Grubs up: Eating insectsMore than 1,000 types of insect are eatenin countries around the world. So whyare we so squeamish? Carlene Thomas-Bailey talks to Marc Denis a man on amission to change your mind•The Guardian, Saturday 13 November2010 Makes 20. 110g high-quality dark chocolate 20 pieces crystallised ginger 20 dry-roasted crickets Line a plate with parchment paper. Break the chocolate into pieces and put in a microwave-safe bowl. Heat for 30 seconds at 50% power, remove, stir, and continue cooking at 50% power in 10-second increments, stirring after each burst, until the chocolate is melted. Take a piece of ginger, hold a cricket alongside it and dip the bottom half in melted chocolate. Let the excess drip away. Place each chocolate-dipped ginger and cricket duo on the prepared plate and leave in the fridge until the chocolate sets.
19 February 2008, Chiang Mai, ThailandA workshop organized by the United NationsFood & Agriculture Organisation discussedthe potential for developing insects in theAsia and Pacific region.Led by Professor Arnold van Huis anentomologist at Wageningen University inBelgium
80% of the world’s populationeat insects as a regular part of their diet.
Africa• Congo. 10 % of the population’s protein comes from insects, mainly caterpillars.• Zambia. Bee larvae and pupae are eaten with honey.• South Africa. Mopane worms. Saturnid moth caterpillars are a delicacy.
Africa• Zimbabwe.• Termites are a popular snack , often found in bars.
Malawi. Lake Malawi produces greatswarms of phantom midgeswhich are harvested andcooked as a pate.
Japan,• Rice field grasshoppers are regularly harvested for the table.• Caddis fly larvae (zazamushi) are sold in tins and served in restaurants.• Bee and wasp adults, larvae and pupae (hachiniko) are eaten.
China• Ants and house fly larvae are farmed for food.• Scorpions are also reared for the table.
India & China• Silk worm pupae are a high protein by product of the silk industry.
Latin America • South America, palm weevil larvae and leaf cutter ants. • Mexico, grasshoppers, maguey worms (butterfly caterpillars), escamoles (ant larvae), bee and wasp larvae. • Mexican caviar or ahuahutle (eggs of water boatmen).
Far East• Thailand, A government campaign has encouraged insect consumption as a means of controlling Grasshoppers.• Korea, rice field grasshoppers and silk worms.
Austalia Aboriginal use of InsectsBogong moth. Noctuidae Adult moth used as food.Bush cockroach. Blattidae Local anesthetic.Green tree ant. Formicidae Used to prepare a refreshing drink, cureheadaches, and as a cold remedy, as an antiseptic and expectorant.Honeypot ant. Formicidae Worker ants used as food.Lerp insect. Psyllidae Lerp (manna-like substance) was sugar sourceused directly as food and also made into drinks.Processionary caterpillar. Notodontidae Silk bag made by gregariouslarvae used as a protective dressing for wounds.Sugarbag honey bees. Apidae Hive (sugarbag) of native bees consumedfor food and honey used as medicine to "clean their guts out"Termites. Termitidae Didjeridu (wind instrument) made from tree limbshollowed out by termites and termites used as food and termitaria usedfor absorbent antidiarrheal agent. Witchety grub. Cossidae Fat-rich larvae used as food and crushed toprovide a protective covering for wounds and burns.
Commercial Insect Production• Congo. Caterpillar production in the districts of Kwango & Kwilu is 300 tons / year.• Zambia. Caterpillar production equals 1600 tonnes / year.• India. Silk worm pupae production is 183 tonnes / year.
Crop Value• Thailand. Grasshoppers fetched $2.8/kg.• A farmer could make $120 /half acre.• Total annual sales were $6 million.• Japan. Canned wasps sell at $8/65g tin.• Hornet larvae sell for $20/100g.• Mexico. Escamoles are sold in restaurants for $25/ plate and are exported to Canada were they sell for $50/30g can.• Colombia. Leaf cutter ants sell for $20/pound.
Nutritional Value g/100g In se c t P r o te in Fat C a r b o h y d r a te Ir o n C a lc iu m C a lo r ie s R ed A nt 1 3 .9 3 .5 2 .9 5 .7 4 7 .8S ilk W o r m P u p a e 9 .6 5 .6 2 .3 1 .8 4 1 .7 C r ick e t 1 2 .9 5 .5 5 .1 9 .5 7 5 .8 L arge 1 4 .3 3 .3 2 .2 3 .0 2 7 .5 G r a ssh o p p e r C a te r p illa r 6 .7 ? ? 1 3 .1 ? 4 0 0 -5 0 0 T e r m ite 1 4 .2 ? ? 3 5 .5 ? 613 G ia n t W a te r 1 9 .8 8 .3 2 .1 1 3 .6 4 3 .5 B e e tle B eef 2 7 .4 ? ? 3 .5 ? 219 (g r o u n d , le a n ) F ish 2 8 .5 ? ? 1 .0 ? 170 (b r o ile d c o d )
Insect Contaminants of Food. United States Department of Agriculture Legal maximum limits for contamination of food by insects.• Ketchup, 30 fly eggs / 100 g.• Canned sweetcorn, 2 larvae / 100 g.• Peanut butter, 50 insect fragments / 100g.• Curry powder, 100 insect fragments / 100g.• Coffee, 10% of beans infested with insects.
70 646050 4040 Beef Poultry30 Crickets 24 2520 16.510 4.1 2 1 0.13 0 kg/m2 maturation age (months) Energy conversion index
The Future•Insects are rich in protein , vitaminsand minerals.•They require less space thanconventional livestock.•They posses a higher feed to meatconversion ratio than conventionallivestock.