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3rd International Conference on Global Food Security

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3rd International Conference on Global Food Security
Cape Town, South Africa, 3-6 December 2016

Published in: Science
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3rd International Conference on Global Food Security

  1. 1. Delivering Food Security Without Increasing Pressure on the Environment: Reports from the Field on Improving Agricultural Productivity & Food Security in the Lower Mekong River Basin in the Context of Climate Change and ASEAN Food Security DR. ABHA MISHRA, NORMAN THOMAS UPHOFF, SURESH LOKHANDE, BISHAL BHARI abhamishra@ait.asia ( http://www.acisai.ait.asia/ ) 3rd International Conference on Global Food Security Cape Town, South Africa, 3-6 December 2016
  2. 2. CONTENT 1.  Background 2.  Introduction to SRI-LMB 3.  Geographical areas & Partnership, 4.  Implementation Consortia and Programme Management Structure 5.  Major Activities 6.  Results achieved so far 7.  Way Forward
  3. 3. Recommends investing in smallholder agriculture focusing on the following five components: 1.  Conservation and enhancement of soil health 2.  Sustainable management of water resources and launching a “more crop and income per drop of water” 3.  Extending appropriate technologies and inputs 4.  Providing the needed credit and insurance 5.  Ensuring assured and remunerative marketing opportunities A vision for the rice sector “Food-secure, better nourished and prosperous rice farmers, producers and consumers in the Asia/Pacific region who benefit equitably from a vibrant, innovative and transformed rice sector that is more productive, efficient and environmentally sustainable by 2030”. Rice, the common staple food in ASEAN 1. Closely linked to food security . 2. Need to produce more food with fewer resources, restore natural resources and increase the resilience of farming systems. 3. Strengthen communication between researchers, extension agents and farmers on the promotion of GAP 4.  Identify and address emerging issues to food security (Introduce Climate smart Agriculture in AMS– pilot testing of technologies and practices, such as Conservation Agriculture, System of Rice Intensification, organic agriculture)-AIFS Framework SPA (2015-2020)
  4. 4. working in 33 districts of 11 food insecure provinces
  5. 5. Lower Mekong River Basin (LMB) 60 million population in LMB 60% rice area is rainfed 75% calories from rice 5 !  Small land holding (90%) !  Average age of farmers 50+ !  More than 60% are women !  Grow only one crop of rice !  Increasing households loans !  Low rice productivity !  Costly farming technique are not applied !  Declining profit (due to rising cost of production and stagnating yields) !  Increasing out-migration of farmers !  Youth leaving agriculture Challenge Making farming economically and socially attractive in a rapid changing environment, such as climate change Options Smallholders either move out or become efficient, smart, and attractive Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  6. 6. "  Transplanting younger and fewer seedlings/hill or direct seeding with low seed rate "  maintaining wider spacing "  Avoiding continuous soil saturation "  Applying compost as much as possible "  Offers low cost solution "  Doesn’t require external inputs "  Practices are amenable to farmers experimentation "  Follows agro-ecological principles "  Strengthen livelihoods 6SRI: a ’menu’ for change and transformation Capturing farmers' imagination by enabling them to get higher yield with reduced external inputs, and fueling their capacity for innovation Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  7. 7. Sustaining and Enhancing the Momentum for Innovation around the System of Rice Intensification in Lower Mekong River Basin (SRI-LMB) http://www.sri-lmb.ait.asia/ 7 Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT Royal University of Agriculture National University of Laos Hanoi University of Agriculture Rajabhat University
  8. 8. CAMBODIA Implementing consortia include NGO, GO, academics LAOS Implementing consortia include NGO, GO, academics THAILAND Implementing consortia include NGO GO, academics VIETNAM Implementing consortia include NGO, GO academics P1 Provinces Districts Oxfam FAO P2 P3 P1 P3P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 UQ Australia SRI-Rice USA Local consortia National consortia Regional consortia ProgrammeImplementation consortia
