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Plagiarism & Paraphrasing

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Plagiarism & Paraphrasing

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Plagiarism & Paraphrasing

  1. 1. How to Paraphrase and Avoid Plagiarism
  2. 2. the dreaded Plagiarism! On Facebook we “share” pictures and articles. On Tumblr we “repost” memes and comments. We “pin” images on Pinterest…the list goes on. Thanks to the internet, we’ve become accustomed to taking things we did not make, and using them for our own purposes, often, without linking to or crediting the source. This is harmless when it is clear and obvious that we are not trying to take credit for making/writing something. It becomes harmful when the habit of copying things follows us to school or work.
  3. 3. WHAT IS Plagiarism? According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary… 1. To steal and pass off the ideas or words of another as one's own. 2. To use another's production without crediting the source. 3. To commit literary theft. 4. To present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.
  4. 4. Why is Plagiarism Bad? Because it is an act of fraud. It involves first stealing someone else's work, and second, lying about it by leading others to believe it is your own work.
  5. 5. Why does Plagiarism Occur? 1. Lack of Knowledge and Skills: Students don’t know procedures for citation and paraphrasing. 2. Insecurity or Lack of Preparation: Students take other’s work because they did not put the effort into learning the material, or they want to sound more impressive. 3. Developmental Issues: Students do not perceive what they are doing as unethical.
  6. 6. Types of Plagiarism 1. The Clone Direct copy and paste from the internet. Submitting another’s work, word-for-word, as your own.
  7. 7. Types of Plagiarism 2. The Mashup Some of the text is original, but other parts are copied from one or more sources without citing.
  8. 8. Types of Plagiarism 3. Find & Replace Parts of the text are copied from the internet, and certain words and phrases have been changed to make the passages sound different.
  9. 9. Types of Plagiarism 4. The Para-fail Similar to “find and replace,” an attempt has been made to paraphrase, but the text is too close to the author’s original wording OR structure.
  10. 10. Types of Plagiarism 5. The Hybrid When some sources are cited correctly, but other sources are copied and included without citation.
  11. 11. Types of Plagiarism 6. The Recycler Submitting work you did for one class to a different one, or directly reusing your old work for a new assignment.
  12. 12. Types of Plagiarism 7. The 404 Error All copied text is cited, but some citations are inaccurate or leading to non- existent sources.
  13. 13. Types of Plagiarism 8. The Braindead Includes proper citations, but the paper includes almost no original work to go with the chosen quotes or paraphrases.
  14. 14. But…it was an accident! In education, it does not matter if plagiarism was intentional or not. The consequences are usually the same.
  15. 15. 1. Cite your sources accurately. 2. Learn to paraphrase properly. How to Avoid Plagiarism:
  16. 16. Summary Paraphrase The goal of a summary is to condense the main ideas of a text. The goal of a paraphrase is to put someone else’s ideas in your own words. You use a summary to take notes for class or to help you remember what happened in a reading assignment. You use a paraphrase when writing an essay or paper. A summary should be as short as possible. A paraphrase does not shorten a text, it just puts the ideas in a text into original words.
  17. 17. How to Paraphrase: Step 1: Gain a thorough understanding of the ideas in the source text. If you don’t understand the author’s ideas, it will be difficult to put them in your own words.
  18. 18. How to Paraphrase: Step 2: Re-state the author’s ideas using as few words as possible from the source text. Try to write the author’s ideas down without looking at the source text - this will help you succeed. Don’t look at the source text!
  19. 19. How to Paraphrase: Step 3: Cite your paraphrased passages. Yes - you still have to cite a paraphrase just like a quote! I just read a book called Writing Research Papers by James D. Lester. The passage I want to paraphrase is on page 46.
  20. 20. Original Text Paraphrase Students frequently overuse direct quotation when taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final paper should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact copying of source materials while taking notes. In research papers, students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the number of direct quotes you add to your notes (Lester 46).
  21. 21. Original Text Plagiarism! Students frequently overuse direct quotation when taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final paper should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact copying of source materials while taking notes. In research papers, students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the number of direct quotes you add to your notes.
  22. 22. Original Text Plagiarism! Students frequently overuse direct quotation when taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final paper should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact copying of source materials while taking notes. Students often use too many quotations when taking notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while note-taking. (Lester 46).
  23. 23. Review:

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