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OOPSLA Talk on Preon


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Published in: Technology, Education

OOPSLA Talk on Preon

  1. 1. Preon Bit Syntax for Java
  2. 2. Preon A declaratve data binding framework for binary encoded data
  3. 3. Binary Encoded Data? Any fle for which 'file -bi {filename}' does not return a mimetype startng with 'text/' Non-binary: Binary: text/plain (*.txt) applicaton/pdf (*.pdf) text/html (*.html) applicaton/octet-stream (*.mp4) text/xml (*.xml) image/png (*.png)
  4. 4. Not only byte stream Always octects (8 bit values) 8 bits 8 bi ts
  5. 5. But also bit stream Always octects (8 bit values) 5 bits 5 bi ts
  6. 6. Decoding TomTom Map Files Approx. 300 pages of C++ source code, just for decoding only...
  7. 7. Compressed Data 2 kg 1021 pages
  8. 8. Challenges ● Decoding from bit stream not for the faint-hearted ● Encoding to bit stream not for the faint-hearted ● Hard to maintain ● Hard to extend ● Java doesn't help (Bug 4504839) ● Decoder and encoder easily go out of sync ● Documentaton and sofware easily go out of sync
  9. 9. What if.... ..this could all be solved easily?
  10. 10. Preon Ambitions ● Declaratvely map data structure to encoded representaton ● Get the decoder/encoder/documentaton, free of charge
  11. 11. 5-Second User Guide Decoding a BitM ap: 01 File file = new File(...); 02 Codec<BitMap> codec = Codecs.create(BitMap.class); 03 BitMap bitmap = Codecs.decode(codec, file);
  12. 12. What just happened? Create a Codec for instances of BitMap 01 File file = new File(...); 02 Codec<BitMap> codec = Codecs.create(BitMap.class); 03 BitMap bitmap = Codecs.decode(codec, file); ... and use it to decode a BitMap.
  13. 13. Find the specification The data structure IS the specifcaton: class BitMap { @Bound int width; @Bound int height; @Bound int nrColors; @BoundList(size=”nrColors”) Color[]; @BoundList(size=”width*height”) byte[] pixels; } class Color { @Bound int red; @Bound int green; @Bound int blue; }
  14. 14. Demo
  15. 15. But what is actually happening? Codec is nothing but a facade to a chain of Codecs. Each Codec only understands its own task. Codecs will delegate to other Codecs
  16. 16. While Decoding
  17. 17. Codecs Encapsulate everything there is to know about the mapping between in-memory representaton and encoded representaton
  18. 18. Demo Generated Documentation
  19. 19. So, now.... Forget everything I just told you
  20. 20. Preon just works Annotatons Types ● @Bound int, byte, short, long, Integer, ● @BoundList Byte, Short, Long, boolean, ● @BoundString Boolean, String, List<T>, T[], ● @BoundNumber type-safe enums, Object ● @BoundObject ● @BoundExplicitly ● @If Expressions ● @LazyLoading atributes: .{name} ● @LengthPrefx items: [{number}], or [{expr}] ● @TypePrefx arithmetc: +, -, /, *, ^ ● @ByteAlign combinatorial: &&, || ● @Slice relatonal: >=, <=, ==, <, > ● @Import literals: 'foobar', 0x0f, 0b01101
  21. 21. Convention over Configuration // Default settings for int Codec: // 32-bits, little endian @Bound int foo; // Read an int, but construct the int // from 5 bits only @BoundNumber(size=”5”) int foo;
  22. 22. Expressions (1) /** * An icon of maximal 15 * 15 pixels. Each color * has a color in the range 0-255. */ public class Icon { @BoundNumber(size=”4”) int height; @BoundNumber(size=”4”) int width; @BoundList(size=”height * width”) byte[] pixels; } By acceptng Strings instead of booleans and integers, Preon allows you to pass in expressions.
  23. 23. Expressions (2) @BoundString(size=”{expr}”, ...) @BoundList(size=”{expr}”, offset=”{expr}”, ...) @BoundNumber(size=”{expr}”, ...) @Slice(“{expr}”) ...
  24. 24. Boolean expressions @Bound private int mapVersion; @If(“mapVersion >= 700”) @Bound private MapFlags flags; // But also: // mapVersion + 1 >= 700 // mapVersion > 3 && mapVersion < 300 // etc.
