Taxonomy of educational objectives
• In which three domains are identified:
• (i) the cognitive;
• (ii) the affective and
• (iii) the psychomotor.
• Those categories within each domain which
frequently appear in the framework of
curriculum development will be mentioned
The cognitive domain
• The six major categories of the taxonomy are frequently clustered into two groups:
lower mental functions and higher mental functions
• Knowledge: the recall of information. A specific fact of a generalization may
constitute the information recalled. It should be emphasized that knowledge
means recall only, and not application of the information in a particular situation.
• Comprehension: understanding of the message of a communication and the ability
to explain or summarize it.
• Application: the ability to use a principle rule or method in a concerted situation.
• Analysis: the ability to break down a communication into its constituent elements
and ability to clarify its content.
• Synthesis: the ability to combine elements so as to form a whole. This category
contains the notion of creativity, which has in recent years been strongly
emphasized as worthwhile educational objectives.
• Evaluation: Judging the value of material and methods for given purpose.
The affective domain
• Affective objective emphasizes feelings, emotions and the degree of acceptance or
rejection of given phenomenon. These objectives occupy limited space in the
more traditional sets of curricular objectives, but their importance is now
becoming more widely recognized. Attitudes, values and interests are types of
affective behaviors Only the first three categories of this domain are mentioned
here, because only they appear frequently in the formally stated lists of curricular
• Receiving (attending): This category is concerned with being aware of the
existence of certain phenomena and revealing willingness to tolerate a stimulus.
Thus, for example, being aware of the existence of classical music and being able
to differentiate it from music of other types of constitutes an example of
• Responding: This is more than merely being aware of a phenomenon. It means
active participation, such as going to a concert of classical music or purposefully
listening to a classical record.
• Valuing: Behavior categorized at this level is stable and consistent. Thus a
sustained interest in classical music, repeated visits to concerts, etc constitute
signs of valuing classical music.
The psychomotor domain
• Several objectives related to the acquisition of practical skills and habits
appear in a number of curriculum areas, for example, practical and
laboratory work in science subject; work experience as a part of extended
general education; handicrafts; psychomotor components of reading and
writing, etc. A classification scheme of psychomotor skills has been
developed by Dave (1969). The scheme is based on the concept of co-
ordination between psychic and muscular actions and between different
muscular actions performed by various parts of the body. The five
categories of the scheme are listed below:
• Imitation: Activities which do not require muscular co-ordination.
• Manipulation: Following directions, acting according to instructions.
• Precision: The ability to increase speed of action, and to introduce
modifications according to specific needs of a particular situation.
• Articulation: Co-ordination of series of acts by establishing appropriate
sequence, developing efficiency to perform a number of related acts
simultaneously and sequentially.
• Naturalization: Reutilizing the act to such an extent that it results in
automatic and spontaneous response.