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  1. 1. ChessTable of Contents History.........................................................................................1 Equipment...................................................................................2 Basics..........................................................................................6 Chess Court................................................................................7 Rules...........................................................................................7 Start your Play...........................................................................11 Safety........................................................................................12HistoryChess is an internationally famous mind game and it is believed to have originated from theIndian soil. There are many interesting legends pertaining to its origin. One of the legendstates that the wife of King Ravana (a character from the Indian epic of Ramayana) inventedthe game 4000-5000 years ago. There is also a reference in the Bhavishya Purana about thegame.The game might have originated from the ancient game of Chaturanga in India. Chaturanga,a Sanskrit word, refers to the four branches of the army. Chaturanga was played on a boardof 64 squares consisting of four opposing players. It is the view of some historians that thisgame was also used in the allocation of land among different members of a clan when a newsettlement was being established. H. J. R. Murry, in his work titled A History of Chess, hasconcluded that chess is a descendant of an Indian game played in the 7th century AD.The Encyclopedia Britannica states that we find the best authorities agreeing that chessexisted in India before it was known to have been played anywhere else. According to theencyclopedia, Sir. William Jones, in an essay published in the 2nd Vol. of Asiatic Researches(about 1783-89), argued that Hindustan was the cradle of chess, the game having beenknown there from time immemorial by the name Chaturanga, that is, the four angas, or
  2. 2. members of an army, which are said in the Amarakosha (an ancient Indian Dictionary - S.B.)to be elephants, horses, chariots and foot soldiers.The first reference to Shatranj was found in the Persian work of 600 A.D. The story mentionsthat a prince having lost all his possessions staked his wife Dilaram as a last resort to regainhis fortune. Dilaram who was observing the moves from behind the purdah did not want herhusband to loose out in any way. She cried to her husband to forward the elephant and thepawn and with the horse give checkmate. Needless to say, the prince won the game.The famous Persian poet Firdausi also mentions chess. He records an incident where giftsfrom an Indian king were sent to the court of a Persian ruler. One of the gifts was a gamedepicting the battle between two armies. In the Sassanid dynasty a book Chatrangnamakwor or a A Manual of Chess was written in the Persian Pahlavi language. In Persiathe word Shatranj is used for Chess.Around 8th century the game was carried to Spain and from there it spread to the rest of theGreco-Roman world. The countries enthusiastically lapped up the game. However variationsoccurred in the names of the chess pieces. The elephants became archers in Spain,Standard-Bearers in Italy, couriers in Germany, court jesters in France, and BSs in Portugal,England, Ireland and Iceland. The Persian word for chess is Chatrang, which was laterchanged by the Arabs to Shatranj..Equipment 1. Chess board 2. Chess pieces 3. Chess clock 4. Chess bag Chess Board
  3. 3. Chess boards are available in different types such as plastic, wooden, leather,rollover type in rubber / vinyl etc. Wooden chess boards are rarely seen in chesstournaments with the exception of major chess competitions such as the USChampionships and other high level tournaments. However, wooden chess boardsare excellent for play at home. Wood chess boards are also outstanding because oftheir decorative appeal. Wooden chess boards will enhance any living space, andare very classy boards on which to play. Chess players that study chess should alsoown a nice chess boardChess PiecesThe KingThe king is the most important piece, but is one of the weakest. The king can onlymove one square in any direction - up, down, to the sides, and diagonally. Click onthe ">" button in the diagram below to see how the king can move around the board.The king may never move himself into check (where he could be captured).The QueenThe queen is the most powerful piece. If moved she can move in any one straightdirection - forward, backward, sideways, or diagonally - as far as possible as long asshe does not move through any of her own pieces. And, like with all pieces, if thequeen captures an opponents piece her move is over. Click through the diagrambelow to see how the queens move. Notice how the white queen captures the blackqueen and then the black king is forced to move.The RookThe rook may move as far as it wants, but only forward, backward, and to the sides.The rooks are particularly powerful pieces when they are protecting each other andworking together!The Bishop
  4. 4. The bishop may move as far as it wants, but only diagonally. Each bishop starts onone color (light or dark) and must always stay on that color. Bishops work welltogether because they cover up each other’s weaknesses.The KnightKnights move in a very different way from the other pieces – going two squares inone direction, and then one more move at a 90 degree angle, just like the shape ofan “L”. Knights are also the only pieces that can move over other pieces.The PawnPawns are unusual because they move and capture in different ways: they moveforward, but capture diagonally. Pawns can only move forward one square at a time,except for their very first move where they can move forward two squares. Pawnscan only capture one square diagonally in front of them. They can never move orcapture backwards. If there is another piece directly in front of a pawn he cannotmove past or capture that piece.The variation of designs available is broad, from small cosmetic changes to highlyabstract representations to themed designs such as those that emulate the drawingsfrom the works of Lewis Carroll or modern treatments such as Star Trek or TheSimpsons. Chess pieces used for play are usually figurines that are taller than theyare wide. Chess pieces are made from different material such as Plastic, fiber,marbles, wooden etc.Chess clockBeginning chess players, and those unfamiliar with chess playing software, are oftenunsure of the reasons why a chess clock is used or how to operate one. Even
  5. 5. experienced players whove never played at a chess club or in a tournament becomeconfused when these topics come up.The reason why chess clocks are used is to ensure that each player has a limited,finite amount of time in which to complete a game. While this might seem obvious oreven humorous to us today, the time issue was a real problem back in themid-1800s. It was not unusual for a player to take literally hours to make a singlemove. Games between professional players sometimes took days to complete, and amatch (a series of games) between a pair of players could consume weeks or evenmonths. If a game or match was contested between a younger and much olderplayer, there sometimes occurred a form of unfair "gamesmanship" on the part of theyounger player in which hed try to wear down the older player by taking so long withhis moves that the older player would become fatigued, even ill.The chess clock solved this problem. The clock regulates the time consumed byeach player individually; the players start with the same amount of time in which tomake their moves, and a player loses the game when his time runs out (regardless ofthe position on the board).Chess BagsBags of different design to suite type of chess equipment are available.
