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GCSE Football Coursework

    Development of Sport in
    The Nineteenth Century
You must be aware of:
• What people did for leisure in early 19th C.
  Britain.
• What early football was like.
• What changed sport during the Victorian
  age.
Cockfighting
                          Cockfighting
                          was popular
                         with gamblers
                         because it was
                           difficult to
                         ‘fix’ the fights
                           by doping.

It was banned in England in 1835
Bear-baiting
   Bear-
   baiting
   with
   dogs
   was
   banned
   in 1835.
Bull-baiting
    Bull-baiting was also
    banned in the 1835
    Cruelty to Animals Act.
   It still went on - 'the most
   barbarous act I ever saw. It
   was young bull and had very
   little notion of tossing the
   dogs, which tore his ears and
   the skin off his face in
   shreds,’ -James Gryce, Shrops,
   1878
Horse Racing
A day at the races was     After 1815 racing
  great entertainment.    grew in popularity.
 Most people went for     The Grand National
the sideshows such as     at Aintree was first
fighting rings, markets   held in 1839. Races
   and of course the      were made fairer for
                              gamblers by
      Booze !                handicapping.
Public Executions
 Every Monday up to 10,000 people
would watch the hangings at Tyburn
           in London.
Cricket
 Cricket was already a nationwide game by
   1815. It was often rough and violent!
 Lords cricket ground opened in 1827. The
new style of over-arm bowling began in 1830
       but took 50 years to catch on!
 Cricket’s popularity was spread by touring
 teams such as the professional All-England
  side. Many formed clubs after tour visits.
Theatre and the Opera
 This was the preserve of the middle and upper
                    classes.
      Cheap        “the taste for refined
  performances         music has not
 were set up, but reached the manual
the working class         classes…
 preferred music-    …but when the circus
  halls with rude    comes the beer-house
songs and lots of      keepers complain”
       drink!
The biggest entertainment was…
       DRINK!
The 1700s had seen huge drink
problems, mainly because of
cheap and available gin. The 1830
Beer Act allowed more ale houses
to be opened. Tax on beer was
reduced to get people off gin.
Beer-houses – a haven.


Beer-houses, which only sold beer
and cider, were the only places
where working-men could go for
comfort. They were heated and
warmer than their squalid homes.
The women stayed at home!
Early football
Medieval football
Football of course dates back to the
Middle Ages. It was a violent ‘game’
played between rival villages on Shrove
Tuesdays. It was frowned upon by the
authorities. They wanted people to learn
archery – to be ready for wars.
“a devilish pastime – more a bloody
murdering practice than a sport”
Football – the Public Schools
Football was
played in the
Public Schools.
Each school had
their own rules.
This is ‘prince’
Harry playing         Strange!
Eton football.
Modern Football
   Football was taken to the masses by ex-
public school boys, as they went off to own
   and manage factories and mines. These
 ‘gentlemen’ wanted the game kept amateur
– but this meant working men could not play
    as they couldn’t afford to miss work.
The World’s First Football Club
The oldest club in the world is Sheffield FC.
This was followed by Notts. County FC.

In 1862 a group of Nottingham business men and
cricketers met in the Lion Hotel, Nottingham, to form
the Notts. County Football Club.. All the players were
amateurs, reasonably well-off, and usually added up to
11 or 12 players with nine forwards and two backs, or
behinds. Hacking of shins, tripping and elbowing were
allowed and the goalkeeper could be charged out of
the way of a shot even if he was nowhere near the ball.
The Football Association - 1863
The F.A. was founded to draft a common set
of rules for ‘Association Football’ (‘soccer’)
Eleven players on each side became football law in 1870
and a year later the F.A. Cup was introduced.
In 1875 crossbars were introduced instead of tape
1878 saw the first floodlit match at Sheffield and a referee's
whistle sounded for the first time in a match between
Nottingham Forest and Sheffield.
Football’s rise in popularity
“The attendances at
the association
games showed that
the English working
class had at last
found a cheap and
amusing way of
spending a Saturday
afternoon” – L.Woodward
‘Age of Reform’
Reasons for football’s growth
• the growth of the railways from the
1840s allowed people to travel around
England
• football was cheap – it required very
little equipment, could be played almost
anywhere and in almost any weather
As football spread…
Inter-county and inter-city competitions
became popular. The FA Cup was first
played for in 1871, and the Football
League founded in 1888.


