6.mental development

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6.mental development

  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGY MENTAL DEVELOPMENT
  2. 2. MENTAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>In the educational process, improving the skill of remembering and coming out of the forgetting problem and adjusting to various conditions is called as mental development . </li></ul>
  3. 3. THEORIES OF MENTAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>There are three theories of remembering and forgetting. </li></ul><ul><li>They are: </li></ul><ul><li>      Theory of Decay or Disease, </li></ul><ul><li>     Theory of Interference, </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Trace Change. </li></ul>
  4. 4. THEORY OF DECAY <ul><li>Theory of Decay states that impressions created in the brain during the learning process fade away with the passage of time. This is also called as forgetting. </li></ul>
  5. 5. THEORY OF INTERFERENCE <ul><li>Theory of Interference states that the interference and interaction of the ever-lasting memory of motor skills cause the spontaneous recovery of the memory in case of forgetting. </li></ul>
  6. 6. THEORY OF TRACE CHANGE <ul><li>Theory of Trace Change states that one’s memory of what he has seen tends to change from general to specific ways. For ex. After learning the alphabets if a child is shown a triangle, he relates it immediately to the alphabet “A”. </li></ul><ul><li>Tip of Tongue approach states that forgetting is only a temporary and not a permanent failure of the mechanism responsible for remembering. </li></ul>
  7. 7. METHODS TO MEASURE MEMORY <ul><li>Psychologists generally describe three methods to measure memory. </li></ul><ul><li>They are : </li></ul><ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><li>Recognisation </li></ul><ul><li>Re-learning </li></ul>
  8. 8. RECALL <ul><li>It is a very simple method to measure. </li></ul><ul><li>Expose children to some words for a specific period of time and then ask them to recall as many times as possible. </li></ul>
  9. 9. RECOGNISATION <ul><li>It is the discrimination between the seen and the unseen. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple choice questions are examples of a typical recognisation experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>The student is shown a number of items that he has studied along with some new items and asked to recognize the studied items </li></ul>
  10. 10. RE-LEARNING <ul><li>The student is asked to re-learn the material at a later stage instead of recalling and recognizing. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between the number of trials required to re-learn is then considered as an index of retention. </li></ul><ul><li>This is often referred to as measure saving score </li></ul>
  11. 11. LEARNING METHODS
  12. 12. METHODS FOR RETENTION OF LEARNT SUBJECT <ul><li>over learning, </li></ul><ul><li>meaningful organisation of subject matter, </li></ul><ul><li>use of meaningful material, </li></ul><ul><li>self recitation, </li></ul><ul><li>formation of clear concept, </li></ul><ul><li>use of the principle of learning by doing. </li></ul>
  13. 14. TYPES OF MEMORY <ul><li>Short term memory, </li></ul><ul><li>Long term memory. </li></ul>
  14. 15. SHORT TERM MEMORY
  15. 16. LONG TERM MEMORY

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