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Fractals and Symmetry      By: Group 3      ABENOJAR, GARCIA, RAVELO
Symmetry
Markus Reugels• A photographer who showed  that beauty can exist in places  we don’t expect it to be.• Most of his photogr...
Etymology• Symmetry came from the  Greek word symmetría  which means “measure  together”
Symmetry conveys two meanings…
The First• Is an imprecise sense of  harmony and beauty or  balance and proportion.
The Second• Is a well-defined concept of  balance or patterned self-  similarity that can be  proved by geometry or  throu...
Odd and Even Functions                                                                             Inverse Functions Rotor...
Symmetry in Geometry
Symmetry in Geometry•   “The exact correspondence of form    and constituent configuration on    opposite sides of a divid...
Reflection Symmetry• Symmetry with respect  to an axis or a line.• A line can be drawn of  the object such that  when one ...
The location of the line mattersTrue Reflection Symmetry   False Reflection Symmetry
Rotational Symmetry• Symmetry with respect to the figure’s center• An axis can be put on the object such that if the  figu...
Figures and their orderOrder 2             Order 4             Order 6        Order 5          Order 8             Order 3...
Other types of Symmetry• Translational symmetry    – looks the same after a particular translation• Glide reflection symme...
Symmetry in Math• Symmetry is present in even    • Symmetry is present in odd  functions – they are             functions ...
Symmetry in Math• Functions and their inverses  exhibit reflection wrt the  line with the equation x = y• f(f-1(x)) = f-1(...
Time is symmetric in the sense that if it is                                               reversed the exact same events ...
Spatial relationship
Knowledge
Religious Symbols
Music
Fractals
Etymology• Fractal came from the Latin  word fractus which means  “interrupted”, or “irregular”• Fractals are generally se...
History• Mathematics behind fractals  started in the early 17th cenury  when Gottfried Leibniz, a  mathematician and philo...
History• In    1872,     Karl    Weiestrass  presented the first definition of a  function with a graph that can be  consi...
History• In 1915, Waclaw Sierpinski  costructed the Sierpinski Triangle.• By 1918, Pierre Fatou ad Gaston  Julia, describe...
Benoît Mandelbrot• A mathematician who created  the Mandelbrot set from  studying the behavior of the  Julia Set.• Coined ...
What is a fractal?• A     fractal    is    a  mathematical set that  has a fractal dimension  that usually exceeds its  to...
Iteration• Iteration is the repetition of  an algorithm to achieve a  target result. Some basic  fractals     follow    si...
Whut?•  Let’s look at the line on the right, when   it is divided by 2, the number of self-   similar pieces becomes 2. Wh...
Whut?•   For the plane:    log 4    log 22    2 log 2          =⁡        =⁡         =2    log 2     log 2     log 2•   For...
Sierpinski Triangle Iteration 1      Iteration 2     Iteration 3      Iteration 4     Iteration 5• Clue: Iteration 1 has a...
Types of Self-Similarity     Exact Self-similarity        Quasi Self-similarity• Identical at all scales    • Approximates...
Types of Self-Similarity  Statistical Self-Similarity• Repeats        a      pattern  stochastically so numerical  or stat...
Closely Related FractalsMandelbrot Set       Julia Set
Mandelbrot SetMandelbrot Iteration Towards   Self-repetition in the Mandelbrot         Infinity                           ...
Zooming into Mandelbrot Set
Zoom into Mandelbrot Set   Julia Set Plot
Newton Fractalp(z) = z5 − 3iz3 − (5 + 2i)     ƒ:z→z3−1
Applications of Fractals
Video Game Mapping
Meteorology
Art
Seismology
Geography
Coastline Complexity
Sources• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symmetry• http://ethemes.missouri.edu/themes/226• http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcseb...
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Fractals and symmetry group 3

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Math 6 Presentation: Fractals and Symmetry

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Fractals and symmetry group 3