The Original FA Cup.
This was stolen and
never found in 1895!
The Original Twelve League Clubs
•   Accrington Stanley   • Everton
•   Aston Villa          • Notts. County
•   Blackburn Rovers     • Preston North End
•   Bolton Wanderers     • Stoke City
•   Burnley              • West Bromwich
•   Derby County           Albion
                         • Wolverhampton
                           Wanderers
An Industrial Game
The original twelve
league clubs.
A different world….
 When Blackburn supporters visited London
 for the FA Cup Final in 1883, the Pall Mall
 Gazette reported
  “a northern horde of uncouth garb and
 strange oaths – like a tribe of Sudanese
             Arabs let loose.”
Uncouth – scruffy
Garb - clothes
For an Industrial People
As acts were passed limiting the length of the
working week, the factories and mines shut at
mid-day on Saturdays. This allowed workers
to go and play, and watch the 3pm matches.
Not for them the luxury of the middle classes
to play and watch cricket and golf – which
last a lot longer than 90 minutes!
3pm Saturday
The Growth of Professionalism
As crowds grew, special stadiums needed to
be built. The owners charged admission
fees, and tried to attract the best players.
“Broken-time” payments were made to
players to compensate their loss of wages.
Many ‘gentlemen’ were horrified at this
erosion of the ‘amateur spirit’.
Amateur vs. Professional
One ‘gentlemen’s’ club, The Corinthians
completely refused to play for money, refused to
play in cup competitions and even refused to take
penalty kicks when awarded them – because they
didn’t believe that any person would commit a
foul!
Football was already mainly a working class sport
and payments were common. This prevented the
split which divided Rugby Union and League in
1895.
Growing participation
In the 1930s municipal (council) playing fields
and parks increased. A new generation of
footballers was being given ground to bloom.
The Thirties was the boom decade for sport in
England. Crowds of 60,000 were the norm for
many clubs. The electric telegraph and radio
allowed results to be spread quickly. Sports
papers were sold on Saturday evenings with the
same day’s results in them.
Football takes on the World
English sailors took football with them to the
ports of Italy, Spain, Brazil and Argentina.
Friendly games with the locals were played, and
football fever spread. Juventus, Bologna,
Fiorentina and many other clubs were set up by
English exiles.
The World Cup was first played in 1930, but it
wasn’t until cheap flights that world competitions
took off, in the 1950s and 1960s.
Football meets new rivals
Football’s place as the national sport was
never in doubt. But other ways to spend
leisure time were hitting attendances.
• television – on the rise since 1953
• betting shops – legalised in the 1960s
• shopping – a culture shift in the late 1960s
meant more men spent family time!
The Money Men move in.
Commercial interest in the game picked up in
the 1960s. England’s World Cup win in 1966
had captured the nation’s imagination.
    All it needed was for the first soccer
               SUPERSTAR.
             Enter……………
George Best




“The Fifth Beatle”
Sponsorship and advertising
   Umbro was the first shirt-maker to
   put its logo on display, in 1974 on
   Liverpool’s kit.
           In 1979 it was
           also Liverpool
           who had the
           first shirt
           sponsorship in
           England.
Competition Sponsorship
In 1981 the Football League Cup was
sponsored by the Milk Marketing Board. It
was renamed the ‘Milk Cup’ as part of the
deal. It has since been known as the
Rumbelows Cup, Littlewoods Cup, Coca-
Cola Cup and presently the Worthington
Cup.
 The FA Cup is regarded as too special a
 name to be changed in this way.
Player Sponsorships
The professional
footballer has come a
long way since Jimmy
Hill founded the players
union – the PFA – to
demand an end to the
maximum wage.