  9. 9. Different sets of practices applied at farmers’ fields Crop management practices Conventional practices (CP-Baseline) SRI-Transition (SRI-T) SRI-Demonstration (SRI-D) Seedling age 40-60 day-old (established by baseline) 39-20 day-old 8-19 day-old* (8-15 day-old for Cambodia and Thailand) Seed rate 100-150 kg/ha 20-30% less than CM 5-20 kg/ha Transplanting spacing Crowded, 10 x 10 cm 10 x 15 to 19 x 19 cm 20 x 20 – 30 x 30 cm or more Planting/hill >5-6 4-5 seedlings/hill 1-3 seedlings/hill Soil condition Flooded (or no effort in maintaining aerobic soil condition Relatively aerobic soil condition with respect to CM either through shallow water level or through intermittent drying Maintaining aerobic soil condition at least for a week during tillering stage 9 !  Three treatments and 4 replications (minimum) for each experiment !  Data collection and analysis (average) by farmers at three growth stages (tillering, flowering, and harvesting) !  Data recorded by farmers using farmers diary !  Data were compiled by district trainer and subsequently by provincial coordinator Design and data handling at field level Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  10. 10. Data handling at country and regional level !  System Architecture Query Data INTERNET Input Data Download Output File Save data into DB Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT 10
  11. 11. Key Findings 11 VARIABLES: #  Improved Livelihood •  Productivity (yield), tons/ha •  Profitability (net return), US$/ha •  Labor productivity, kg of rice yield/man-day of labor #  Resource Use Efficiency •  Water productivity, kg of rice yield/m3 of water input •  Inorganic fertilizer use efficiency, kg of rice yield/kg of inorganic fertilizer •  Total energy input (Chemical, Mechanical and Biological), GJ/ha #  Climate change mitigation •  Greenhouse gas emissions – (CH4, N2O, CO2), tCO2 eq./ha •  GHG emissions (Rainfed and Irrigated scenarios) Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  12. 12. Key Learnings: Improved Livelihood #  Produc'vity:  Paddy  yield  (t/ha)     #  Profitability:  Net  income  (US$/ha)   #  Labor  Produc'vity:  kg  of  rice  yield/man-­‐day  labor   12 Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  13. 13. Productivity (Paddy yield (t/ha) 13 4.02 4.51 6.30 4.70 4.89 3.16 3.28 4.11 2.19 3.06 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Thailand Cambodia Vietnam Lao PDR Regional Paddyyield,tons/ha Paddy Yield, tons/ha SRI Baseline 53% 30% 110% 66% 19% More than 60% yield increase Key Learnings: Improved Livelihood Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  14. 14. Profitability: Net income (US$/ha) 14 1000 494 384 838 679 187 376 73 704 400 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Thailand Cambodia Vietnam Lao PDR Regional NetReturn(US$/ha) Net Return (US$/ha ) SRI Baseline 70% 19% 428% 31% 434% Much needed financial support to poor household Key Learnings: Improved Livelihood Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  15. 15. Labor Productivity: kg of rice yield/man- day labor 15 Key Learnings: Improved Livelihood 38 60 82 49 55 21 74 31 77 33 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Thailand Cambodia Vietnam Lao PDR Regional LabourProductivity,KgRice/dayof labor Labour Productivity, Kg Rice/man-day of labor SRI Baseline At regional level, 55 kg rice per man-day labour 80% 161% -19% 66% -35% % change w.r.t. to baseline Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  16. 16. Key  Learnings:  Resource-­‐use-­‐ efficiency   #  Water  produc'vity:  kg  of  rice/m3  of  water  (Molden  et  al.,  2010)     #  Mineral  fer'lizer  use  efficiency:  kg  of  rice/kg  of  mineral  fer'lizer   #  Total  energy  input:  (GJ/ha)  (Chamsing  et  al.,  2006)   •  Mechanical:  manual  and  machine     •  Chemical:  organic  and  mineral  fer'lizer,  pes'cide,  herbicide   •  Biological:  seed   16 Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  17. 17. 17 Key Learnings: Resource-use-efficiency 0.36 0.27 0.30 0.24 0.29 0.30 0.21 0.20 0.12 0.18 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Thailand Cambodia Vietnam Lao PDR Regional WaterProductivity,kg/m3ofwater Water Productivity, kg /m3 of water SRI Baseline 19% 110% 53%30% 59% Water Productivity: kg of paddy/m3 of rainfall water Efficient use of natural resource Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  18. 18. 18 25.0 19.3 31.0 208.6 31.4 8.5 29.2 12.1 10.1 11.4 0 50 100 150 200 250 Thailand Cambodia Vietnam Lao PDR Regional Inorganicfertilizeruseefficiency,Kg Rice/kgofinorganicfertilizer Inorganic fertilizer use efficiency, kg Rice/kg of inorganic fertilizer SRI Baseline Key Learnings: Resource-use-efficiency Mineral fertilizer use efficiency: kg of paddy/kg of mineral fertilizer At  regional  level,  31   kg  of  paddy  per  kg  of   mineral  fer'lizer     Wu  2013:  21.4  kg  of   rice/kg  of  NPK     Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  19. 19. 