  6. 6. BasicsA game of logic, Chess exercises the mind by requiring players to think logically. Players areforced to think ahead and to analyze complex individual, yet interdependent factors. It hasbeen said that Chess is a good way to learn about life. A person with the facility to win atChess is ready to conquer any complex problem on either a personal or business level.To start, first it is required to know how to setup chess board and placement of pieces. Thefirst step in preparing to play a game of chess is making sure the board is set correctly. Lookat the square in the lower right-hand corner for each player. This should be a light-coloredsquare. An easy way to remember this rule is the phrase "white on right." A pictorial viewpresented below. Queen King Bishop Pawns Knight RookThe Goal of ChessChess is a game played between two opponents on opposite sides of a board containing 64squares of alternating colors. Each player has 16 pieces: 1 king, 1 queen, 2 rooks, 2bishops, 2 knights, and 8 pawns. The goal of the game is to checkmate the other king.Checkmate happens when the king is in a position to be captured (in check) and cannotescape from capture.
  7. 7. Chess is played in different styles, depending on nature of player aggressive or defensiveand other styles developed in various regions.  Its always good to know your own personal strengths and weaknesses. If your strength is being aggressive on the chess board then you might want to adapt a style like kasparovs. If you like being defensive waiting for your opponent to slip up then you might want to play like Krempov. Of you might like to play sacrificial and play like Tal. Theres other stiles too but the three mentioned are the main three. Over all what we are after here is to know and to pick a personal favored chess stile.  In the opening one should have a primal goal and that is to aim for a mid-game position where you both have the advantage and can apply your chess style talents. This is a strong recommendation from kasparov him self who landed many mid game positions where he could play very aggressive from. He also made things complex.  Also the talent to be flexible is also important because we often end up in positions that require good defense or something ells in particular. So we need to learn to be in the moment to meet the demands at the moment. And the ability to recognize what style of play should be applied in this chess moment. For example if your opponents pieces was a threat then you might suddenly want to start exchanging pieces to minimize the threat. Or if your position is secure and you have a slight advantage you might want to attack now, You might want to hold a strong position with out running out of steam thus keeping the pressure on.  So as you can see having your own personal favored style is good because it gives us ideas for positions to aim for where we can show our greatest talents. Also the ability to shift styles to meet the demands of the moment. Both ideas are important.Chess CourtChess being a mental game needs a place where players get supporting environment forconcentration and comfortable seating position.Chess needs two players, in today’s times one can be even computer. So, you will find on-line games or computer games for real chess playing.RulesGeneral RulesThe ultimate aim in the game of chess is to win by trapping your opponents king. (This iscalled checkmate - more on this later.)
