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Topic: It is the machine interpretation of the pages. This embodies the on-page factors in search jargon.
Reputation: It is the use of link text to attach meaning to the pages that links point too. This is an off-page factor.
Confirmation: It is a collage of filters and reputation effects from external sources that validates and confirms what a site says about itself. Primary purpose of this part of Google’s process is to shield the above two aspects from abuse.