What is it that makes animal migration such a magnificent
spectacle for the eye and the mind?
Is it the sheer abundance of wildlife in motion?
The answer is all of the above.
But there’s another reason why the long-distance journeys of
wild beasts and so many other species inspire our awe.
It is the “undistractibility” of migrating animals.
• Animal migration is the relatively long-distance movement
of individuals, usually on a seasonal basis.
• It is found in all major animal groups.
• It can be also defined as :• A movement leading to the redistribution of individuals
within a population.
Reasons for migration
Resources on Earth fluctuate. Plants – or other meals – may
be abundant, but only for a short time.
• Warm summer months may be followed by inhospitable
The best place to give birth or hatch young may not be a
good place to find food.
Types of migration
• Migration can be either obligate or facultative
• Complete and partial migration
• Irregular or non-cyclical migration
• Multiple generation migration
Bird Of the Sun :The Arctic Tern
Makes the longest migration ever recorded on earth.
• Flies from its Arctic breeding grounds to the Antarctic and
back again each year.
• The annual round trip of this small seabird is approximately
• Thus in its whole lifetime, it makes a journey equivalent to 3
return journeys to the Moon!
• Makes the longest migration among the cranes.
• Travels nearly half of the globe to the Keoladeo National
park in India to spend the winter months.
• Their migration route stretches for 4000 miles.
Monarch butterfly : Born To Move
• Known for its extraordinary
• The longest recorded flight for a
tagged adult is 2,900 km
• Their annual migration takes
four generations to complete.
The Mali Elephant takes on the longest
elephant migration on earth.
• The leatherback turtle is the record
holder, traveling an astounding 10,000
• Crosses the entire Pacific Ocean from
Asia to the West Coast of US .
• Green sea turtles migrate 2000 miles
to reach their spawning grounds.
• Mature turtles often return to the
exact beach from which they
Hilsha : Bengali delicacy
During the monsoon and consequent flooding of all the
rivers, Hilsa shad starts its spawning migration upstream.
• Hilsha migrates at least 1,200 km up in some river system in
Indian sub-continent. Distances of 50-100 km are more
typical in Bangladesh.
A mature Hilsa shad lays 0.1-2.0 million eggs in fresh water.
• Hatching takes place in about 23 to 26 hours at an average
temperature of 23 C.
Caribou : The Reindeer
The animals may move in smaller groups (not more than 50)
on the mainland of Canada.
They travel 1,200 km (746 mi) in a season.
• Those living on Victoria Island during the summer, migrate to
the mainland in the fall after the sea ice has formed.
Polar Bears: The iconic symbol of
Largest predator found on land.
• The polar bears of Hudson Bay, Canada, arrive on land early
in the summer and leave later in the autumn.
• Each October, the Canadian town of Churchill in Manitoba
plays host to a thousand hungry polar bears.
• The blue wildebeest migrates annually from Kenya to
northern South Africa.
• About 250000 wildebeests die each year when they cross the
• They become the chief source of food for Nile crocodiles.
• The crocodiles feed only once a year, when blue wildebeests
arrive during their annual migration.
Emperor Penguin : The largest
migratory penguin species
• Emperor Penguin follows a long migration path to Antarctica
away from their home by the edge of the sea.
• They do so because during the fall Emperor Penguins mate and
the female lays an egg.
• They migrate inland away from water as the egg hatches.
• So that there is more ice under the newborn penguin's feet and
much less chance of it falling through into the ocean.
Migration in celluloid
• Ice Age 2
• The Land Before Time
• March of the Penguins
• Winged migration
• Great Migrations
Migratory places in West Bengal
Indian botanic garden,Howrah.
Nalban fishery complex
Chintamani Kar Bisrd Sanctuary,Narendrapur
IIM Joka area
• The caribou of arctic regions are hunted by Inuit who
intercept herds along seasonal migration routes.
• Skyscrapers and radio towers have caused the deaths of
hundreds of thousands of migrating birds.
• Dam construction in certain areas has made it impossible for
fish to swim upstream to spawning areas.
Lets allow Them to Continue
their Journey a little Longer..
• Bird Migration: A General
Survey, P. Berthold
• The Evolutionary Ecology of
Animal Migration ,R. R.
• Migration: The Biology of
Life on the Move, H. Dingle
• Animal Migration, D. J.
We owe our deepest gratitude to Prof. Daliya Mazumdar ,
Humanities Department, Bengal Institute of Technology, for her
able guidance and useful suggestions, which helped us in
completing the presentation , in time .We would also like to
thank our parents for their blessings, our friends/classmates for
their advices and wishes for the successful completion of the