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The modern periodic table


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The modern periodic table

  1. 1. THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE Learning outcomes Students will be able to describe: 1. The Modern Periodic Law. 2. Different types of elements of modern periodic table. 3. The periods of modern periodic table. 4. The groups of modern periodic table.
  2. 2. MODERN CLASSIFICATION In the modem periodic table, the arrangement of elements is based on a fundamental property of elements called atomic number. PERIODIC LAW "The physical and chemical properties of all elements are a periodic function of their atomic numbers. " Video clip
  3. 3. Periodic Table of Elements 1 41.1.-AJ! L.r-; !:‘ta. :— i: iir. ——illiia-—- in H, II” S9 an H‘ gr 0‘ R9 J "l 5 4 gr, ” p~hlm'k A Lanlhamde I " : 6 $erl¢$ Athnlde Np Pu Am cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr H - Gas Ll - solid Or - Lkunld Tc - Synthetic - Non-Metals - Transition Metals . Rare Earth Metals - Halogcns - Alkali Metals - Alkali Earth Metals . Other Metals - Inert Elements
  4. 4. TYPES OF ELEMENTS OF MODERN PERIODIC TABLE Transition Elements Outer Transition Elements E °""e"t5 Lanthanides Representative Elements
  5. 5. PERIODS OF MODERN PERIODIC TABLE The horizontal rows in modern periodic table are called periods. There are seven periods, as shown below. « Periods
  6. 6. The first period This is the shortest period and contains only two elements i. e. H and He EE -~ k= ' k= >.
  7. 7. The second period This is the first short period and contains eight elements. This period starts with Li and ends with Ne. @EEEEEEl@L The third period T This is the second short period and it also contains eight elements. This period starts with _ll_a and ends with _A_r_. lE@lEEEEE@fi: :» *3 mg L» 1 M: —-1-0 --by
  8. 8. The fourth period This is the first long period and contains eighteen elements. This period starts with K and ends with Kr. = ifl®E@EflE@®E@E@EE; @E@@ hf" K53. Mag I’ hiya, /«I3! L58 N_ The fifth géiigd This is the second long period and it also contains eighteen elements. This period starts with Rb and ends with Xe. EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE
  9. 9. The sixth period This is the longest period and contains thirty two elements. This period starts with Cs and ends with Rn. @_@i@_@@m@@m@@@; m‘fi| i5F@@ g . ._. »@@@@@@@@@@®@@@ -= The seventh period This is an incomplete period and starts with Fr. IEEQEEEEEMEE wflflfllflflilflflfififlfliiflitflfl
  10. 10. GROUPS OF THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE The vertical columns of the periodic table are called groups. There are eight groups, each group is further sub-didvided into A and B sub-groups. The elements of sub-group__A are called 'Main' or Representative Elements. The elements of sub-group_§ are called Transition Elements. _, _:1I1'? §
  11. 11. 1*‘ 2A 4B 6B 2B 381 8.8 J. 7.8177. 8.81 8B 3A Groups or Families 4A 5A 1 7A 6A 8A V
  12. 12. Group I-A: The elements of this group are called matals. This group consists of : alkali . . _. ;_it%i_um (H) (w. ,.e. ;me1..4§= #4.. .: .e. z.<. . E A o rum a g M 5,, _ -tPotassium(K) ; ”L‘LéLE—: $ Mmh l _-Rubedium Rb) '4. I C3 k _ . ,~(Cesium (Cs) M*Z—e2—M LE (H E] . —->(Francium(Fr) fig‘ /2*‘ N41? K567} ‘E 40. . .°‘°'7f -4 Melting point I At"_""° rid" -Boiling point Decrease Iomc Fad" InC| 'ea$e _, Hardness VAIOITIIC volume V Reactivity v
  13. 13. Group ll-A: Elements of this group are called Alkaline Earth *1 Metals. It includes: Bryllium (Be) Magnesium (Mg) Calcium (Ca) Strontium (Sr) Barium (Ba) *5 Ca Radium (Ra) These elements are hjt. har_d_er, having higher melting and boiling points than alkali metals but: posses a bit smaller atomic radii, ionic radii and atomic volumes. __. ._. .% M%~M 31.’. 2 E El El El El
  14. 14. Group III-A: This group is generally known as Boron Family. It includes: _(Boron (sT': k_+gz_¢i_a. £-. - / «awn -s+evw. a«r7: 4 (AI FY Tm? Mae-I41; .5 Gallium (Ga) Maid; awe mm News . J Indium (In) ‘at- _. Thallium (Th fl EEEEE Except Boron they are highly electropositive elements. Their metallic character increases down the group due to increase in atomic volume.
  15. 15. Group IV-A: This group is generally known as «El Carbon Family and consists of: Carbon (C) / I'IIaI'YdT = a4f}<r<nI-f4YM5;7- E Silicon (Si) 5-“ Wat / uw Germanium (Ge) WW“! Ff‘ ' Tin (Sn) CM‘ I ‘W I’ I . . Lead (Pb) 4‘ "! ’"<W'» 7:fi'1< Of these elements carbon is non-metal, Si and Ge are metalloids, Sn and Pb are metals. Their atomic radii, atomic volumes and metallic character increase down the group. They also show phenomenon of allotropy.
  16. 16. Group V-A: 5 This group is commonly known “ IZI as Nitrogen Family and consists of: —‘ . EL . - Nitrogen (N) —' [ Phosphorus (P) N-01:. “ 0’ N0‘ ' Arsenic (As) N i 2 Antimony (Sb) Bismuth (Bi) -4 Of these elements N and P are ngn-metals, .{__s and Sb are metalloids and Bi is a metal. _. __________. . _.
  17. 17. I Oxygen (O) = Group Vl-A: This group is generlly known as Oxygen Family and consists of: azeiarmeys Greek ulphur (S) V Selenium (Se) ‘EC’ 03 Tellurium (Te) F: S‘; T. T Polonium (Po) Of these elements 0 and S are non-metals, Se and Te are metals while P0 is a metal. WEE
  18. 18. Group VII-A: This group is generally known as the Halogens. It consists of: 417‘? /¢= J"-o@" fi7lIv¢QY$»~ EEEEE Fl ' (F) CtIiIlcc)>Ir| irrIiee (Cl) “*4 ii. Bromine (Br) K gY_ C9,, Iodine (I) Na] En Astatine (At) "'—" I1 . Elements of this group are non-metals and exist as diatomic molecules. At room temperature F and Cl are gases, Br is a liquid and_I_and At are solifi.
  19. 19. Group Vlll-A: This group is generally known as Inert gases, Noble gases or Zero group elements. It consists of: Helium (He) Neon (Ne) Argon (Ar) Krypton (Kr) Xenon (Xe) Radon (Rn) Except _l§_r and Xe the rest of these elements are completely inert chemically. EEEEEE
  20. 20. MCQs 1. Which of the following general formula represents an alkali metal oxide ? A. M20 B. MO; C. M203 D. M302
  21. 21. MCQs 2. Which of the following element is a metalliod? A. Carbon B. Aluminium C. Lead D. Antimony
  22. 22. MCQs 3. Which pair of elements is chemically similar? A. K and Al B. Ca and Pb C. P and S D. Cl and I