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Introduction to Wardley Maps

This introduction to Strategy with Wardley Maps covers:
* What is Wardley Mapping?
* The Problem & Value of Mapping
* Elements of a Map
* Overview of the Strategy Cycle
* A couple of Climatic Patterns
* Several examples

First run @ Wardley Maps London September 2020 as a talk + workshop. https://www.meetup.com/Wardley-Maps-London

Recording will be posted soon.

It is released CC-by-SA, and is based on Simon Wardley's work available on https://medium.com/wardleymaps

Introduction to Wardley Maps

  1. 1. ? Evolution ValueChainvisibleinvisible Genesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) uncharted industrialised ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? an introduction to Wardley Maps ? Decide Act Purpose The “gam e” Landscape Climate Doctrine Leadership Orient Observe why of purpose why of movement Complex Adaptive
  2. 2. Attribution & License - This content is based on the works of Simon Wardley, released under CC-by-SA 4.0 and publicly available at: - Some examples and descriptions are my own; they are also released under CC-by-SA 4.0 medium.com/wardleymaps
  3. 3. Image: Mark Fowler Hi, I’m Steve Then Learned value chain mapping from Simon & James at Fotango. Used at a number of organisations. Now Founder @ Complex Adaptive. LEF’s Wardley maps research group. Training & certification standards (GCATI)
  4. 4. The Plan Intro - What’s Wardley Mapping, The Problem, Value of Mapping, Example Elements of a Map - User Needs, Components, Value Chain, Visibility, Evolution - Example - 6 Attributes of Any Map Strategy Cycle - The Two Whys, Sun Tzu’s 5 factors, John Boyd’s OODA loop Workshop
  5. 5. Intro
  6. 6. Visibility What’s a Wardley Map? User needs needs needs needs needs needs needs A chain of needs drawn from the perspective of a user. more visible @ top less visible @ bottom
  7. 7. Visibility Evolution What’s a Wardley Map? User needs needs needs needs needs needs needs Each link represents some flow of value (eg: value, finance, energy, risk, CO2, etc.) Flow of Value Flow of Finance
  8. 8. Visibility Evolution What’s a Wardley Map? User needs needs needs needs needs needs needs With the added dimension of Evolution newer @ left industrialised @ right
  9. 9. Visibility Example: A Cup of Tea Evolution needs needs Cup of Tea Homemade Mug Tea Water Milk Steve Hot Water Kettle Electricity needs needs needs needsneeds needs
  10. 10. Wardley Mapping is much more than the map
  11. 11. Another day :-) Maps Strategy Cycle Climatic Patterns Universal Doctrine Context Specific Gameplay Principles ✘ ✘o ✘o ✘o ✘o ✘o o
  12. 12. The Problem? Business Strategy suffers from: ● Lack of a Common Language ● Lack of Situational Awareness ● Copy-cat approaches ● Over-reliance on storytelling In high situational awareness environments: 1. Navigation tends to be visual 2. Learning occurs from context-specific actions 3. Strategy is based on position, movement & capability image: wikipedia
  13. 13. The Value of Wardley Mapping 1.3.1 Situational awareness 1.3.2 Common language 1.3.3 Develop & communicate strategy 1.3.4 Intelligent outsourcing 1.3.5 Select appropriate methods for a given context 1.3.6 Guide organisational design 1.3.7 Scenario planning - draft Foundations Body of Knowledge Communication Learning A tool for:
  14. 14. Real-World Example
  15. 15. Evolution ValueChainvisibleinvisible Genesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) uncharted industrialised Modal Digital’s Value Chain Modal’s Customer E-commerce Site needs needsE-commerce Consulting Hosting (eg: AWS, Azure, Google Cloud) E-commerce Framework User Interface Customisations Third Party Integrations User Experience & Interface Design Bespoke Customisations Technical Support Remote-first workforce Remote-first customers
  16. 16. Evolution ValueChainvisibleinvisible Genesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) uncharted industrialised Modal’s Customer E-commerce Site needs needs E-commerce Platform as a Service (eg: SFCC, Shopify) competition standards competition & standards Hosting (eg: AWS, Azure, Google Cloud) E-commerce Framework new behaviour User Interface Customisations future competition Third Party Integrations User Experience & Interface Design product add-onsBespoke Customisations future consolidation E-commerce Consulting Technical Support Modal Digital’s Value Chain Already under threat! Inertia
  17. 17. Inertia Climatic Pattern Past Success breeds INERTIA
  18. 18. Evolution ValueChainvisibleinvisible Genesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) uncharted industrialised Modal’s Customer E-commerce Site E-commerce Platform as a Service (eg: SFCC, Shopify) Hosting (eg: AWS, Azure, Google Cloud) E-commerce Framework User Interface Customisations Third Party Integrations User Experience & Interface Design Bespoke Customisations E-commerce Consulting Technical Support Modal Digital’s Value Chain COVID-19 impact ✘ ✘ cost⬇ efficiency⬆