  1. 1. Fractals and Symmetry By: Group 3 ABENOJAR, GARCIA, RAVELO
  2. 2. Symmetry
  3. 3. Markus Reugels• A photographer who showed that beauty can exist in places we don’t expect it to be.• Most of his photographs are close-ups of water droplets and the water crown which features a special geometric figure called the crown is formed from splashing water.
  4. 4. Etymology• Symmetry came from the Greek word symmetría which means “measure together”
  5. 5. Symmetry conveys two meanings…
  6. 6. The First• Is an imprecise sense of harmony and beauty or balance and proportion.
  7. 7. The Second• Is a well-defined concept of balance or patterned self- similarity that can be proved by geometry or through physics.
  8. 8. Odd and Even Functions Inverse Functions Rotoreflection Glide Reflection Religious Symbols Mathematics Rotation Scale/Fractals LogicReflection Geometry Helical Translation Social Interactions Symmetry Arts/AestheticsPassage through time Science Music Architecture Spatial relationships Knowledge
  9. 9. Symmetry in Geometry
  10. 10. Symmetry in Geometry• “The exact correspondence of form and constituent configuration on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane or about a center or an axis” (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language 4th ed., 2009)• In simpler terms, if you draw a specific point, line or plane on an object, the first side would have the same correspondence to its respective other side.
  11. 11. Reflection Symmetry• Symmetry with respect to an axis or a line.• A line can be drawn of the object such that when one side is flipped on the line, the object formed is congruent to the original object, vice versa.
  12. 12. The location of the line mattersTrue Reflection Symmetry False Reflection Symmetry
  13. 13. Rotational Symmetry• Symmetry with respect to the figure’s center• An axis can be put on the object such that if the figure is rotated on it, the original figure will appear more than once• The number of times the figure appears in one complete rotation is called its order.
  14. 14. Figures and their orderOrder 2 Order 4 Order 6 Order 5 Order 8 Order 3 Order 7
  15. 15. Other types of Symmetry• Translational symmetry – looks the same after a particular translation• Glide reflection symmetry – reflection in a line or plane combined with a translation along the line / in the plane, results in the same object• Rotoreflection symmetry – rotation about an axis (3D)• Helical symmetry – rotational symmetry along with translation along the axis of rotation called the screw axis• Scale symmetry – the new object has the same properties as the original if an object is expanded or reduced in size – present in most fractals
  16. 16. Symmetry in Math• Symmetry is present in even • Symmetry is present in odd functions – they are functions as well – they are symmetrical along the y-axis symmetrical with respect to the origin. They have order 2 rotational symmetry. cos(θ) = cos(- θ) sin(-θ) = -sin( θ)
  17. 17. Symmetry in Math• Functions and their inverses exhibit reflection wrt the line with the equation x = y• f(f-1(x)) = f-1(f(x)) = x ln(������ x) = xln(������) = x(1) = x
  18. 18. Time is symmetric in the sense that if it is reversed the exact same events are happening in reverse order thus making it symmetric. Time can be reversed but it is not possible in this universe because it would violate the second law of thermodynamics.THIS WON’T APPEAR IN THE QUIZ Passage of timePerception of time is different from anygiven object. The closer the objectstravels to the speed of light, the slowerthe time in its system gets or he faster itsperception of time would be. This meansit could only be possible to have a reverseperception of time on a specific systembut not a reverse perception on the entiresystem.
  19. 19. Spatial relationship
  20. 20. Knowledge
  21. 21. Religious Symbols
  22. 22. Music
  23. 23. Fractals
  24. 24. Etymology• Fractal came from the Latin word fractus which means “interrupted”, or “irregular”• Fractals are generally self- similar patterns and a detailed example of scale symmetry. Julian Fractal
  25. 25. History• Mathematics behind fractals started in the early 17th cenury when Gottfried Leibniz, a mathematician and philosopher, pondered recursive self- similarity.• His thinking was wrong since he only considered a straight line to be self-similar.
  26. 26. History• In 1872, Karl Weiestrass presented the first definition of a function with a graph that can be considered a fractal.• Helge von Koch, in 1904, developed an accurate geometric definition by repeatedly trisecting a straight line. This was later known as the Koch curve.
  27. 27. History• In 1915, Waclaw Sierpinski costructed the Sierpinski Triangle.• By 1918, Pierre Fatou ad Gaston Julia, described fractal behaviour associated with mapping complex numbers. This also lead to ideas about attractors and repellors an eventually to the development of the Julia Set.
  28. 28. Benoît Mandelbrot• A mathematician who created the Mandelbrot set from studying the behavior of the Julia Set.• Coined the term “fractal” Mandelbrot Set
  29. 29. What is a fractal?• A fractal is a mathematical set that has a fractal dimension that usually exceeds its topological dimension. And may fall between integers. Fibonacci word by Samuel Monnier
  30. 30. Iteration• Iteration is the repetition of an algorithm to achieve a target result. Some basic fractals follow simple iterations to achieve the correct figure. First four iterations of the Koch Snowflake
  31. 31. Whut?• Let’s look at the line on the right, when it is divided by 2, the number of self- similar pieces becomes 2. When divided by 3, the number of self-similar pieces becomes 3.A formula is given to calculate thedimension of a given object: log⁡ ������) ( log⁡ ������) (where N = number of self-similar pieces⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡⁡������ = scaling factorWe can now substitute: log 2 =1 log 2
  32. 32. Whut?• For the plane: log 4 log 22 2 log 2 =⁡ =⁡ =2 log 2 log 2 log 2• For the space: log 27 log 33 3 log 3 =⁡ =⁡ =3 log 3 log 3 log 3
  33. 33. Sierpinski Triangle Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5• Clue: Iteration 1 has an ������ of 1, Iteration 2 has an ������ of 2, Iteration 3 has an ������ of 4 and so on.• Answer: log 3 = 1.584962500⁡~⁡1.58 log 2That means that the Sierpinski triangle has a fractal dimension of about1.58. How could that be? Mathematically, that is its dimension but oureyes see an infinitely complex figure.
  34. 34. Types of Self-Similarity Exact Self-similarity Quasi Self-similarity• Identical at all scales • Approximates the same• Example: Koch snowflake pattern at different scales although the copy might be distorted or in degenerate form. • Example: Mandelbrot’s Set
  35. 35. Types of Self-Similarity Statistical Self-Similarity• Repeats a pattern stochastically so numerical or statistical measures are preserved across scales.• Example: Koch Snowflake
  36. 36. Closely Related FractalsMandelbrot Set Julia Set
  37. 37. Mandelbrot SetMandelbrot Iteration Towards Self-repetition in the Mandelbrot Infinity Set
  38. 38. Zooming into Mandelbrot Set
  39. 39. Zoom into Mandelbrot Set Julia Set Plot
  40. 40. Newton Fractalp(z) = z5 − 3iz3 − (5 + 2i) ƒ:z→z3−1
  41. 41. Applications of Fractals
  42. 42. Video Game Mapping
  43. 43. Meteorology
  44. 44. Art
  45. 45. Seismology
  46. 46. Geography
  47. 47. Coastline Complexity
  48. 48. Sources• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symmetry• http://ethemes.missouri.edu/themes/226• http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/shapes/symmetryrev2. shtml• http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/shapes/symmetryrev3. shtml

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