Several sp. of natural parasites of wild
and domestic mammals cause
accidental infection in man.
Transmitted by blood sucking arthropods
which feed on both animals and
humans( eg: Aedes aegypti mosquito).
Infective larvae develop into adults but
do not mature to produce microfilariae.
Following death of worm, chronic
inflammatory reaction occurs around
dead worm and that causes clinical
ETIOLOGIC AGENTS: Brugia pahangi,
Brugia beaveri, Brugia leporis etc.,
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS: Enlarged
COMPLICATIONS: Typically none.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Inoculation of
microfilaria from the salivary glands of a
DIAGNOSIS: Observation of worm in the
histological section following excision of
infected lymph node.
TREATMENT: Excision of infected lymph
DRUG OF CHOICE: None.
RESERVOIR HOSTS: Raccoons & rabbits(B.
beaveri in North America); cats &
dogs(B. pahangi in Malaysia).
CONTROL MEASURES: Take precaution to
avoid mosquito bite.
SPECIES: B. pahangi & B. beaveri
ETYMOLOGY: Brugia from Dr.Brug and
pahangi from Pahang, Malaysia.
HISTORY: Discovered by Buckley and
Edeson in 1956 from dogs and cats of
Adult male:17.4-20 mm,
Adult female:38-63 mm.
Distinguishing feature: spicules shortest
among Brugia sp.(B. pahangi<B. malayi).
-280 μm(when collected in 2% formalinKnott’s technique),
-189 μm(in thick blood smear).
From cats and dogs; in Malaysia.
Implicated in cases of lymphangitis and
Pathology restricted to affected lymph
Worms are located in lymph nodes and
Worms are immature and infertile.
Worms are often dead and surrounded
by a necrotizing granuloma.
It is very difficult to differentiate between
B. pahangi infection and endemic B.
malayi infection because
Both have same mosquito vectors.
Microfilaria of both have similar
Parasite of raccoon in North America.
Mosquitoes may accidentally transmit
the infective stage by feeding on an
infected animal and then on a human
approximately 2 week later.
Rarely exhibit any symptoms.
Patient presents with a tender mass in
the cervical, axillary or inguinal region.
Enlarged lymph node
the worm is dead, it is surrounded by
a granulomatous reaction.
Once the mass is removed no further
treatment is required.
Infected node generally not tender.
Lesions are non erythematous.
Most common sites are
But in case of immunodeficient patients,
disease may progress to severe lymph
edema and worm may become patent
and produce microfilaria.
Typically made by examination of worms
in histological section from surgically
excised lymph node.
Removal of infected lymph node or
lymphatic tissue provide complete cure.
The only realistic control measure is to
avoid being bitten by mosquitoes.