19 Key Learnings: Resource-use-efficiency Total energy input: GJ/h 7.44 9.46 9.12 2.25 7.07 15.58 6.48 14.29 8.66 11.25 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Thailand Cambodia Vietnam Lao PDR Regional TotalEnergyInput,GJ/ha Total Energy Input, GJ/ha ) SRI Baseline -52% 46% -36% -74% -37% Major  contribu'on   to  reduc'on  in  cost   of  cul'va'on     Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  20. 20. Key  Learnings:  Climate  change   mi'ga'on   20 •  Greenhouse gas emissions – (CH4, N2O, CO2), tCO2 eq./ha •  GHG emissions (Rainfed and Irrigated scenarios) Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  21. 21. 21 Countries Irrigated Rainfed SRI Baseline % change w.r.t. baseline SRI Baseline % change w.r.t. baseline Cambodia 2.20 1.54 43 1.76 1.09 61 Laos 1.17 1.74 -33 0.73 1.3 -44 Thailand 1.86 2.52 -26 1.42 2.07 -32 Vietnam 2.35 2.92 -20 1.9 2.48 -23 Regional 1.9 2.18 -13 1.45 1.74 -16 Greenhouse gas mitigation (t CO2 eq./ha) Key Learnings: Climate change mitigation Feb 2017, priced one ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) at 5.53 USD. Ref: http:// greenliving.love toknow.com Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  22. 22. Production efficiency of different systems Variables Irrigated (SRI) Baseline Rainfed (SRI) baseline Yield (t/ha) (2014-15) 6.26 4.5 5.82 3.06 Economic productivity (dollars earn/dollars spent/ha) with farm-gate price 2.06 0.05 2.9 0.54 22 Organic SRI rice Inorganic SRI rice FP Paddy Yield (t/ha) (2016) 3.92 4.62 3.4 Cost of production (US$/ha) 560 US$/ha (0.14$/kg) 744 US$/ha ( 0.16$/kg) 828 (0.24$/kg) Net return (US$/ha) 636 470 217 Economic productivity 1.13 0.63 0.26 10% premium (10% of cost of production of 1 kg paddy) 0.014$/kg✔✔ 0.016/kg✔ 0.024/kg Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  23. 23. Exploring the potential for the strategy of farmer’s collective action (CA) to accelerate scaling-up SRI and market development 23 Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  24. 24. Farmers’ Collective Action $  WHAT WE HAVE Informal farmers’ group (involving 12,000 farmers) evolved through the process of experiential capacity building activities $  WHAT WE NEED An intervention to have multifunctional farmers’ organization including farmers' companies and farmers cooperatives that would focus on: 1.  Production planning, input-output services with an objective to accelerate adoption of ecologically sound SRI and Conservation Agriculture 2.  Post harvest management including marketing and value addition 3.  Institutional arrangement for capturing economies of scale for commercialization of rainfed agriculture through mutually beneficial partnership with private sector 24 Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  25. 25. The main objective of FO managed CA would be: $  Farmer empowerment for equitable development $  Reduce farmer’s cost of production $  Gain access to high quality inputs through FO managed input-output services $  Reduce farmer’s transaction costs $  Develop FOs as farmer’s share-holding business enterprises $  Create more local employment opportunities $  Make FOs as platform for integrating line departments (Department of agriculture, etc.) 25Farmers’ Collective Action Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  26. 26. Farmer’s Collective Action 26 District level Federation Province level Farmers Federation District level Federation District level Federation V1 V2 V3 V4 V4V1 V2 V3 V1 V2 V3 V4 Possible FO structure Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  27. 27. What FO would do as a part of Collective Action? $  Collective planning and decision-making $  Input-output services management $  Coordinated time of planning (reduce gap between first and last farmer) $  Planting varieties with same maturation $  Seed production $  Same package of technology/practices $  Soil testing on mass scale $  Experiential capacity building $  Participatory performances assessment and target setting $  Develop partnership with private sectors 27Farmer’s Collective Action Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  28. 28. Conclusions 28 Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  29. 29. SRI and Collective Actions $  SRI has demonstrated that it is a high yielding, climate-smart, low cost practices with higher factor productivity (land, labors, water, chemicals, and seed). $  SRI can lead the way to poverty reduction and can make smallholder farming attractive, efficient, and smart $  With SRI, the economic productivity is higher in rainfed areas compared to irrigated areas $  Collective action is needed by farmers' organization to capture the economies of scale and to commercialize the rainfed agriculture and sustain the benefits $  National and international actors including private sectors’ support would be needed to support this development 29 Abha Mishra, ACISAI, AIT
  30. 30. Contributors

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