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Thailand in the Cold War:
Sarit-Thanom Regime (1957-1973)
Politics and Government in Thailand
Yaowaluk Chaobanpho
Group presentation; select 1 question
and answer in 5 minutes
• 1. What is the cold war? What is its influence in Southeas...
Phibun’s regime 1
• Phibunsongkhram as Prime Minister 1938-45
– Increase modernization
– Pro fascism and nationalism
– Bui...
Phibun Regime 2
• 1939 changed from Siam to Thailand
• 1941 changed new year from Songkran to
January 1
• Encouraged econo...
Alliance with Japan 1941-45
2nd Phibun term
• April 1948 Phibun assumed his second
premiership
• 2 unsuccessful coupe attempts (1951)
• Promoted democ...
Sarit seized power
• Accused Phibun of cheating in election
• American supported Thai army played crucial
roles in 1957 co...
Cold War ?
• Communist World (Soviet) VS. Western World
(USA)
• Vietnam war (1955-1975), US’ military bases
in Thailand (1...
Map of Cold war
Sarit Thanarat (1908-1963)
• Successful in army
• Staged a coup in 1957 and second coup in
1958
• Prime Minister 1958-1963...
Politics in Sarit Regime
• Governed under Martial Law
• Most authoritarian in the history of modern
Thai politics
– Abroga...
Politics (2)
• Banned all political parties
• Strict censorship of the press (banned 18
publications)
• Intense crackdown ...
Chit Phumisak
• Historian, writer, left wing intellectuals
• “Che Guevara” of Thailand
• Studied philosophy at Chulalongko...
Bureaucratic Polity
• No Elections
• No political power from society outside
bureaucracy
• No political participation from...
Economic Development
• Established National Economic and Social
Development Board (NESDB) สภำพัฒฯ
• 1961 launched the 1st ...
Mittraphap Road (#2)
Thai Railway
Ideology: Thai Style Democracy
• Political Instability caused by too much
democracy
• Nation (and state) is more important...
Ideology: Despotic Paternalism
• Help children
• Keep family security
• Promote health and morality
• Command
• Visit fami...
As Father
The Role of the King
• Represent Thailand to
other countries
• Visited provinces
• Patronized
development projects
• Perso...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5
WGCMfKyulo
Role of the King
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZjRAak_sx
nk
• Role in Development
• National day – King’s Birthday
• Ro...
Sarit’s funeral
Thanom Kittikajorn
• Prime Minister 1963-1973
• Army commander
• 1971 election, then made a coup against
himself
University Students
• Upper Class (graduate ceremony)
• Enjoyed privileges
• Outside politics
BUT
1960s Hippies culture
Li...
Anti Vietnam war 1963-
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kt5MDaTapEw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7Y0ekr-
3So Woodstock
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Thailand in the cold war: sarit thanom regime (1957-1973)

Thailand in the Cold War: Sarit-Thanom Regime (1957-1973)
Politics and Government in Thailand
Yaowaluk Chaobanpho
Group presentation; select 1 question and answer in 5 minutes
1. What is the cold war? What is its influence in Southeast Asian Region?
2. What is the role of Thailand that contributed to the cold war during Sarit Regime?
3. What is the role of USA in supporting Sarit to become the leader in Thai politics?
4. What are the key features of economic development in Sarit period?
5.Describe the change of Monarch’s status during Sarit’s time
6. What is The Politics of Despotic Paternalism?
7. What is the political view of Sarit, particularly the view on democracy?
8. In what ways the country was modernized during Sarit’s time?
9.What are the factors that later caused the fall of dictatorship after Sarit’s time?

Phibun’s regime 1
Phibunsongkhram as Prime Minister 1938-45
Increase modernization
Pro fascism and nationalism
Built Leadership Cult ลัทธิเชื่อผู้นำ
“Aimed to uplift the national spirit and moral code of the nation and instilling progressive tendencies and a newness into Thai life”
Reform Thai language
Encouraged western manner

Phibun Regime 2
1939 changed from Siam to Thailand
1941 changed new year from Songkran to January 1
Encouraged economic nationalism; Anti Chinese policy

Alliance with Japan 1941-45
2nd Phibun term
April 1948 Phibun assumed his second premiership
2 unsuccessful coupe attempts (1951)
Promoted democracy “Open Politics”
Entered Korean War to support USA
Received large American aid
Entered early Cold War
Sarit seized power
Accused Phibun of cheating in election
American supported Thai army played crucial roles in 1957 coup
Cold War ?
Communist World (Soviet) VS. Western World (USA)
Vietnam war (1955-1975), US’ military bases in Thailand (1965-75)
USA’s funding for development
USA development model for allied countries
Map of Cold war
Sarit Thanarat (1908-1963)
Successful in army
Staged a coup in 1957 and second coup in 1958
Prime Minister 1958-1963
Strong leadership
Started National Economic and Social Development Plan