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Gcse football coursework

  • 1. GCSE Football Coursework Development of Sport in The Nineteenth Century
  • 2. You must be aware of: • What people did for leisure in early 19th C. Britain. • What early football was like. • What changed sport during the Victorian age.
  • 3. Cockfighting Cockfighting was popular with gamblers because it was difficult to ‘fix’ the fights by doping. It was banned in England in 1835
  • 4. Bear-baiting Bear- baiting with dogs was banned in 1835.
  • 5. Bull-baiting Bull-baiting was also banned in the 1835 Cruelty to Animals Act. It still went on - 'the most barbarous act I ever saw. It was young bull and had very little notion of tossing the dogs, which tore his ears and the skin off his face in shreds,’ -James Gryce, Shrops, 1878
  • 6. Horse Racing A day at the races was After 1815 racing great entertainment. grew in popularity. Most people went for The Grand National the sideshows such as at Aintree was first fighting rings, markets held in 1839. Races and of course the were made fairer for gamblers by Booze ! handicapping.
  • 7. Public Executions Every Monday up to 10,000 people would watch the hangings at Tyburn in London.
  • 8. Cricket Cricket was already a nationwide game by 1815. It was often rough and violent! Lords cricket ground opened in 1827. The new style of over-arm bowling began in 1830 but took 50 years to catch on! Cricket’s popularity was spread by touring teams such as the professional All-England side. Many formed clubs after tour visits.
  • 9. Theatre and the Opera This was the preserve of the middle and upper classes. Cheap “the taste for refined performances music has not were set up, but reached the manual the working class classes… preferred music- …but when the circus halls with rude comes the beer-house songs and lots of keepers complain” drink!
  • 10. The biggest entertainment was… DRINK! The 1700s had seen huge drink problems, mainly because of cheap and available gin. The 1830 Beer Act allowed more ale houses to be opened. Tax on beer was reduced to get people off gin.
  • 11. Beer-houses – a haven. Beer-houses, which only sold beer and cider, were the only places where working-men could go for comfort. They were heated and warmer than their squalid homes. The women stayed at home!
  • 13. Medieval football Football of course dates back to the Middle Ages. It was a violent ‘game’ played between rival villages on Shrove Tuesdays. It was frowned upon by the authorities. They wanted people to learn archery – to be ready for wars. “a devilish pastime – more a bloody murdering practice than a sport”
  • 14. Football – the Public Schools Football was played in the Public Schools. Each school had their own rules. This is ‘prince’ Harry playing Strange! Eton football.
  • 15. Modern Football Football was taken to the masses by ex- public school boys, as they went off to own and manage factories and mines. These ‘gentlemen’ wanted the game kept amateur – but this meant working men could not play as they couldn’t afford to miss work.
  • 16. The World’s First Football Club The oldest club in the world is Sheffield FC. This was followed by Notts. County FC. In 1862 a group of Nottingham business men and cricketers met in the Lion Hotel, Nottingham, to form the Notts. County Football Club.. All the players were amateurs, reasonably well-off, and usually added up to 11 or 12 players with nine forwards and two backs, or behinds. Hacking of shins, tripping and elbowing were allowed and the goalkeeper could be charged out of the way of a shot even if he was nowhere near the ball.
  • 17. The Football Association - 1863 The F.A. was founded to draft a common set of rules for ‘Association Football’ (‘soccer’) Eleven players on each side became football law in 1870 and a year later the F.A. Cup was introduced. In 1875 crossbars were introduced instead of tape 1878 saw the first floodlit match at Sheffield and a referee's whistle sounded for the first time in a match between Nottingham Forest and Sheffield.
  • 18. Football’s rise in popularity “The attendances at the association games showed that the English working class had at last found a cheap and amusing way of spending a Saturday afternoon” – L.Woodward ‘Age of Reform’
