Chapter 13 The Respiratory System
<ul><li>External Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>1. Oxygen movement into the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alveoli have more O...
<ul><li>Which is Internal or External Respiration? </li></ul>Figure 13.11
<ul><li>Respiratory Disorders:  </li></ul><ul><li>1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) </li></ul><ul><li>Exempl...
<ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli enlarge as chambers break through </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic inflammation promo...
<ul><li>Chronic Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Mucosa of respiratory passages becomes severely inflamed </li></ul><ul><li>Mu...
<ul><li>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) </li></ul>Figure 13.13
<ul><li>Lung Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts for 1/3 of all cancer deaths in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Increas...
<ul><li>Sudden Infant Death syndrome (SIDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Apparently healthy infant stops breathing and dies during sl...
<ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic inflamed hypersensitive bronchiole passages </li></ul><ul><li>Response to irritan...
<ul><li>Developmental Aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs filled with fluid in the baby </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs not inflated u...
<ul><li>Developmental Aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Important birth defects </li></ul><ul><li>Cystic fibrosis – oversecretion ...
<ul><li>Aging Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Elasticity of lungs decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Vital capacity decreases </li></ul...
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Ch 13 Development Disorders

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Ch 13 Development Disorders

  1. 1. Chapter 13 The Respiratory System
  2. 2. <ul><li>External Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>1. Oxygen movement into the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alveoli have more O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 moves by diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary capillary blood gains O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. CO 2 movement out of the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood has more CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary capillary blood gives up CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood leaving the lungs is O 2 -rich and CO 2 - poor. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Which is Internal or External Respiration? </li></ul>Figure 13.11
  4. 4. <ul><li>Respiratory Disorders: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplified by chronic bronchitis & emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Major causes of death & disability in US </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>- history of smoking </li></ul><ul><li>-Labored breathing (dyspnea) </li></ul><ul><li>-Coughing & frequent infections </li></ul><ul><li>-Retain carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>- are hypoxic & have respiratory acidosis </li></ul><ul><li>-Ultimately develop respiratory failure </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli enlarge as chambers break through </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic inflammation promotes lung fibrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Airways collapse during expiration </li></ul><ul><li>Much energy to exhale </li></ul><ul><li>Overinflation leads to a barrel chest </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanosis appears late in the disease </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Chronic Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Mucosa of respiratory passages becomes severely inflamed </li></ul><ul><li>Mucus production increases </li></ul><ul><li>Pooled mucus impairs ventilation and gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of lung infection increases </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia is common </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoxia and cyanosis occur early </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) </li></ul>Figure 13.13
  8. 8. <ul><li>Lung Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts for 1/3 of all cancer deaths in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Increased incidence associated with smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Three common types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous cell carcinoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenocarcinoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small cell carcinoma </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Sudden Infant Death syndrome (SIDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Apparently healthy infant stops breathing and dies during sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Some cases are thought to be a problem of the neural respiratory control center </li></ul><ul><li>One third of cases appear to be due to heart rhythm abnormalities </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic inflamed hypersensitive bronchiole passages </li></ul><ul><li>Response to irritants with dyspnea, coughing, and wheezing </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Developmental Aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs filled with fluid in the baby </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs not inflated until 2 weeks after birth </li></ul><ul><li>Surfactant that lowers alveolar surface tension is not present until late in fetal development and may not be present in premature babies </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Developmental Aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Important birth defects </li></ul><ul><li>Cystic fibrosis – oversecretion of thick mucus clogs the respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Cleft palate </li></ul><ul><li>Newborns – 40 to 80 rpm </li></ul><ul><li>Infants – 30 rpm </li></ul><ul><li>Age 5 – 25 rpm </li></ul><ul><li>Adults – 12 to 18 rpm </li></ul><ul><li>Rate increases with old age </li></ul>Respiratory Rate Changes Through Life
  13. 13. <ul><li>Aging Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Elasticity of lungs decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Vital capacity decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Blood oxygen levels decrease </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating effects of carbon dioxide decreases </li></ul><ul><li>More risks of respiratory tract infection </li></ul>

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