Politics in Sarit Regime
Governed under Martial Law
Most authoritarian in the history of modern Thai politics
Abrogating constitution
Dissolving parliament
Centralized power to his Revolutionary Party
Controlled Bureaucratic system and military
Politics (2)
Banned all political parties
Strict censorship of the press (banned 18 publications)
Intense crackdown on leftists
Suppressed many professors, politicians and newspapers
Chit Phumisak
Historian, writer, left wing intellectuals
“Che Guevara” of Thailand
Studied philosophy at Chulalongkorn
The Face of Thai Feudalism
1965 joined Communist Party of Thailand
Killed in 1966


Bureaucratic Polity
No Elections
No political power from society outside bureaucracy
No political participation from people
Decision makin

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Thailand in the cold war: sarit thanom regime (1957-1973)

  1. 1. Thailand in the Cold War: Sarit-Thanom Regime (1957-1973) Politics and Government in Thailand Yaowaluk Chaobanpho
  2. 2. Group presentation; select 1 question and answer in 5 minutes • 1. What is the cold war? What is its influence in Southeast Asian Region? • 2. What is the role of Thailand that contributed to the cold war during Sarit Regime? • 3. What is the role of USA in supporting Sarit to become the leader in Thai politics? • 4. What are the key features of economic development in Sarit period? • 5.Describe the change of Monarch’s status during Sarit’s time • 6. What is The Politics of Despotic Paternalism? • 7. What is the political view of Sarit, particularly the view on democracy? • 8. In what ways the country was modernized during Sarit’s time? • 9.What are the factors that later caused the fall of dictatorship after Sarit’s time?
  3. 3. Phibun’s regime 1 • Phibunsongkhram as Prime Minister 1938-45 – Increase modernization – Pro fascism and nationalism – Built Leadership Cult ลัทธิเชื่อผู้นำ • “Aimed to uplift the national spirit and moral code of the nation and instilling progressive tendencies and a newness into Thai life” – Reform Thai language – Encouraged western manner
  4. 4. Phibun Regime 2 • 1939 changed from Siam to Thailand • 1941 changed new year from Songkran to January 1 • Encouraged economic nationalism; Anti Chinese policy
  5. 5. Alliance with Japan 1941-45
  6. 6. 2nd Phibun term • April 1948 Phibun assumed his second premiership • 2 unsuccessful coupe attempts (1951) • Promoted democracy “Open Politics” • Entered Korean War to support USA • Received large American aid • Entered early Cold War
  7. 7. Sarit seized power • Accused Phibun of cheating in election • American supported Thai army played crucial roles in 1957 coup
  8. 8. Cold War ? • Communist World (Soviet) VS. Western World (USA) • Vietnam war (1955-1975), US’ military bases in Thailand (1965-75) • USA’s funding for development • USA development model for allied countries
  9. 9. Map of Cold war
  10. 10. Sarit Thanarat (1908-1963) • Successful in army • Staged a coup in 1957 and second coup in 1958 • Prime Minister 1958-1963 • Strong leadership • Started National Economic and Social Development Plan
  11. 11. Politics in Sarit Regime • Governed under Martial Law • Most authoritarian in the history of modern Thai politics – Abrogating constitution – Dissolving parliament • Centralized power to his Revolutionary Party • Controlled Bureaucratic system and military
  12. 12. Politics (2) • Banned all political parties • Strict censorship of the press (banned 18 publications) • Intense crackdown on leftists – Suppressed many professors, politicians and newspapers
  13. 13. Chit Phumisak • Historian, writer, left wing intellectuals • “Che Guevara” of Thailand • Studied philosophy at Chulalongkorn • The Face of Thai Feudalism • 1965 joined Communist Party of Thailand • Killed in 1966
  14. 14. Bureaucratic Polity • No Elections • No political power from society outside bureaucracy • No political participation from people • Decision making relied on bureaucratic elites
  15. 15. Economic Development • Established National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) สภำพัฒฯ • 1961 launched the 1st National Economic and Social Development Plan • Technocrats’ role in decision making – NESDB – Bank of Thailand – Finance Ministry
  16. 16. Mittraphap Road (#2)
  17. 17. Thai Railway
  18. 18. Ideology: Thai Style Democracy • Political Instability caused by too much democracy • Nation (and state) is more important than individual • People do not need to participate, they can assure the country is in good hands (elites) • Thainess should be applied in government and politics (Western is not suitable to Thai society)
  19. 19. Ideology: Despotic Paternalism • Help children • Keep family security • Promote health and morality • Command • Visit family members • Father or Dictator?
  20. 20. As Father
  21. 21. The Role of the King • Represent Thailand to other countries • Visited provinces • Patronized development projects • Personally presented degrees for university graduates • Practice of laying on the ground in front of the royal family
  22. 22. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5 WGCMfKyulo
  23. 23. Role of the King • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZjRAak_sx nk • Role in Development • National day – King’s Birthday • Role in Government
  24. 24. Sarit’s funeral
  25. 25. Thanom Kittikajorn • Prime Minister 1963-1973 • Army commander • 1971 election, then made a coup against himself
  26. 26. University Students • Upper Class (graduate ceremony) • Enjoyed privileges • Outside politics BUT 1960s Hippies culture Liberalism
  27. 27. Anti Vietnam war 1963- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kt5MDaTapEw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7Y0ekr- 3So Woodstock

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