  • 19. Reasons for football’s growth • the growth of the railways from the 1840s allowed people to travel around England • football was cheap – it required very little equipment, could be played almost anywhere and in almost any weather
  • 20. As football spread… Inter-county and inter-city competitions became popular. The FA Cup was first played for in 1871, and the Football League founded in 1888. The Original FA Cup. This was stolen and never found in 1895!
  • 21. The Original Twelve League Clubs • Accrington Stanley • Everton • Aston Villa • Notts. County • Blackburn Rovers • Preston North End • Bolton Wanderers • Stoke City • Burnley • West Bromwich • Derby County Albion • Wolverhampton Wanderers
  • 22. An Industrial Game The original twelve league clubs.
  • 23. A different world…. When Blackburn supporters visited London for the FA Cup Final in 1883, the Pall Mall Gazette reported “a northern horde of uncouth garb and strange oaths – like a tribe of Sudanese Arabs let loose.” Uncouth – scruffy Garb - clothes
  • 24. For an Industrial People As acts were passed limiting the length of the working week, the factories and mines shut at mid-day on Saturdays. This allowed workers to go and play, and watch the 3pm matches. Not for them the luxury of the middle classes to play and watch cricket and golf – which last a lot longer than 90 minutes!
  • 26. The Growth of Professionalism As crowds grew, special stadiums needed to be built. The owners charged admission fees, and tried to attract the best players. “Broken-time” payments were made to players to compensate their loss of wages. Many ‘gentlemen’ were horrified at this erosion of the ‘amateur spirit’.
  • 27. Amateur vs. Professional One ‘gentlemen’s’ club, The Corinthians completely refused to play for money, refused to play in cup competitions and even refused to take penalty kicks when awarded them – because they didn’t believe that any person would commit a foul! Football was already mainly a working class sport and payments were common. This prevented the split which divided Rugby Union and League in 1895.
  • 28. Growing participation In the 1930s municipal (council) playing fields and parks increased. A new generation of footballers was being given ground to bloom. The Thirties was the boom decade for sport in England. Crowds of 60,000 were the norm for many clubs. The electric telegraph and radio allowed results to be spread quickly. Sports papers were sold on Saturday evenings with the same day’s results in them.
  • 29. Football takes on the World English sailors took football with them to the ports of Italy, Spain, Brazil and Argentina. Friendly games with the locals were played, and football fever spread. Juventus, Bologna, Fiorentina and many other clubs were set up by English exiles. The World Cup was first played in 1930, but it wasn’t until cheap flights that world competitions took off, in the 1950s and 1960s.
  • 30. Football meets new rivals Football’s place as the national sport was never in doubt. But other ways to spend leisure time were hitting attendances. • television – on the rise since 1953 • betting shops – legalised in the 1960s • shopping – a culture shift in the late 1960s meant more men spent family time!
  • 31. The Money Men move in. Commercial interest in the game picked up in the 1960s. England’s World Cup win in 1966 had captured the nation’s imagination. All it needed was for the first soccer SUPERSTAR. Enter……………
  • 33. Sponsorship and advertising Umbro was the first shirt-maker to put its logo on display, in 1974 on Liverpool’s kit. In 1979 it was also Liverpool who had the first shirt sponsorship in England.
  • 34. Competition Sponsorship In 1981 the Football League Cup was sponsored by the Milk Marketing Board. It was renamed the ‘Milk Cup’ as part of the deal. It has since been known as the Rumbelows Cup, Littlewoods Cup, Coca- Cola Cup and presently the Worthington Cup. The FA Cup is regarded as too special a name to be changed in this way.
  • 35. Player Sponsorships The professional footballer has come a long way since Jimmy Hill founded the players union – the PFA – to demand an end to the maximum wage.