  19. 19. Evolution ValueChainvisibleinvisible Genesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) uncharted industrialised Modal’s Customer E-commerce Site E-commerce Platform as a Service (eg: SFCC, Shopify) Hosting (eg: AWS, Azure, Google Cloud) E-commerce Framework User Interface Customisations Third Party Integrations User Experience & Interface Design Bespoke Customisations E-commerce Consulting Technical Support Modal Digital’s Value Chain COVID-19 impact ✘ ✘ cost⬇ efficiency⬆ Exaptation Using something for a purpose it was not originally adapted or selected for.
  20. 20. Evolution ValueChainvisibleinvisible Genesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) uncharted industrialised Modal’s New Customer User Interface Customisations Third Party Integrations User Experience & Interface Design Bespoke Customisations Technical Support Modal Digital’s Value Chain ?? needsneeds Exaptation Decompose into smaller components
  21. 21. Evolution ValueChainvisibleinvisible Genesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) uncharted industrialised Modal’s New Customer Modal Digital’s Value Chain ? needs Decompose → find novel uses User Interface Customisations User Experience & Interface Design
  22. 22. Why a Map?
  23. 23. Attributes of a Map Visual Context Position Components Movement Anchor
  24. 24. Elements of a Map
  25. 25. Unless you’re living in a bubble,1 you need to meet the needs of your users to survive. User Needs Exercise needs Music needs The Anchor of a Wardley Map 1 - some organisations do!
  26. 26. Who are they? What do they actually need? What needs are they serving? Who are their users? Focus on your Users’ Needs How are their needs changing? How do I meet their needs?
  27. 27. Components Exercise The entities of a Wardley Map Component label CDs Point of change Streaming Anticipated component (future)
  28. 28. Four Types Activities Practices Data Knowledge Components Exercise The entities of a Wardley Map
  29. 29. Example Components Blood Test Annual Blood Works Cell Morphology Images tCECs ⇒ cancer @ early stages Activity Practice Data Knowledge Tumour-derived endothelial cells are created by all spreading forms of cancer. They circulate in the bloodstream in early stages, and are detectable in blood samples with certain biomarkers. Cancer Detection Best Practice (recommended by GPs) Commonly available (at hospitals, labs, GPs, etc.) Cell Database
  30. 30. Running Store Value Chain Exercise Music The entities of a Wardley Map Trainers Studio Components Activities, practices, data or knowledge Interface Connection or link between components Electricity
  31. 31. Granularity Fractal Nature of Maps E-commerce Site Exercise needs Music needs Trainers Studio Running StoreA Person Store Running Store Stock Management Staff Lighting HVAC Electricity Security Treadmill Electricity
  32. 32. Visibility Exercise needs Music needs Trainers Studio A Person Running Store Electricity More Visible to User Less Visible to User
  33. 33. Evolution
  34. 34. Yesterday’s hot stuff
  35. 35. Today’s boredom Yesterday’s hot stuff
  36. 36. Evolution In any industrial setting: 1. Novel & new things constantly appear 2. Useful things get copied & gain traction 3. They improve & spread until they become common This happens as a result of competition around supply & demand.
  37. 37. Focus: Four Stages of Evolution Genesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) Exploration Unique. Very rare. Uncertain. Newly discovered. Constantly changing. Learning & Craft Very uncommon. Still learning. Individually made. Frequent changes. Refine & Improve Increasingly common. Better understood. Repeatable process. Increasing stability. Slow to change. Remove deviations. Operational efficiency. Widespread. Well defined. High volume, scalable. Fixed. I II III IV
  38. 38. Evolution Cheat Sheet @swardley 2016, CC-BY-SA medium.com/wardleymaps
  39. 39. EvolutionGenesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) Example: Nuts & Bolts sources:wikipedia,boltscience.com screw thread Food press screw thread400 BC Screw threads can be traced back to the time of Plato, 400 BC. They were custom made by hand from wood by craftsmen. One of the first applications was a food press (olive oil, grape juice) to get a better feel for these four stages
  40. 40. EvolutionGenesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) Water screw Example: Nuts & Bolts sources:wikipedia,boltscience.com screw thread Food press Water screw 200 BC400 BC Around 200 BC, Archimedes created water screws to raise water for land irrigation & drain water from ships
  41. 41. EvolutionGenesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) Example: Nuts & Bolts 400 BC sources:wikipedia,boltscience.com 1500s screw thread Metal screw Armour Watches Smith Not much happened for a very long time… In the 1500’s metal screws appeared in watches & armour. Threads were still made by hand.
  42. 42. EvolutionGenesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) Example: Nuts & Bolts 400 BC sources:wikipedia,boltscience.com 1500s screw thread Metal screw Armour Watches Smith Screw cutting lathe1569 Inertia In 1569, a screw-cutting lathe was invented, but didn’t take off.
