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  2. 2. 1) Deforestation :- The clearing of forests and using the land for otherpurposes is called deforestation. The causes for deforestation are :- i) Procuring land for cultivation. ii) Building houses and factories.iii) Using wood as fuel or making furniture etc. The natural causes of deforestation are forest fires anddraught.
  3. 3. 2) Consequences of deforestation :- The consequences of deforestation are :- i) Increase in the temperature and pollution level on the earth. ii) Increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leading to global warming. iii) Lowering of ground water level. iv) Disturbs the balance in nature. v) Decrease in rainfall leading to draught. vi) Soil erosion and decrease in soil fertility leading to desertification.vii) Decrease in the water holding capacity of soil leadingto floods.
  4. 4. 3) Conservation of forest and wildlife :- Forest and wildlife can be conserved by setting up areas likeBiosphere reserves Wildlife sanctuaries, National parks, etc. i) Biosphere reserves :- are large areas of protected land forconservation of biodiversity and the traditional life of the tribals livingthere.ii) National parks :- are areas reserved for wildlife where they canfreely use the habitats and natural resources.iii) Wildlife sanctuaries :- are areas where animals are protectedfrom any disturbance to them or their habitat.
  5. 5. 4) Biosphere Reserve :-i) Biosphere reserves :- are large areas of protected land forconservation of biodiversity and the traditional life of the tribals livingthere.ii) Biodiversity :- is the variety of plants, animals andmicroorganisms found in the area. The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve consists of a National park calledSatpura and two wildlife sanctuaries called Bori and Pachmarhi.
  6. 6. 5) Flora and fauna :- i) Flora :- are the plants found in a particular area. ii) Fauna :- are the animals found in a particular area. Eg:- The flora of Pachmarhi consists of sal, teak, wild mango, jamun,silver ferns etc. The fauna of Pachmarhi consists of wild dog, cheetal, wolf,leopard, blue bull, barking deer etc.
  7. 7. 6) Endemic Species :- Endemic species :- are those species of plants andanimals found only in a particular area and not foundanywhere else. Eg:- sal and wild mango are the endemic flora ofPachmarhi. Bison, Indian giant squirrel and flying squirrelare the endemic fauna of this area.
  8. 8. 7) Wildlife Sanctuary :- Wildlife sanctuaries :- are areas where animals areprotected from any disturbance to them or their habitat. Thekilling or capturing of animals in wildlife sanctuary isstrictly prohibited.
  9. 9. 8) National Park :- National parks :- are areas reserved for wildlifewhere they can freely use the habitats and naturalresources. Eg:- Satpura National Park is the first ReserveForest in India.
  10. 10. 9) Endangered Animals :- Endangered animals :- are those animals whose numbers arediminishing and might face extinction. Eg:- Tiger is one of the many animals which are slowly diminishing. Toprotect the tigers in our country the government launched the ProjectTiger to ensure the survival of tiger population. Dinosaurs have already become extinct. Red Data Books are books which keeps a record of all endangeredplants and animals.
  11. 11. 10) Ecosystem :- An ecosystem :- consisits of all the plants,animals and microorganisms living in an areaalong with the non living components like climate,water, soil etc.
  12. 12. 11) Migration :- Migration :- is the movement of animals fromits own habitat to some other habitat for aparticular time period every year due to climaticchanges or for breeding. Birds which fly very long distances to reachanother land are called migratory birds.
  13. 13. 12) Recycling of paper :- About seventeen full grown trees are required toproduce one tonne of paper. Paper can berecycled about five to seven times for use. Weshould save, reuse and recycle paper to save notonly trees but also to save the energy, water andchemicals used to make paper.
  14. 14. 13) Reforestation :- Reforestation :- is the restocking of destroyedforests by planting new trees. We should plant at least as many trees as wecut. We have already caused a lot of damage toour forests. If we have to regain our green wealth,reforestation is the only option.