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O level physics formula sheet

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O level physics formula sheet

  1. 1. ‘O’ Level Physics Formula Sheet Measurements Principle of Moment For a body in rotationalBase SI Units Σ Anticlockwise Moment equilibrium,Kg SI Unit for mass: Kilogram = Σ Clockwise Moment Sum of ACW Moment = sum ofm SI Unit for length: metre CW Moment Pressure Fs SI Unit for time: second ������ =A SI Unit for current: Ampere Pressure P = Pressure AK SI Unit for Temperature: Kelvin F = Force over area, Amol SI Unit for Amount of substance: molar A = AreaNumber Prefix Pressure of liquid P = Pressuren (10-9) nano column ρ = density,µ (10-6) micro P = hρg h = height of liquid columnm (10-3) milli g = gravitational field strength.c (10-2) centid (10-1) deci Energy, Work and PowerK (103) Kilo Work Done W = work doneM (106) Mega W = Fd F= force d= distance in direction of force Kinematics Power Work done per unit time, t ∆d = total distance travelled (area under 1Average Speed P = W/t = Fv ������������ = mv 2s = ∆d / ∆t speed-time graph) Kinetic Energy Ek = Kinetic Energy 2 ∆x = total displacement m = massAverage Velocity ∆t = total time taken v = velocityv = ∆x/∆t ∆v = change in velocity Gravitational Potential g = gravity =9.81 m/sAcceleration Velocity (slope of displacement-time graph) Energy h = heighta = ∆v/∆t Acceleration (slope of velocity-time graph) Ep = mgh m = massv = u + at u = initial velocity Conservation of Energy E1 = Total Energy Beforex = ut + ½ at2 v = final velocity E1 = E2 E2 = Total Energy Afterv2 = u2 + 2ax t = time Energy cannot be created or a = acceleration destroyed. It can only bevfree fall = �2������ℎ x = displacement transformed or converted into other h = height forms. g = gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s2 Dynamics Kinetic Model of Matter ⃑∑ ������= 0 at equilibrium Ideal Gas Law P = pressure of fixed mass of gasNewton’s First Law A body continues to stay in its state PV ∞ T V = volume occupies by fixed mass of rest or uniform motion in a of gas straight line as long as there is no T = Temperature of gas net force/moment acting on the P1V1 = P2V2 Subscript 1 = initial state body. Subscript 2 = final stateNewton’s Second Law The acceleration of an object isF= ma directly proportional to the net force Thermal Properties of Matter acting on it and inversely Specific Heat Capacity c = Specific heat capacity (Energy proportional to its mass. E = m c ∆T required to raise the temperature ofNewton’s Third Law For every force object A acts 1kg of the object by 1 °C) on object B, object B will exert an m = mass equal and opposite ∆T = change in temperature. force on object A giving rise to Latent Heat Lfusion = latent heat of fusion (Energy Reaction/Normal Forces For melting, required to change 1kg of solid toResolving forces Fvertical Fr E = m Lfusion liquid at the constant temp)Fhorizontal = Fr cos Ө Lvaporization = latent heat ofFvertical = Fr sin Ө Ө Fhorizontal For boiling, vaporization (Energy required to E = m Lvaporization change 1kg of liquid to gas at the Mass, Weight, Density constant temp)Weight w = Weight m = massw = mg m = mass General Wave Properties m g = gravitational field strengthρ= Wave Velocity v = velocity of a wave ρ = density VDensity v=fλ f = frequency m = mass λ = wavelength 1 V = volume Wave frequency T Turning effect of Force f= T = Period d = ⊥ distance from force to pivotMoment of Force M = Moment f = frequencyM=Fd F = force1 http://physictuition.blogspot.com
  2. 2. ‘O’ Level Physics Formula Sheet Light Practical ElectricityLaw of Reflection Normal Electric Power P = PowerӨi = Өr V = voltage 2 Өi Өr P = VI = V2/R = I R R = resistanceӨi = angle of incidence I = currentӨr= angle of reflection Electrical Energy E = energy outputSnell’s Law (refraction) E = Pt = (VI)t P = power Normal t = timen1Sin Өi = n2Sin Өr Өi n1 = refractive index 1 V = voltage I = currentӨi = angle of incidence Electromagnetism Vp Np Өr =Өr = angle of refraction Transformer V = voltage Vs Ns n2 = refractive index 2 N = number of coils n2Critical angle I = currentsin ������������ = Normal n1 (ideal transformer) Subscript p = primary coil n1 = refractive index 1 VPIP = VsIs Subscript s = secondary coil Өc Right hand grip(special case of Snell’slaw where Өr = 90°) n2 = refractive index 2 c������ = vRefractive Index c = speed of light in vacuum. v = speed of light in medium Higher reflective index of a medium means light travel slower(n of air ≈ 1) hi di in the medium������ = =Magnification M = magnification ho do h = height d = distance from lens Subscript i = image Fleming’s Right Hand Subscript o = object Rule Current of ElectricityCurrent Current = rate of flow of chargesI = Q / ∆t Q = Charge t=timeOhm’s Law V = voltage,Resistance R = resistanceR=V/I I = currentResistance of a wire ρ = resistivity Fleming’s Left HandR = ρL/A L = length of wire Rule A = cross sectional area D.C. Circuits ∑ Iin = Sum of current going into aKirchoff’s 1st Law Conservation of charges.� Iin = � Iout ∑ Iout = Sum of current going out junction ∑ V = Sum of potential difference V of a junctionKirchoff’s 2nd Law� V = E. M. F across all components in a circuit E.M.F = Voltage supplied by the power supply. Prepared by etuitionxResistance in Series (http:/physictuition.blogspot.com) I R1 R2 R3Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3 1 1 1 1Resistance in Parallel V = + +R total R1 R 2 R 3 R1 R2 References 1. PHYSICS Ordinary Level (Syllabus 5058) R3 2. Education Haven (http://matchtutor.com.sg)2 http://physictuition.blogspot.com

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