  43. 43. EvolutionGenesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) Example: Nuts & Bolts 400 BC sources:wikipedia,boltscience.com,trainhistory.net screw thread Screw cutting lathe1569 Screw cutting lathe Precision screw 1700s Precision Instruments Steam train1774 Lathes advanced in 1700’s, enabling precise threads & screws, which in turn enabled precision instruments like micrometers, and ultimately steam engines.
  44. 44. EvolutionGenesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) Example: Nuts & Bolts 400 BC sources:wikipedia,boltscience.com,trainhistory.net screw thread Screw cutting lathe1569 Screw cutting lathe Precision screw 1700s Precision Instruments Steam train1774 Still no such thing as standardisation. The bolts of one company would not fit the nuts of another.
  45. 45. EvolutionGenesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) Standardised components enable higher-order systems. Example: Nuts & Bolts 400 BC sources:wikipedia,boltscience.com 1898 screw thread Screw cutting lathe Inertia Metric threads mostly standardised in 1898. But groups like Swiss watch manufacturers had a vested interest in keeping things as-is, and resisted. standard metric thread
  46. 46. EvolutionGenesis Custom Product (+ rental) Commodity (+ utility) Standardised components enable higher-order systems. Example: Nuts & Bolts 400 BC sources:wikipedia,boltscience.com standard metric thread Precision screw Precision Instruments ISO threads CERN 1947 Bridge Mobile phone The Shard Train Car Couch Threads were standardised in 1947 by ISO. Now, everything from the particle accelerator at CERN and the couch in your living room depends on these standardised screw threads.
  47. 47. Climatic Pattern Standardised components enable higher-order systems. Standard component Higher-order component
  48. 48. Attributes of a Map? Exercise needs Trainers Studio A Person Electricity Visibility Evolution Personal Trainer Visual Context Position Components Movement Anchor
  49. 49. The Strategy Cycle Strategy is non-linear & iterative. Understanding context is the key. Acting is essential to Learning.
  50. 50. Decide Act Purpose The “gam e” Landscape Climate Doctrine Leadership Orient Observe why of purpose why of movement Wardley’s Strategy Cycle The Two Why’s Sun Tzu’s Five Principles Boyd’s OODA Loop
  51. 51. The Two Whys 1. Purpose. As CEO of Fotango, Simon found that he was jumping straight from defining Purpose into deciding a strategy & acting. After a lot of self reflection, he realised he was missing a huge part of strategic thinking why of purpose
  52. 52. why of purpose why of movement 2. Movement He likened this to a game of chess, where the situation you’re in defines your why of movement. To do well, situational awareness is key, hence maps. The Two Whys
  53. 53. Sun Tzu’s Five Factors Image: Amazon
  54. 54. Purpose Your moral imperative. What you’re doing, and why you’re doing it. Purpose is not fixed. Purpose ①
  55. 55. A description of your environment. Business: ● Your users and their needs ● Your capabilities ● Suppliers capabilities Military: ● Landscape features & obstacles ● Troop positions Landscape Purpose Landscape ②
  56. 56. Climate The forces acting on your environment. You can’t choose these, but you can discover & exploit them. Actions of your competitors. Shifts in demand. Regulations. Seasons. Purpose Landscape Climate ③
  57. 57. Doctrine The set of principles and beliefs that govern your organisation. Standard operating procedures. Training of your people. Purpose Landscape Climate Doctrine ④
  58. 58. Leadership (aka Strategy) The strategy you choose. How you mobilise your organisation. Always context-specific. Purpose Landscape Climate Doctrine Leadership ⑤
  59. 59. Purpose Landscape Climate Doctrine Leadership ⑤ Purpose Landscape Climate Doctrine Leadership why of purpose why of movement Wardley’s Strategy Cycle so far… The Two Why’s Sun Tzu’s Five Principles
  60. 60. John Boyd’s OODA Loop image: wikipedia
  61. 61. John Boyd’s OODA Loop image: wikipedia
  62. 62. Decide Act Purpose The “gam e” Landscape Climate Doctrine Leadership Orient Observe why of purpose why of movement Wardley’s Strategy Cycle The Two Why’s Sun Tzu’s Five Principles Boyd’s OODA Loop
  63. 63. Mapping is a craft you must practise to learn
  64. 64. @swardley “All maps are imperfect representations. Their value is in exposing assumptions. allowing challenge and creating consensus.”
  65. 65. George Box “All models are wrong, but some are useful.”
  66. 66. Learning Resources The Awesome List: list.wardleymaps.com medium.com/wardleymaps mapcamp.slack.com (get an invite here) map-camp.com
  67. 67. Continue the conversation linkedin.com/in/spurkis @spurkis mapcamp.slack.com (get an invite here) map-camp.com complex-adaptive.com

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This introduction to Strategy with Wardley Maps covers: * What is Wardley Mapping? * The Problem & Value of Mapping * Elements of a Map * Overview of the Strategy Cycle * A couple of Climatic Patterns * Several examples First run @ Wardley Maps London September 2020 as a talk + workshop. https://www.meetup.com/Wardley-Maps-London Recording will be posted soon. It is released CC-by-SA, and is based on Simon Wardley's work available on https://medium.com/wardleymaps

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