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Disease Research - Oysters

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Disease Research - Oysters

  1. 1. CHARACTERIZING DISEASE RESISTANCE IN NATIVE OYSTERS That Have Experienced Disease Pressure Roxanna Smolowitz, Steven Roberts, Jackie DeFaveri Christina Romano, Rick Karney
  2. 2. Oyster Disease <ul><li>Oyster disease is a significant issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermo ( Perkinsus marinus ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSX ( Haplosporidium nelsoni ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JOD ( Roseabacter sp .) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease tolerance / resistance strains of oysters have been developed ( i.e. Rutgers ) </li></ul><ul><li>In times of massive disease outbreaks, a limited number of oysters commonly survive </li></ul>
  3. 3. Research Objectives <ul><li>Demonstrate seed originating from local wild oysters, that have experienced heavy disease (Dermo) pressure, could significantly contribute to the development of disease resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically characterize regional oysters that are putatively resistant to Dermo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>develop genetic markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better understand mechanisms involved in immunity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Oysters that had experienced disease pressure Oysters that had not experienced disease pressure (naïve) Spawn Spawn Experimental Design
  5. 5. Oysters (~4000 from each group) were grown in a Dermo prone site- Edgartown Great Pond July 2005 - Present
  6. 6. overwintered on bottom Temperature Data
  7. 7. Mortality Naïve oysters Survivors of Disease Pressure
  8. 8. Survivors of Dermo pressure [Edgartown GP] Naive [Tisbury]
  9. 9. DERMO Perkinsus marinus Survivors of Dermo pressure [Edgartown GP] Naive [Tisbury]
  10. 10. Research Objectives <ul><li>Demonstrate seed originating from local wild oysters, that have experienced heavy disease (Dermo) pressure, could significantly contribute to the development of disease resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically characterize regional oysters that are putatively resistant to Dermo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>develop genetic markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better understand mechanisms involved in immunity </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Photo: Gary H. Wikfors: Northeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries Milford Laboratory, Milford, CT Immune Response in Oysters
  12. 12. What are the biochemical or gene products produced by hemocytes?
  13. 13. Approach: Genetic Characterization <ul><li>Extract RNA from hemocyte rich tissue- gills (n=10) </li></ul><ul><li>Perform qRT-PCR for genes suspected to play a role in immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Normalize expression data to 18s RNA levels </li></ul>
  14. 14. CIAPIN Expression cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 Survivors of Dermo pressure [Edgartown GP] Naive [Tisbury] Apoptosis (programmed cell death) regulation is likely involved in disease resistance
  15. 15. Survivors of Dermo pressure [Edgartown GP] Naive [Tisbury] Cathepsin L Expression Cathepsins are a family of proteases Proteases and protease inhibitors have been shown to play critical roles in immunity and host-parasite interactions. One possibility is Cathepsin L is involved in P. marinus defense activity.
  16. 16. For more information….
  17. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>Seed originating from local wild oysters, that have experienced heavy disease (Dermo) pressure, could significantly contribute to the development of disease resistance in cultured oysters. </li></ul><ul><li>Our initial gene expression data indicates that there are differences in immune response, however more work is required to elucidate the complex processes involved. </li></ul>

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