  8. 8. White is always first to move and players take turns alternately moving one piece at a time.Movement is required.Each type of piece has its own method of movement (described in the following sections). Apiece may be moved to another position or may capture an opponents piece. This is doneby landing on the appropriate square with the moving piece and removing the defendingpiece from play.With the exception of the knight, a piece may not move over or through any of the otherpieces.In tournament play, once a piece has been touched by a player, it must be moved. In sandlotchess this rule is not always strictly adhered to.Some Tournament RulesMany tournaments follow a set of common, similar rules. These rules do not necessarilyapply to play at home or online.Touch-moveIf a player touches one of their own pieces they must move that piece as long as it is a legalmove. If a player touches an opponent’s piece, they must capture that piece. A player whowishes to touch a piece only to adjust it on the board must first announce the intention,usually by saying “adjust”.Introduction to Clocks and TimersMost tournaments use timers to regulate the time spent on each game, not on each move.Each player gets the same amount of time to use for their entire game and can decide howto spend that time. Once a player makes a move they then touch a button or hit a lever tostart the opponent’s clock. If a player runs out of time and the opponent calls the time, thenthe player who ran out of time loses the game (unless the opponent does not have enoughpieces to checkmate, in which case it is a draw). Click here to watch two players quicklyplaying a timed game of chess!Basic StrategyThere are four simple things that every chess player should know: 1. Protect Your King Get your king to the corner of the board where he is usually safer. Don’t put off castling. You should usually castle as quickly as possible. Remember, it doesn’t matter how close you are to checkmating your opponent if your own king is checkmated first! 2. Don’t give pieces away Don’t carelessly lose your pieces! Each piece is valuable and you can’t win a game without pieces to checkmate. There is an easy system that most players use to keep track of the relative value of each chess piece: A pawn is worth 1
  9. 9. A knight is worth 3 A bishop is worth 3 A rook is worth 5 A queen is worth 9 The king is infinitely valuable At the end of the game these points don’t mean anything – it is simply a system you can use to make decisions while playing, helping you know when to capture, exchange, or make other moves. 3. Control the Center You should try and control the center of the board with your pieces and pawns. If you control the center, you will have more room to move your pieces and will make it harder for your opponent to find good squares for his pieces. In the example below white makes good moves to control the center while black plays bad moves. 4. Use all of your pieces In the example above white got all of his pieces in the game! Your pieces don’t do any good when they are sitting back on the first row. Try and develop all of your pieces so that you have more to use when you attack the king. Using one or two pieces to attack will not work against any decent opponent.Castling Under certain, special rules, a king and rook can move simultaneously in a castling move. The following conditions must be met: 1. The king that makes the castling move has not yet moved in the game. 2. The rook that makes the castling move has not yet moved in the game. 3. The king is not in check. 4. The king does not move over a square that is attacked by an enemy piece during the castling move, i.e., when castling, there may not be an enemy piece that can move (in case of pawns: by diagonal movement) to a square that is moved over by the king. 5. The king does not move to a square that is attacked by an enemy piece during the castling move, i.e., you may not castle and end the move with the king in check. 6. All squares between the rook and king before the castling move are empty. 7. The King and rook must occupy the same rank (or row).En Pasaant Perhaps the most obscure and least used moves in Chess is called En Passant. It can only occur when a player exercises his option to move his pawn two squares on its initial movement. When this happens, the opposing player has the option to take the moved pawn "en passant" as if it had only moved one square. This option, though, only stays open for one move. In the example diagram on the left, the light pawn has just moved forward two squares. The dark pawn, may now move to the square with the red dot and remove the light piece. The en passant move was developed after pawns were allowed to move more than one square on their initial move. This was done to make sure they retained some of
  10. 10. the restrictions imposed by slow movement, while at the same time speeding up the game.Check, mate, and stalemate Check When the king of a player can be taken by a piece of the opponent, one says that the king is in check. For instance, the white player moves his rook to a position such that it attacks the black king, i.e., if black doesnt do anything about it, the rook could take the black king in the next move: we say that the white rook gives check. It is considered good manners to say check when one checks ones opponent. Mate When a player is in check, and he cannot make a move such that after the move, the king is not in check, then he is mated. The player that is mated lost the game, and the player that mated him won the game. Note that there are three different possible ways to remove a check: 1. Move the king away to a square where he is not in check. 2. Take the piece that gives the check. 3. (In case of a check, given by a rook, bishop or queen: ) move a piece between the checking piece and the king. Stalemate When a player cannot make any legal move, but he is not in check, then the player is said to be stalemated. In a case of a stalemate, the game is a draw.Other Rules Resign and draw proposals A player can resign the game, which means that he has lost and his opponent has won. After making a move, a player can propose a draw: his opponent can accept the proposal (in which case the game ends and is a draw) or refuse the proposal (in which case the game continues). Repetition of moves If the same position with the same player to move is repeated three times in the game, the player to move can claim a draw. (When the right to make a certain castling move is lost by one of the players between positions, then the positions are considered to be different. For the fine points of this rule, see the official rules of chess.) One case where the repetition of move occurs is when a player continues to give check forever.
  11. 11. 50 moves rules If there are have been 50 consecutive moves of white and of black without • any piece taken • any pawn move then a player can claim a draw. For the fine points of this rule, see the official rules of chess. Touching pieces When a player touches one of his own pieces, he must, if possible, make a legal move with this piece. When a player touches a piece of the opponent, he must, if possible, take this piece. Chess clocks and time Often, players play the game with chess clocks. These clocks count the time that each player separately takes for making his own moves. Additional rules are then used, saying how many (possibly all) moves must be made before a player has used a certain time for his moves.Start your Play
  12. 12. At the beginning of the game the chessboard is laid out so that each player has the white (orlight) color square in the bottom right-hand side. The chess pieces are then arranged thesame way each time. The second row (or rank) is filled with pawns. The rooks go in thecorners, then the knights next to them, followed by the bishops, and finally the queen, whoalways goes on her own matching color (white queen on white, black queen on black), andthe king on the remaining square.The player with the white pieces always moves first. Therefore, players generally decide whowill get to be white by chance or luck such as flipping a coin or having one player guess thecolor of the hidden pawn in the other players hand. White then makes a move, followed byblack, then white again, then black and so on until the end of the game.SafetyChess has is mental game. So it is important that for good mental condition regularconcentration exercises with yoga, pranayam supported by suitable physical exercise arefollowed.References