รูปภาพ • ข้าวเปลือก • ข้าวสาร • ข้าวบรรจุถุง • โรงสี
  32. 32. 6. FARMERS’ ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY High : “ seed production “ cultural practices “ soil & water management “ weed control “ post harvest management Moderate : “ organic fertilizer “ pest control Low : “ cropping system
  33. 33. CONCLUSION ‚OR farming in Northern Thailand‛ • high potential rice land ; less risk factors • favorable conditions w/o serious pest • long time experienced farmers • traditional cultivars, local materials • R&D appropriate technology • mostly well adpoted by farmers ‚PROTOTYPE FOR ORGANIC RICE FARMING‛
  34. 34. OR BOOKS
  35. 35. 6 Key elements of SRI 1. Seedlings get transplanted at a much younger age. 2. Only single seedlings, instead of a handful of seedlings get planted in each hill. 3. Plants are spaced wider apart, and in a square pattern. 4. Intermittent water application to create wet and dry soil conditions, instead of continuous flood irrigation. 5. Rotary weeding to control weeds and promote soil aeration. 6. Increased use of organic fertilizer to enhance soil fertility.
  36. 36. SRI concept “growing More with Less” • Less seed use • Less water use • Less imported input (Chem. Fertilizer & pesticide) • More vigorous crop • More grain yield • More net return • More labor use ?? Risk factors: 1. Crabs & Golden apple snails damage 2. Weed infestation
  37. 37. Comparison SRI techniques; low seed rate>>young seedling >> single plant x wide spacing >> Rice vs. Weed competition >> Require weed control measure = 1 seed/1 plant x space/more tillers/stronger root & stalk/more panicles x ~150 grains>> 4-6 ton/ha  AWD >> soil aerate >> vigorous root/stem >> high rate of Nutrient uptake  Rotary weeding >> weed control + soil aerate  Organic fertilizer >> soil fertility Conventional techniques; High seed rate >> High crop density >> Rice vs. Rice competition >> require extra input (Chem.fertilizer, Pesticide, Herbicide) = 1 seed/ 1 plant/ 1panicle x ~100 grains >> ~6 ton/ha  Irrigation continuous flood water,  Adapted to erratic rainfed condition.
  38. 38. Modification of SRI Rice varietal diversification; @ Tillering ability are differ between rice varieties and between group of varieties, UR > RFL > IRL > DWR @ When we plant upland rice in submerged lowland rice, result as no tiller or less tillers. @ Different rice group, response to different amount of Nitrogen; Japonica > Semi-dwarft indica > traditional tall indica > deep water rice, @ This must be manage correctly, both for amount & timing.
  39. 39. Modification of SRI Young seedling /Single plant ; @ To reduce labor intensive: Seedling nursery for parachute transplanting with single seed in individual holes, transplanting in straight rows by hand or machine for the following rotary weeding. @ A chance for other rice ecosystem with low labor use: In rainfed area where water is scarce, Dry seed dibbling can be applied using dibbling machine, control for number of seed/hill, and straight rows dibbling for the following rotary weeding.
  40. 40. Experiment in the farmer field • Technology-generation experiment: to develop new technology w/ higher yield & lower cost in the farmers’ field; compare w/ control CK. • Technology-verification experiment: To compare new package technology w/ farmer techniques in yield & profit; compare w/ farmer practices. • Field selection, Expt. design, Comparison, Data collection, Data analysis & presentation. (P 562-590 in: Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd Edition by Kwanchai A. Gomez and Artiro A. Gomez)
  41. 41. Thank you

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