  25. 25. References Backward references only Reference the “outer” object addresses[1].street outer.driversLicenses[1].state driveresLicenses[nrDriverLicenses - 1].state
  26. 26. Variable Introductions @Bound int[] offsets; @BoundList(offset=”offsets[index]”,...) List<Node> nodes; Introducton ● Preon will inject List implementaton ● List implementaton will load Nodes lazily, on demand ● Calling nodes.get(3) will cause the List implementaton to – Calculate the node's positon: ofsets[index=3] = 120 – Call Codec<Node> to start decoding from that point
  27. 27. Inheritance Java Classes Preon Perspectve
  28. 28. Codecs class is your friend static <T> T decode(Codec<T> codec, byte[] buffer) static <T> T decode(Codec<T> codec, ByteBuffer buffer) static <T> T decode(Codec<T> codec, File file) static <T> Codec<T> create(Class<T> type) static <T> Codec<T> create(Class<T> type, CodecFactory... factories) static <T> Codec<T> create(Class<T> type, CodecDecorator... decorators) static <T> void document(Codec<T> codec, ArticleDocument document) static <T> void document(Codec<T> codec, DocumentType type, OutputStream out) static <T> void document(Codec<T> codec, DocumentType type, File file)
  29. 29. If not Preon, then what else? Declaratve approach is not new: – BSDL (Bitstream Syntax Descripton Language) – Flavor (htp:// – XFlavor – BFlavor (htp:// None of them would worked in our case: – Overly complicated – No free/solid implementaton – Assumptons are surreal: ● “everything will just ft in memory” ● “there will only be a single thread” ● “our current feature set is all you ever need”
  30. 30. The Preon Answer “everything will just ft in memory” Preon is loading data lazily by default, and when it does it relies on memory mapped data (Default BitBufer implementaton wraps around ByteBufer, and hence also MappedByteBufer.) “there will only be a single thread” In Preon, every thread can have its own reference to the current positon in the BitBufer. “our current feature set is all you ever need” Preon has incredibly open: implement CodecFactory or CodecDecorator to create your own codecs based on type informaton or annotatons.
  31. 31. CodecFactory Annotatons on the object expectng data to be decoded by the Codec. interface CodecFactory { <T> Codec<T> create(AnnotatedElement metadata, Class<T> type, ResolverContext context); } The type of object to The object for constructng be decoded. references. returns null if it does not have a way to construct a Codec
  32. 32. Chain of CodecFactories
  33. 33. CodecFactory Usage ● CodecFactories can be passed to Codecs.create(...) ● ... which will cause the Codecs class to consider these factories when constructng the various Codecs. ● Internally, a big chain of commands
  34. 34. Current Status Preon 1.0 released (htp:// Big Theme for next Release: Encoding
  35. 35. Other Future Work ● Improved debugging ● Annotaton driven support for other compression techniques ● More hyperlinking in the documentaton ● Beter algebraic simplifcaton of expressions ● “In-place” editng?
  36. 36. Conclusions ● It can be done!!! ● Breaking down Codecs into smaller codecs results into some interestng propertes ● The ideas in Preon could work in other Java data binding frameworks as well ● Encoding and decoding bitstream compressed data is stll hard, but Preon truly hides that complexity ● Preon is interestng enough to deserve more support
  37. 37. Preon Bit Syntax for Java
  38. 38. Preon Layers Data binding A fuent interface for generatng documents. ( An expression language capable of BitBufer abstractons rendering itself to human readable text. (
  39. 39. Preon License GPL + Classpath Excepton Apache 2.0 Apache 2.0 GPL + Classpath Excepton